Canada And Working In Us

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					    Working Visit to Canada
the President of the United States
         Barack Obama

           February 2009

       Background Information
Foreign Affairs Canada       Affaires étrangères Canada
International Trade Canada   Commerce international Canada
Table of Contents
General Information
Canada-U.S. Relations 1
Trade and Economic Relations 1
Canada-U.S. Border Cooperation 4
Global Cooperation 6
Fact Sheets 8

Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada 10
Barack H. Obama, President of the United States 10

All currency figures in Canadian Dollars - 1.0 Canadian Dollar = 0.80 US Dollar.
General Information
Canada-U.S. Relations                               Canada now operates 22 diplomatic
                                                    missions and trade offices across the United
                                                    States, including an embassy in Washington.
The Canada-U.S. partnership is deep and
                                                    In addition, Canada has appointed
diverse. The countries share political,
                                                    17 honorary consuls to facilitate advocacy
economic and social ties, a common border
                                                    and business development goals in key
that stretches across 8,893 kilometres, and
                                                    U.S. cities.
many values and interests as neighbours and
friends. Our two-way trading relationship is
                                                    The United States maintains an embassy in
the largest in the world. Canada and the
                                                    Ottawa, as well as consulates general in
United States have a long tradition of
                                                    Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec City,
cooperation in defending our continent, and
                                                    Toronto, Vancouver and Winnipeg.
stewardship of a rich and diverse
environment. Both countries share a
commitment to a safe and secure border and          Trade and
work closely to ensure that the border              Economic Relations
remains open to tourism and trade and
closed to threats.
                                                    Shared Response to the Global Economic
                                                    Downturn and Credit Crisis
The two countries share a distinguished
history of similar democratic values,
                                                    In recognition of the integrated nature of our
institutions and rights. While the two
                                                    economies and common interest in restoring
systems of government may differ, the
                                                    financial stability, Canada joined the United
common political culture, based on
                                                    States in November 2008 at the G20 Leaders
pluralism and the rule of law, continues to
                                                    Summit in Washington where all leaders
serve as a model for many countries around
                                                    committed to taking a range of fiscal and
the world.
                                                    monetary policy actions to promote
                                                    economic growth while maintaining a policy
Canada and the United States also share a
                                                    framework conducive to fiscal
vast array of personal, cultural and business
                                                    sustainability. Canada pushed for progress
links. For example there are strong research
                                                    on four initiatives, which were ultimately
and development partnerships between
                                                    endorsed by G20 leaders: action to address
entities in government, academe,
                                                    the causes of the crisis, commitments to
professional institutes and businesses
                                                    strengthen domestic financial regimes, an
engaged in a wide range of activities,
                                                    agreement to conduct transparent
including biosciences, information and
                                                    international assessments of national
communications technologies, aerospace
                                                    financial systems, and a commitment to
and environment. Our universities are also a
                                                    resist protectionism and maintain open
major draw for cross-border exchanges.
Canadian universities recruit actively in the
United States and the enrolment of U.S.
                                                    Economic stimulus measures proposed in
students has consequently tripled in recent
                                                    Canada’s 2009 federal budget total 1.9 % of
years, with more than 9,000 Americans
                                                    the country’s 2009 GDP, readily fulfilling
enrolled in university programs in Canada.
                                                    its G20 commitments to provide timely

stimulus to domestic demand while                    North American Free Trade Agreement
maintaining long-run fiscal sustainability.          (NAFTA). Over the past decade, the pace of
                                                     bilateral trade has increased at a rate of
Almost one quarter of Canada-U.S.                    almost 6% annually. Since January 1998,
merchandise trade is in automobiles, trucks          virtually all Canada-U.S. trade has been
and parts—one of the world’s largest                 tariff free, fostering increased trade and
integrated industrial value chains. Canada           investment.
has offered $2.7 billion in repayable loans to
the Canadian subsidiaries of GM and                  The vast majority of Canada-U.S. bilateral
Chrysler, in support of a highly integrated          trade is dispute-free. In fact, because our
North American auto industry.                        economies, production hubs and supply
                                                     chains are so deeply integrated, about a third
Canada and the United States share the               of Canada-U.S. trade is intra-firm. A further
largest bilateral flow of goods, services,           third consists of products-in-progress—cars,
people and capital between any two                   aircraft, solar panels, telecommunications
countries in the world—worth $710 billion            equipment, food products—travelling back
in 2007.                                             and forth on a transborder assembly line.

