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									                                  NUTRITION Notes

Nutrition- needed throughout your life. Provided by mother while in the womb and
           provided by you as you grow. All foods have nutrients. Nutrients are needed to
           help your body with growth, repair, and everyday functions.

Food Guide Pyramid
   Consists of 5 food groups (Grains, Fruits, Vegetables, Meats & Beans, Milk)
   Tells how many servings of each group we need to eat each day
   Most of your diet should come from Grains.

Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
   Tells what percentage (%) of nutrients we need per day.
   Is regulated by the federal government
   Created in 1980 to help Americans choose the right foods for health
   Recommendations are determine by an individual’s age and sex.
   RDA’s guidelines are updated every 5 years.
   Average calories per day:
                Males: 2,200       Females: 1,600 Teens: 2,600
    6 Nutrients: carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins, minerals, water

Reasons to Eat:
   To live, function, survive.
   Fun foods: popcorn, cheese wiz, candy just to name a few interfere with nutrition
   Emotional reasons: stress, bored, lonely, happy, depressed, frustrated
   More active a person, the increase in metabolism and decrease in appetite.
   An increase in age =a decrease in calorie intake.

Hunger vs Appetite
   Hunger – the body’s physical response to a need for a food.
   Appetite – the desire to eat based on the pleasure from eating

Five Factors that make up a Nutritious Diet:

 1. Moderation: Some is good / more is not necessarily better

 2. Balance: Getting each different food group

 3. Variety: Eating different types of foods within each food group

 4. Adequacy: Getting all nutrients on a regular basis

 5. Calorie Control: Consuming correct amount of calories for how many you burn off
    in a day.

            Most (50%) of our calories should come from these.
            Found in sugars, starches, and fiber (breads).
            # 1 source of energy; first fuel for our body
            Sources: Bread, wheat, rice, pasta, macaroni, noodles, cereal, oatmeal,
             fruits, fiber, syrup, milk, sugars, starches, vegetables


          A) SIMPLE - Sugars – (apples, honey) enter the bloodstream rapidly for
                              quick energy.
              Glucose – “blood sugar”. The primary source of energy for the cells.

           B)COMPLEX - Starches – (breads, potatoes, cereals) Provide long lasting

          Indigestible material that makes up the walls of plant cells.
          Helps move wastes through the digestive system.
          Helps lower risk of several diseases (colon cancer, heart disease)
          Helps prevent constipation and appendicitis
          Helps lower cholesterol
          SOURCES: whole grain breads and cereal; fruits, vegetables.
          If you increase fiber in diet, increase water and fluids also.
   2. FATS (about 30% of diet) 1 gram of fat = 9 calories
           Known as lipids (scientific name); animal fats and some vegetable oils.
           Twice as much energy as proteins & carbs but not as easy to use as carbs
           Do not absorb in water.
           Stored in fat tissue which protects and cushions our vital organs
           Helps insulate the body from heat and cold.
           Important source of calories and #2 source of energy (stored energy)
           Essential for making vitamins A D E K available to all cells in body
           Males = 93 grams / day; Females = 73 grams / day

       TWO TYPES OF FATS: Both affect levels of cholesterol in the blood.

          A) Saturated fats - come from animal products (meat, poultry, milk,
                  cheese, ice cream, egg yolks); raises LDL, the bad cholesterol.

            B) Unsaturated Fats - (vegetable fats) come from vegetable oils, nuts,
                                  margarine, salad dressing, olives.

      CHOLESTEROL - Waxlike fatty substance that is produced by the body
                           in the liver and used for building cells.
              In healthy people, body produces the cholesterol it needs.
              Eating animal products high in saturated fats, is excessive cholesterol.
              Is transported in the blood stream
              Excess cholesterol is stored on the walls of the blood vessels.
              HDL can be increased through exercise.
              Produces protective sheath around nerves
              Makes bile acid for aiding digestion
              Produces vitamin D (in presence of sunlight)

              HDL (high density lipoprotein) is the “good” cholesterol; removes the
                   cholesterol from the bloodstream.
                 Level below 35 mg/dl is too low

             LDL (low density lipoprotein) “bad” cholesterol; builds up on arteries.
                  Less than 130 is desirable
                  130 to 159 borderline to high risk
                  above 160 is high risk for blocked arteries.

