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Ch 11 by pengxuebo


									National and Regional
 Growth, 1800–1844

       Ch 11
National and Regional Growth,
• Industrial growth, the expansion
 of slavery, and the development
 of nationalism and sectionalism
 change American society.
Section 1:
Early Industry and Inventions
• Main Idea:
  New machines and factories
  change the way people live and
  work in the late 1700s and early
• Industrial Revolution
  Free Enterprise and Factories
• During Industrial Revolution factory
  machines replaced hand tools
• Large-scale manufacturing replaced
  farming as main form of work
• Factory system brought workers,
  machines together under one roof
*Inventions like the spinning jenny &
  power loom made it possible for unskilled
  workers to produce more cloth, more
 Free Enterprise and Factories
• People left farms, moved to cities where
  factories were located
• Worked for wages, had set schedules,
  way of life changed
• War of 1812 led U.S. towards
• HOW??? The British blockade caused
  Americans to manufacture goods that
  they used to have imported.
 Factories Come to New
• New England good place to set up
 successful factories because:
  1. fast-moving rivers (to power
  2. ships and access to the ocean
  3. willing labor force
  A New Way to Manufacture
• New methods changed the style of
  work in other industries besides
• U.S. government hired Eli Whitney to
  make 10,000 muskets for army
• Guns were made one at a time by
  gunsmiths, Whitney changed this
 A New Way to Manufacture

• Used interchangeable parts, parts
  exactly alike, to make guns (1801)
• Sped up production, made repairs
  easy, used less-skilled workers
• New Methods of Transportation
Moving People, Goods, and
*Robert Fulton invented steamboat, put
 Clermont on Hudson River (1807)
*Samuel F. B. Morse first demonstrated
 his the telegraph in 1837
 Moving People, Goods, and
• Enabled people to communicate in
  seconds between cities
• By 1861, telegraph lines spanned
  U.S., brought people closer as a
• Morse Code
     Farming Technology
*Steel plow by John Deere made
 plowing easier in New England soil
*Mechanical reaper cut ripe grain
*Threshing machine separated kernels
 of wheat from husks
*New inventions linked regions of the U.S.
*New farming equipment helped
 Midwestern farmers feed Northeastern
 factory workers
*Midwestern farmers became a market
 for goods manufactured in the
*Northeast textile mills increased the
 need for Southern cotton, which
 contributed to the spread of slavery.
 Section 2: Plantations and
 Slavery Spread
• Main Idea:
 The invention of the cotton gin and
 the demand for cotton cause
 slavery to spread in the South.
• Cotton is King
 The Cotton Boom
• Eli Whitney invented cotton gin in 1793—
  machine that cleaned cotton (separated
  seeds from cotton)
• Made cotton cleaning more efficient,
  changed Southern life: one person could
  clean 1 pound of cotton a day by hand;
  the cotton gin could clean 50 pounds of
  cotton a day.
*Cotton gin changed Southern life in 4
1. Cotton farming moved westward
 beyond the Atlantic coastal states.
2. Because cotton was such a
 valuable crop, planters put most
 of their efforts into growing it.
3. More Native A. groups were driven off
  Southern land as cotton plantations took
4. Slavery continued to be an important
  source of labor for growing cotton.
 Slavery Expands
• From 1790 to 1860, cotton
  production increased greatly
• As cotton earnings rose, so did price
  of slaves
• Expansion of slavery had major
  impact on South’s economy, people
• Spread of Cotton
• Southern Culture
  Slavery Divides the South
• Slavery divided white Southerners into:
  – those who had slaves
  – those who did not
• One-tenth of white families had
 plantations with 20 or more slaves
 Slavery Divides the South

• Most white Southern farmers had
  few or no slaves, but supported
• Slavery had become necessary to
  increase profits
• Conditions of Slaves
 African-Americans in the South
• Slavery divided African-American
 Southerners into:
  – those who were enslaved
  – those who were free
• Enslaved African-Americans were one-
 third of South’s population (1840)
African-Americans in the South

• Most worked on plantations, while
  some worked as domestic
  servants or craftsmen
• 8 percent of African-Americans in
  South were free (1840)
  Slave Rebellions
• Nat Turner led famous slave
  rebellion, in Virginia (1831)
• Turner and his followers killed 55
  white people
• Turner’s men were captured and 16
  were killed. Turner is caught, tried,
  and hanged
 Slave Rebellions
• Rebellion spreads fear in South
• Whites killed more than 200 African
  Americans in revenge
• State legislatures passed harsh laws
  to control enslaved and free
Section 3: Nationalism and
Main Idea:
*Patriotic pride unites the states,
 but tension between the North
 and South emerges
  Nationalism Unites the Country
• President Madison presented plan, to
  make U.S. economically self-sufficient
• Henry Clay promoted plan as the
  American System:
  –1. established a protective tariff (tax
   on imports)
Nationalism Unites the Country

 –2. established a national bank
  (promote single currency making
  trade easier)
 –3. improved U.S. transportation
  systems (poor roads made
  transportation slow and costly)
 Roads and Canals Link Cities
• U.S. built National Road from Maryland
  to Illinois
• Canals improved water transportation,
  Erie Canal is completed (1825)
  – Created water route between New York
    City and Buffalo, New York
Roads and Canals Link Cities
• Opened Ohio Valley and Great
  Lakes region to settlers it also
  stimulates trade
• Increased nationalism by uniting 2
  sections of the country
 The Era of Good Feelings
• Democratic-Republican James
  Monroe won U.S. presidency (1816)
• Political differences gave way, this
  led to the Era of Good Feelings
• Era of Good Feeling
The Era of Good Feelings
–People shifted their loyalty away from
 the state govt. and more toward the
 federal govt.
–Americans sense of nationalism (a
 feeling of pride, loyalty, and
 protectiveness toward your country)
 started growing
 The Era of Good Feelings
• Supreme Court decisions strengthen
 federal government and national unity
  – McCulloch v. Maryland, state cannot tax
    a national bank
  – Gibbons v. Ogden, only federal
    government controls interstate
 Sectional Tensions Increase
• Sectionalism—loyalty to section of a
  country rather than to the nation
• South relied on cotton and slaves;
  northeast on manufacturing and
• In the West, settlers wanted cheap
  land and good transportation
 Sectional Tensions Increase
• Interests in these sections often
• Missouri applied for statehood
  (1817), people in the state wanted
 Sectional Tensions Increase
• U.S. had 11 slave states, 11 free
• Adding Missouri as slave state
  would upset balance of power
• Missouri Compromise
 The Missouri Compromise
• Nation argued over admitting
  Missouri as slave state or free state
• Henry Clay suggested the Missouri
  Compromise (1820):
  –1. admit Missouri as slave state
 The Missouri Compromise
-2. admit Maine as free state
-3. ban slavery in Louisiana Territory
  north of parallel 36º 30’
-4. keeps balance of power between
  slave states and free states
• Monroe Doctrine
 The Monroe Doctrine
• Some Latin American countries
  gained independence from Spain
  and Portugal
• Some European monarchs planned
  to help Spain and Portugal regain
 The Monroe Doctrine
• U.S. feared their own government
  would be in danger
• Russian colonies in Pacific
  Northwest almost reached San
 The Monroe Doctrine
• President Monroe issued the Monroe
 Doctrine (1823):
 –1. closed Americas to further
 –2. warned against European efforts
  to reestablish colonies
 –3. promised the U.S. would stay out
  of European affairs

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