With some $1.9 billion of goods and                  Canada and the United States also have one
services crossing the border each day, the           of the world’s largest investment
two countries are one another’s largest              relationships. The United States is the
customers and biggest suppliers. Canada              largest foreign investor in Canada and the
exported $392 billion in goods and services          most popular destination for Canadian
to the United States in 2007 (representing           investment abroad. In 2007, 44% of
nearly 26% of our GDP) and imported                  Canadian foreign direct investment (a little
$318 billion in return. The United States            more than $226 billion) went to the
absorbed 74% of Canada’s merchandise                 United States. Meanwhile, U.S. direct
exports and furnished nearly two thirds              investment in Canada grew by 8% between
(63.7%) of Canada’s imports. Canadians               2006 and 2007 (the highest annual growth
buy more American goods than Mexico and              rate in six years) to reach $288.6 billion,
Japan combined, more even than the entire            accounting for 57.6% of the total foreign
European Union, and four times as much as            direct investment in Canada.
China. In fact Canada is the primary foreign
market for 35 of the 50 states, absorbing            Energy
more than one fifth of U.S. exports. Canada
is also the number one destination for U.S.          Canada ranks sixth in the world in total
agricultural exports. Canada-U.S. bilateral          energy production, seventh in global oil
trade is directly responsible for hundreds of        production, third in global gas production
thousands of Canadian jobs and an estimated          and second in hydro-electric generation.
7.1 million American jobs.                           Canada has the world’s largest known
                                                     deposits of high-grade natural uranium and
Although trade with the United States has            is the world’s leading producer of uranium
always played a vital role in Canada’s               for nuclear energy. Alberta’s oil sands are
economy, that role has grown significantly           the largest single oil deposit in the world.
with the implementation of the Canada–U.S.
Free Trade Agreement and its successor, the

Canada is the United States’ largest supplier       •   the Agreement on Conservation of the
of energy—oil, natural gas, uranium and                 Porcupine Caribou Herd (1987) to
electricity. In 2007, Canadian exports                  jointly manage and protect the habitat of
accounted for 9% of total U.S. energy                   the transboundary herd;
demand. Canadian crude oil and petroleum
                                                    •   the Air Quality Agreement (1991) and
exports to the United States—nearly
                                                        Ozone Annex (2000) to improve air
2.4 million barrels per day—accounted for
                                                        quality by reducing pollution from acid
18% of U.S. crude oil imports in 2007.
                                                        rain and ozone; and
Canada also supplied the United States with
85% of its natural gas imports, accounting          •   the Binational Toxics Strategy (1997) to
for 16% of total U.S. energy consumption.               eliminate the release of certain toxic
Canada supplies approximately one third of              substances into the Great Lakes.
the uranium used in U.S. nuclear power
plants.                                             Canada and the United States continue to
                                                    work toward new agreements that will
Canada and the United States share a fully          further protect and enhance the water, air and
integrated electricity grid and supply almost       lands we share.
all of each other’s electricity imports.
Canada is a major supplier of electricity to        A balanced and cooperative approach is key
New England, New York, the Upper                    to achieving Canada’s environmental
Midwest, the Pacific Northwest and                  objectives while preserving jobs and living
California.                                         standards, particularly in an era of global
                                                    economic uncertainty.
                                                    Current challenges include climate change, a
Joint stewardship of our shared environment         global issue that requires global solutions.
is a foundation of our bilateral relationship       The Government of Canada shares the
with the United States. Canada and the U.S.         commitment of the U.S. Administration to
have a long history of joint stewardship,           reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Canada
dating back to the 1909 Boundary Waters             has set mandatory greenhouse gas emissions
Treaty and the International Joint                  reduction targets for all major industries.
Commission, which mark their
100th anniversary this year. Since then we          Canada’s 2009 federal budget includes new
have created at least 50 bilateral                  measures totalling almost $2.4 billion to
arrangements at the federal level and more          support a cleaner and more sustainable
than 100 arrangements at the state-                 environment, and help meet Canada’s
provincial government level, including:             climate change objectives. The Government
                                                    of Canada is also working with provincial
•   the Migratory Birds Convention (1916)           governments and other stakeholders to
    to protect migratory waterfowl;                 develop and implement a North America-
                                                    wide cap and trade system for greenhouse
•   the Great Lakes Water Quality                   gases and an effective international protocol
    Agreement (1972 and 1978, 1987
                                                    for the post-2012 period.
    Protocol) to protect the ecological
    integrity of the Great Lakes;