            HDL to LDL ratio: no more than 3 times the amount of LDL than HDL.

Quit smoking, increase exercise, lose weight, these can help increase your HDL.
         3. PROTEINS ( 20% of diet) Adults: .36 grams per kilogram of body

               Primary building material for growth.
               Essential for every cell’s metabolism
               Found mainly in animal foods (steaks)
               Replaces damaged body cells/ tissue
               Builds antibodies, which destroy bacteria
               Development of human fetus & production of mother’s milk
               Responsible for growth of height and weight in growing children
               Responsible for growth of hair and nails and certain hormones & enzymes
               Important for immune system – to transport nutrients in the blood
               Good source is fish, meat, poultry, egg whites, milk & dairy products.
               Essential for growth, development, and repair & maintenance of all body
               Forms parts of muscle, bone, blood, cell membranes
               Muscles are about 75% of body’s solid structure.
               Forms hormones and enzymes
               Made of amino acids; Need constant supply each day
               Excess of protein in diet is converted to fat.

 EXCESS of Protein:
   Kidneys work harder to clear body of harmful by products.
   High protein = excess of fat and calories which leads to obesity, heart disease, and
    hardening of the arteries.

Protein supplements – not needed. Research shows no benefit to athletes for concoctions
                     of amino acids.

Amino Acids: the building blocks of protein (metabolic activity)
   9 must be obtained from your diet (ESSENTIAL amino acids)
   11 can be manufactured by the body (not needed by diet)
   Foods containing all 9 essential amino acids are: Meat, poultry, fish, egg whites,
    milk and other dairy products.
   “incomplete” proteins are found in: vegetables, dried beans, peas; therefore they
        should be eaten with other foods such as rice, grains, wheat, corn, peanuts
    Organic chemicals
    Essential in small amounts for normal metabolism.
    Helps to “jump start” chemical reactions like digestion, absorption, and
    No calories; Nutrients released from food
    Water soluble (B, C, niacin) excess is excreted in urine; needed every day
    Fat soluble (A D E K) excess is stored in fat; excess can cause illness
    Vitamin A night vision; bone formation; tooth enamel (carrots, sweet
      potatoes, dark green or deep yellow vegetables, milk)
      TOO much: headache, blurred vision, diarrhea, joint & bone pain, rashes,
      dry skin, itchiness, fatigue, loss of appetite.
    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) protects against infection, assists in healing
      wounds, helps maintain strength and elasticity of blood vessels.
      (oranges, limes, cabbage potatoes, tomatoes)
    Vitamin D promotes absorption and utilization of calcium and
      phosphorus. (beef, butter, milk, eggs, fish oils, sunlight)
      TOO much: loss of appetite, vomiting, headache, drowsiness, diarrhea,
      urinary abnormalities.
    Vitamin E protects against red blood cell destruction; yellow vegetable
      oils, wheat germ)
      TOO much: reduced sexual function, excess bleeding, muscle weakness,
    Vitamin K shortens blood clotting time. (tomatoes, eggs, liver, cabbage,
      spinach, green leafy vegetables)