Canada-U.S. Border                                   include new investments in highways,
                                                     bridges and border facilities. It is vital that
Cooperation                                          Canada and the United States move forward
                                                     together to support our integrated economies.
Each day, more than 300,000 people and
20,000 commercial trucks cross the Canada–           The implementation of the U.S. Western
U.S. border. A range of Canadian and U.S.            Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI), which
departments and agencies such as Citizenship         will require the presentation of passports or
and Immigration Canada, the Canada Border            other secure documents for travellers wishing
Services Agency, the U.S. Department of              to enter the U.S., has been a topic of interest
Homeland Security and the U.S. State                 for citizens on both sides of the border. The
Department work closely to facilitate the            Government of Canada has been working
smooth flow of legitimate travellers and             closely with the U.S. government to ensure
goods and to ensure the collective security of       that legitimate trade and travel across our
both countries by identifying security threats       borders are not disrupted as a result of
and subverting criminals and terrorists.             the WHTI.

Canada’s 2008 federal budget included                Starting in June 2009, American and
$165 million in border-security-related              Canadian citizens will be required to present
spending in areas such as e-passports, federal       a valid passport or a NEXUS or FAST card
activities to support enhanced drivers’              or other acceptable secure document to enter
licences, border infrastructure and staffing,        the United States at its land and water ports
and trusted-traveller programs, such as              of entry.
NEXUS. That investment built upon the
almost $10 billion that Canada has invested          Anti-terrorism
in border security and emergency
preparedness since September 2001.                   Canada and the United States have a long-
                                                     standing security partnership that protects
Canada’s January 2009 federal budget                 North America against terrorism. Our border
allocated a further $80 million to ensure that       agencies, intelligence agencies, immigration
Canada’s shared border with the United               agencies and national, local and municipal
States remains secure and efficient. The new         police forces have been cooperating for
investments seek to reduce the processing            decades.
time for thorough inspections of commercial
shipments. They will also allow the Canada           Since September 11, 2001, North American
Border Services Agency to improve its                security and defence issues have become an
infrastructure in northern British Columbia          even higher priority on the bilateral agenda.
and Yukon.                                           Canada has taken additional steps to confront
                                                     and prevent terrorism. In December 2001,
Combined with investments in the Peace               Canada introduced the Anti-terrorism Act,
Bridge and Blue Water Bridge, these                  which gives the government wider powers of
investments will complement recent and               prosecution and pre-emptive powers to
planned investments by the United States on          apprehend suspected terrorists. Canada has
its side of the border. The new U.S.                 also played a significant role in the
Administration is working on an ambitious            international campaign against terrorism in
infrastructure program, which is expected to         Afghanistan, with more than 18,000 military

personnel deployed there since 2001.                  personnel, equipment, readiness and
Canada’s Department of Public Safety has              infrastructure. This comprehensive, long-
brought policing, border protection, security         term plan will provide the Canadian Forces
and intelligence forces together and works            with the people, equipment and support they
closely with the U.S. Department of                   need to carry out their core missions in
Homeland Security.                                    Canada, in North America and abroad.

Through its Counter-Terrorism Capacity                The United States is Canada’s most
Building Program, Canada assists other states         important ally and defence partner; our two
with training, funding, equipment, and                countries have long shared a close defence
technical and legal assistance to help them           relationship, working together at home and
prevent and respond to terrorist activity while       abroad to protect and defend North America.
respecting international counterterrorism and
human rights norms, standards and                     There currently exist between Canada and
obligations. The program addresses such               the U.S. more than 80 treaty-level defence
areas as aviation and maritime security, legal        agreements, more than 250 memorandums of
assistance for prosecutors, and prevention            understanding between the two defence
and response to chemical, biological,                 departments, and approximately 145 bilateral
radiological, nuclear and explosives threats.         forums in which defence matters are
                                                      discussed. These include the Permanent Joint
By helping other states strengthen their own          Board on Defence (PJBD), the North
capacity to prevent and respond to terrorist          American Aerospace Defence Command
activity, the Government of Canada enhances           (NORAD) Agreement, and the Military
the security of Canadians and Canadian                Cooperation Committee (MCC).
interests at home and abroad.
                                                      Established in 1940, the PJBD is the longest-
Through its membership in many                        standing Canada-U.S. defence forum
international organizations, Canada works to          providing for critical senior military and
ensure that the fight against terrorism is            diplomatic contact. The Canadian and U.S.
carried out in accordance with international          co-chairs act in an advisory capacity,
law, in particular humanitarian, human rights         reporting directly to the Prime Minister and
and refugee law.                                      President respectively on matters affecting
                                                      “the defence of the northern half of the
Defence and Security Cooperation                      Western Hemisphere.”

In May 2008, the Government of Canada                 NORAD is a binational military command
announced the Canada First Defence                    established in 1958 by Canada and the U.S.
Strategy. Over the next 20 years, the                 to monitor and defend North American
Government will increase the Defence                  airspace. Through NORAD, which is a
budget from approximately $18 billion in              strong pillar of our defence relationship,
2008-09 to over $30 billion by 2027-28,               Canada actively participates in North
resulting in overall spending of close to             American aerospace defence. One of the keys
$490 billion on defence. Through stable and           to NORAD’s success is that the U.S.
predictable funding, the Government will              commander and the Canadian deputy
continue to enhance the capacity of the               commander both report to the civilian
Forces through balanced investments in                leadership of both countries through their

respective national commands. In May 2006,            APEC. Since the end of the Cold War,
the Government renewed the NORAD                      Canada and United States have cooperated in
Agreement, a decision that was supported by           peacekeeping and stability operations in
the House of Commons.                                 numerous theatres, from Bosnia and Kosovo,
                                                      to Somalia, Afghanistan and Haiti.
Formed in 1946, the MCC manages
cooperation at the military planning level. Its       Successive federal budgets have increased
subcommittee responsibilities include                 Canada’s foreign aid allocations, which will
mapping and charting, meteorology,                    rise to $5 billion by 2010–11, a doubling
oceanography, communications and                      since 2001–02 levels.
electronics, and logistics planning.
                                                      Canada is in Afghanistan to help Afghans
Canada and the United States are partners in          rebuild their country as a stable, democratic
a wide range of measures to safeguard                 and self-sufficient society. Canada is there
North American security, including:                   with over 50 other nations and international
                                                      organizations, at the request of the
•   law enforcement and border                        democratically-elected Afghan government
    management;                                       and as part of a UN-mandated, NATO-led
                                                      mission. Canada is among the top bilateral
•   military cooperation overseas, including
                                                      donors in Afghanistan and Afghanistan is
    NATO combat operations in
                                                      Canada’s single largest development
    Afghanistan; and
                                                      program. Canada’s military mission will
•   regular cooperation in fighting terrorism,        continue until July 2011.
    drug trafficking and people smuggling,
    and in providing relief for natural               In June 2008 the Government identified six
    disasters.                                        priorities defining Canada’s engagement:

In close cooperation with our international           • Enable the Afghan National Security
partners, Canada is a major ally in the fight           Forces in Kandahar to sustain a more
against terrorism.                                      secure environment and promote law and
Global Cooperation                                    • Strengthen Afghan institutional capacity
                                                        to deliver basic services and promote job-
Canada and the U.S. share similar values                oriented economic growth, enhancing the
about democracy and human rights                        confidence of Kandaharis in their
protection, collective security, environmental          government;
protection, social and economic                       • Provide humanitarian assistance for
development, and open markets. The U.S. is              vulnerable people, including refugees,
our closest ally on a wide range of issues and          returnees and internally displaced persons;
we work with them at our missions around
the world to advance these shared values. We          • Enhance border security through
also work together in multilateral forums               facilitation of bilateral dialogue between
such as the UN, NATO, the G8, the G20, the              Afghan and Pakistan authorities;
World Trade Organization, the Organization            • Build national institutions that are central
of American States, the Organization for                to our Kandahar priorities and support
Security and Cooperation in Europe, and