      TOO much: jaundice, yellowing of skin and eyes due to liver disorder.
    Thiamine (B 1) (nuts, whole grains, cereals, peas, beans) changes glucose
      into energy or fat, helps prevents nervous irritability, necessary for good
    Niacin for normal digestion, appetite, nervous system (yeast, fish, eggs,
      yeast, wheat germ)
    Folacin (folic acid) for blood formation (RBC), enzyme function;
      produce RNA and DNA (whole grain bread, liver, nuts, o j, broccoli)
    Riboflavin (B 2) for metabolism, energy production; keep eyes and skin
      healthy (whole milk, liver, fish, green leafy vegetables, whole grain
      cereal, cottage cheese, eggs)
    Pyridoxine ( B 6) essential to amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism.
      (liver, meat, fish, wheat bran wheat germ, whole grains, vegetables)
    Cyanocobalamin (B 12) necessary for production of red blood cells &
      normal growth. (meat, eggs, milk, liver)
5. MINERALS (taken in by eating plants or animals that eat plants)
    Inorganic substances
    Only need small amounts of these in the body
    Body cannot manufacture minerals, must include them in diet.
    20 minerals present in the body
    None destroyed by cooking but are thrown out in the liquid (dissolved in
    Aids in the metabolism process.
    Assists in the regulation of chemical reactions
    Regulates internal functions
    Strengthens bones & maintains functions of body
    Calcium strong bones and teeth, heartbeat (milk, cheese, milk products)
    Chlorine aids in digestion, keeps body limber (table salt)
    Iodine energy, mental alertness, growth, helps with thyroid functioning
     (table salt, seafood, fruits, vegetables)
    Iron combined with hemoglobin, an essential substance in blood; helps
     blood cells carry oxygen, growth, prevents fatigue (oatmeal, red meat,
     liver, whole grains, dark green vegetables, prunes, apricots)
    Magnesium fights depression, insomnia, nervousness (dark green
     vegetables, apples, whole grains)
    Phosphorus healthy gums and teeth, growth and repair of cells, muscles,
     nervous system (whole grains, fish, poultry)
    Potassium helps with the electrolytes, maintain heartbeat, water balance,
     nerve transmission, breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins (oranges,
    Zinc (meat, eggs, whole grains) component of pancreatic hormone
    Sodium helps the body maintain proper balance of body fluids, and plays
     a major role in nerve transmission, cardiac function, and normal
     metabolism. Excessive amounts can lead to fluid retention (related to
     hypertension (comes from balanced diet)
    Copper essential ingredient in respiratory enzymes, needed for
     development of red blood cells.
    Fluorine essential to normal bone and tooth development
         6. WATER
             Human body is composed of 2/3 water
             #1 Most essential nutrient
             Carries nutrients through blood and transports waste from cells
             Helps with absorption and digestion of nutrients
             Helps the process of digestion
             Helps regulate and maintain body temperature
             Necessary for all living creatures
             Lubricates joints and mucous membranes
             Cools body down through process of perspiration
             Prevents buildup of internal heat.
             Sources: bottled water, juices, soups, vegetables (celery), drinking water