  democratic processes such as elections,             Canada is meeting its commitments in Africa
  and;                                                and will double its annual aid to the continent
                                                      to $2.1 billion in 2008–09, from 2003–04
• Facilitate Afghan-led efforts toward
                                                      levels. Canada and the U.S. cooperate on
  political reconciliation.
                                                      many African issues in established forums
                                                      like the G8 and various International Contact
Three signature projects – rehabilitating the
                                                      Groups on specific crises, but also regularly
Dahla Dam, constructing and repairing
                                                      discuss policies and approaches in places
50 schools in Kandahar province, and
                                                      such as Sudan, Zimbabwe, the Democratic
contributing to the eradication of polio across
                                                      Republic of Congo and the African Great
Afghanistan – will be visible examples of our
                                                      Lakes, as well as other emerging issues of
continued commitment to the future of
                                                      concern. Our collaboration in Africa includes
                                                      important preventive diplomacy and
                                                      mediation efforts on peace and security
Canada is committed to deepening our
                                                      matters, including assisting African nations
engagement in the Americas and is
                                                      to increase their capacity to respond to local,
developing strong bilateral partnerships and
                                                      regional and continental security matters.
economic and political agreements with our
key partners in the region. Our aim is to
                                                      One of Canada’s long-standing policy
increase prosperity, enhance security, and
                                                      objectives has been the non-proliferation,
promote the core values of freedom,
                                                      reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear
democracy, human rights and the rule of law.
                                                      weapons and other weapons of mass
We are engaging actively with multilateral
                                                      destruction. We continue to work with our
institutions such as the Organization of
                                                      allies in NATO toward achieving this goal.
American States, the Inter-American
                                                      The upcoming review conference of the
Development Bank and the Pan American
                                                      Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear
Health Organization, as well as through the
                                                      Weapons in 2010 coincides with Canada’s
Summit of the Americas initiative, in support
                                                      presidency of the G8. We intend to work
of our shared objectives, interests and values.
                                                      with the United States and other G8 partners
Canada is working closely with our North
                                                      to help strengthen international confidence in
American partners, both the United States
                                                      the treaty.
and Mexico, toward our objectives in the
region. We look forward to heightened
                                                      The United States is an exceptionally
cooperation with the U.S. in the hemisphere
                                                      valuable partner in the Arctic and we have
and around the world.
                                                      many shared interests and common
                                                      purposes—in environmental stewardship,
During the current difficult period for the
                                                      search and rescue, safety, security and
global economy, Canada is working with its
                                                      sustainable resource development. Our
partners, including those in Asia, to ensure
                                                      continuing cooperation extends to the
that markets remain open and that the gains
                                                      mapping work in the Arctic Ocean within a
from globalization are not reversed. In
                                                      rules-based process of delimitation of the
partnership with our allies, Canada is
                                                      continental shelf. We also cooperate on
committed to maintaining a variety of
                                                      multilateral Arctic issues through the
security dialogues that foster regional
                                                      Arctic Council.
stability and cooperation in Asia. The
promotion of human rights and democratic
values are critical Canadian goals in Asia.

                                     Fact Sheets
Capital: Ottawa

GEODATA                                           ECONOMIC DATA
Area                                              GDP
9,970,610 km                                      $1.5 trillion (2007)
Major languages                                   Real GDP growth rate
English and French (both official)                2.7% (2007)
Major religious groups                            GDP per capita
Roman Catholic (45%), United Church (12%),        $46,637 (2007)
Anglican (8%)
                                                  Inflation rate
Population                                        2.3% (2008)
33.3 million (2008)
                                                  Unemployment rate
Population growth rate                            6.1% (2008)
1.2% (2008)
                                                  Main exports
Neighbouring countries                            $450.4 billion (2007), including mineral fuels and
United States, Greenland (Denmark)                oil, vehicles, machinery, electrical and electronic
                                                  equipment, wood
POLITICAL DATA                                    Main imports (2007)
Type of government                                $406.9 billion (2007), including vehicles,
Constitutional monarchy                           machinery, electrical and electronic equipment,
                                                  mineral fuels and oil, plastics
National legislature
Upper chamber: Senate
Lower chamber: House of Commons; multiparty
Governor General Michaëlle Jean
Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Lawrence Cannon
Minister of International Trade
Stockwell Day
Minister of Finance
Jim Flaherty
UN Human Development Index (2006)
Canada ranks 3rd among 179 countries

                                                                                         February 2009

Capital: Washington

GEODATA                                                         ECONOMIC DATA
Area                                                            GDP
9,629,091 km                                                    $15.2 trillion (2008 est.)
Major languages                                                 GDP growth rate
English, Spanish                                                1.3% (2008 est.)
Major religious groups                                          GDP per capita
Protestant (56%), Roman Catholic (28%),                         $50,069 (2008 est.)
Jewish (2%)
                                                                Inflation rate
Population                                                      3.8% (2008)
304.1 million (2008)
                                                                Unemployment rate
Population growth rate                                          5.8% (2008)
0.9% (2008)
                                                                Main exports (2007)
Neighbouring countries                                          Machinery, electrical and electronic equipment,
Canada, Mexico                                                  motor vehicles, aircraft, spacecraft, optical,
                                                                medical and scientific instruments
POLITICAL DATA                                                  Main imports (2007)
Type of government                                              Mineral fuels and oils, machinery, electrical and
Republic                                                        electronic equipment, motor vehicles, optical,
                                                                medical and scientific instruments,
National legislature                                            pharmaceutical products
Upper chamber: Senate
Lower chamber: House of Representatives;                        Canadian imports from the United States
multiparty                                                      $220.6 billion (2007), including motor vehicles,
                                                                machinery, electrical and electronic equipment,
Leader                                                          mineral fuels and oils, plastic
President Barack H. Obama
                                                                Canadian exports to the United States
Secretary of State                                              $355.9 billion (2007), including mineral oils and
Hillary Clinton                                                 fuels, motor vehicles, machinery, electrical and
Secretary of the Treasury                                       electronic equipment, wood
Timothy Geithner
UN Human Development Index (2006)
The United States ranks 15th among
179 countries

Canadian Representative
Michael Wilson, Ambassador
The Canadian Embassy, 501 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001-21111, U.S.A.
Phone: (202) 682-1740, Fax: (202) 682-7726, website:
                                                                                                      February 2009

Stephen Harper                                      Barack H. Obama
Prime Minister of Canada                            President of the
Stephen Harper was born on April 30, 1959,
                                                    United States
in Toronto, Ontario. He obtained both a
                                                    Barack Hussein Obama was born on
bachelor’s and a master’s degree in
                                                    August 4, 1961, and grew up in Hawaii and
economics from the University of Calgary.
                                                    Jakarta, Indonesia. He is a graduate of
                                                    Columbia University and Harvard
Mr. Harper was first elected to the House of
                                                    Law School.
Commons in 1993 as the Reform Party’s
candidate in Calgary West. He left
                                                    Mr. Obama worked as a community
Parliament in 1997 to become Vice-
                                                    organizer in Chicago prior to earning his law
President (and later President) of the
                                                    degree, and practised as a civil rights
National Citizens’ Coalition, a Canadian
                                                    attorney in Chicago before serving three
advocacy organization. In 2002, he became
                                                    terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to
Leader of the Opposition after winning the
                                                    2004. He also taught Constitutional Law at
leadership of the Canadian Alliance and a
                                                    the University of Chicago Law School from
subsequent by-election in Calgary
                                                    1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid
Southwest. In 2003, Mr. Harper co-founded
                                                    for a seat in the U.S. House of
the Conservative Party of Canada and went
                                                    Representatives in 2000, Mr. Obama was
on to become the new party’s leader.
                                                    elected to the Senate in November 2004,
                                                    where he served as the junior Senator from
Mr. Harper was re-elected in the 2004
                                                    Illinois until he resigned following his 2008
federal election. The Conservative Party of
                                                    election to the presidency.
Canada won the 2006 election and
Mr. Harper was sworn in as Canada’s
                                                    Mr. Obama was inaugurated as President of
22nd Prime Minister on February 6, 2006.
                                                    the United States on January 20, 2009.
The Conservative Party and Prime Minister
Harper were subsequently re-elected in
October 2008.


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