Fact: Fruits, Vegetables, and milk products are 75% water.
      Poultry and meat are 50 to 60% water.

Best sources of Energy: #1 Carbs, #2 Fats, #3 Proteins.

BODY TYPES: Most people are a combination of 2 body types.

      SOMATOTYPE – the identification of a body type. There are 3 types:
              Endomorph – large, soft, bulging body, pear shaped, high fat.
              Ectomporph – slender body, small boned, thin muscles.
              Mesomorph – solid, muscular, and large boned.

BODY COMPOSITION – Muscle, Bone, and fat together. This is more important
                   than how much you weigh.

Height and Weight charts – do not take into account your Lean Muscle vs Fat tissue.
      Measure body fat not weight. Muscle weighs more than fat and takes us less space.
      Underwater weighing is the best measurement of body fat percent

Overweight – exceeding a desirable body weight by 10% body fat.

Obese – the percent of your body weight being more than 25% body fat.

Ideal Body Weight – amount you would weigh if you have an appropriate % of body fat.

Lean Body Mass versus Body Fat - muscle tissue and other nonfat tissue such as bones,
                    ligaments, tendons. Body fat results from calories not burned up.

Must know % of body fat to determine the % of lean body mass.
EX: person weighs 140 lbs. 20% body fat, then 28 lbs is fat (140 x 20% = 28)

     one obese parent: 60% of becoming obese
     Both parents obese: 90% chance
     Adopted children have similar weights to biological parents
     Identical twins are 2xs likely to weigh the same as fraternal

        Determining your body fat percentage:

     Skinfold test – use of calipers to pinch specific areas of body for fat measurement.
     Best way is underwater weighing*****
     Bioelectrical impedence: sends electrical current through body (speed determines
       body fat percentage)

        Ideal Body Fat percentage:

        Men:                             Women:
        Ideal=10-15%                     Ideal=22-25%
        Desired=8-10%                    Desired=18-20%
        Obese=greater than 20%           Obese=greater than 30%
        Too low=less than 3%             Too low=less than 12%

Food Labels
     All labels must have:

1. name of food
2. special dietary properties
3. net amount in weight or volume
4. name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor

     Labels are all based on a 2000 calorie diet
     Labels are to made in the same format
     1994 food labels were made a law
     Labels show ingredients in order from greatest amount to least amount
     Labels sometimes have two lists
      Ex: cereal vs. cereal with milk
     Federal gvt. regulates the RDA (recommended daily allowance) of foods.
All labels must have:

1.   serving size
2.   servings per container
3.   calories per serving
4.   grams of protein, carbs, and fat per serving
                                       Serving Sizes:

Cooked cereal: ½ cup (cold= ½-1cup)

Vegetables: ½ cup (leafy=1 cup)

Breads: 1 slice (bagels, muffins, rolls=1/2)

Beans: ½ cup

Fruit: ½ cup (medium piece)

Fruit or Veggie Juice: ¾ cup

Milk/Yogurt: 1 cup; cheese 1-2 oz

Meat: 2-3oz

Butter, Margarine,oil: 1 tsp

Mayonnaise or salad dressing: 1tbp

Nutrition phrases to watch out for:

Extra Lean: less than 5g of fat

Lean: less than 10g of fat

Low fat: 3g of fat or less per serving

Good Source of Fiber: 2.5 –4.9g of fiber

Good Source: 10-19% of daily value per serving

Healthy: Low in fat, sat. fat, cholesterol, sodium, and containing 10% of daily value of
         vitamins A,C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber

High in: 20% or more of daily value for the food
Reduced: 25% or less than the normal

Light: 1/3 less fewer calories

Low Sodium: less than 140mg
Weight control is a major problem in the US. Excess body fat is unhealthy.
   Health hazards include:
        1. breathing difficulties
        2. kidney disorders; diabetes, cancer
        3. pregnancy problems,
        4. high blood pressure
        5. less resistance to infections
        6. heart disease, stroke, heart attacks
        7. social discrimination

  1. During last month of fetal development
  2. During the first year of life
  3. During the growth spurt of adolescence

Your number of fat cells becomes permanently established once you reach adulthood.
       1. As children, you increase the number of fat cells and the size of fat cells.
       2. In adulthood, you increase only the size of existing fat cell.

CREEPING OBESITY – excess calories add up day by day and month by month and
                   you slowly gain weight over a period of time.
            Average gain for Americans ages 25 and 55 is 30 pounds.

Weight Maintenance: 3,500 caloires = 1 pound of weight
  1. Weight Gain – Reduce exercise to decrease calories used & increase calories eaten.
  2. Weight Loss – Reduce calories eaten and increase exercise to use calories.
  3. Weight Maintenance – Continue to balance what you eat and what you use.
  4. Long Haul Concept – lose 1 to 2 pounds per week over a long period of time.

  Keep a journal about feelings.
  Keep a food diary
  Have a prevention plan

Calorie unit of measure for the potential energy that the body can obtain from a certain
        amount of food. A chemical reaction takes place for a calorie of fat, carbs, or
        protein to become energy.

Calories per gram: Carbohydrates and protein = 4 calories per gram
                   Fats = nine calories per gram

Calculation of Percent Fat Calories:
   Check label for the fat grams in a serving
   Each gram of fat equals 9 calories
   Multiply grams of fat by 9 and divide the total number of calories in a serving
   Multiply this number by 100 to determine the percent of calories from fat

Example: food label lists 150 calories and 13 grams of fat (fat content is 78% of total
calories); yet it is recommended that only 30% of total daily calories come from fat.

Formula: % of Fat Calories = (grams of fat X 9) divided by calories per serving X 100

Hot dog = 13 grams of fat per serving
          150 total calories per serving
(13 grams X 9 calories/gram = 117 calories) (117 divided by 150 X 100 = 78% fat)
78% of calories from one hot dog are obtained from fat

    To determine calories provided from protein or carbs, use same formula but use 4
     (not 9) as protein and carbs have 4 calories per gram.

   The amount of energy required to simply maintain your body at rest
   Reduced with age
   Caloric intake is reduced with age
   Basal metabolism is estimated as one calorie per kilogram of body weight per hour

   Determining Basal Metabolism:
        a. Convert body weight from pounds to kilograms (1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds)
        b. Example: John weighs 140 lbs (140 divided by 2.2 = 63.64 kilograms)
        c. Must know calories needed to maintain body at rest; therefore multiply body
           weight in kilograms by 24 hours (63.64 X 24 hours = 1,527 calories)
        d. Needs 1,527 calories to maintain metabolism

  Calories Needed for Daily Activities:
           b. Estimate the number of calories required to support daily activities in
              addition to basal metabolism.
           c. Estimate the number of hours you spend performing different types of
           d. Multiply the number of hours for each type of activity times the number of
              calories required per hour. (see chart for calories burned per hour)

        1. Anorexia Nervosa – irrational fear of becoming obese, results in severe
           weight loss due to self-starvation; may include bingeing and purging.

           Diagnoses – 15% below normal body weight; unable/unwilling to stop
           dieting; if female, stops menstruating, distortion of perception of shape.

        2. Bulimia – person is able to eat large quantities of food followed by self-
           induced vomiting later known as “binging and purging”; may use laxatives,
           diuretics, or enemas, or excessive physical activity. Problems include: tooth
           decay, irritation of esophagus, sores or finger used to induce vomiting,

           Bulimics: usually under 30, well educated, career oriented, comfortable or
           well to do families where thin is considered healthy and attractive.

        3. Compulsive overeating – uncontrollable eating despite lack of hunger; often
           includes a preoccupation with food and body image.

        4. Pica – eating non-edible items such as dirt or paper

            Feelings of shame, loneliness, helplessness
            Being secretive about weight; fear of becoming fat
            Avoidance of mirror
            Rituals including food; secretive about food and eating
            Prior sexual abuse
            Need to exercise or need for control
            Use of food for emotional comfort.
            Preoccupation with appearance
            Inability to recognize hunger
            Fear of depression or fear of growing up & being independent
            Suicide attempts
            Excellent athlete; Good student; need to be perfect
            Denial of hunger
            Compulsive behaviors
            Lack of emotional reactions
            Low self-esteem
                    Need to reduce stress and anxiety
                    Need to gain a sense of control in some area of life
                    Parents who are overly concerned with child’s appearance
                    Involvement in activities that emphasize thinness: (dancing,
                           long distance running, modeling, wrestling, gymnastics)


   1.   losing a significant amount of weight
   2.   continuing to diet (although thin)
   3.   feeling fat, even after losing weight
   4.   fearing weight gain
   5.   losing monthly menstrual periods
   6.   preoccupation with food, calories, nutrition and cooking
   7.   exercising compulsively
   8.    growth of fine baby hair on body, face, arms (minuto)

  1. tooth decay
  2. bad breath
  3. ulcers
  4. facial bloating
  5. appears to be healthy in body shape
  6. constant purging (vomiting) disrupts chemical balances in the body.
  7. bingeing and purging.

  1. hair loss, gaunt, hollow facial features
  2. shrunken breasts
  3. dry skin and or bruises
  4. sharply protruding bones
  5. cold and blue hands and feet
  6. delayed puberty: pre-adolescent females fail to menstruate and develop breasts at a
     normal age.
  7. in males, testosterone levels might remain low, leading to impotence.
  8. hormone levels drop in females and cannot support a fetus
  9. permanent bone loss; susceptibility to stress, fractures, and osteoporosis
  10.mood changes: impatience, irritability, depression, suicidal tendencies
  11.insomnia, constipation, sensitivity to cold, low heart rate and blood pressure.

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