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Developing catchment management strategy for sustainable

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					SAFID CONFERENCE-2008
 Presentation By: Eric Ofosu Antwi



        Institution:
  PhD Student, UNESCO-IHE,
           Holland
        TOPIC

Characteristics of Small-Scale
Irrigation Technologies in the
White Volta sub-basin, Ghana
                  Content
   Introduction
   Objective
   Description of Study Area
   Definition of Irrigation Technologies
   Description of Irrigation Technologies
   Data Collection/Analysis
   Discussion of Results
   Conclusion
   Recommendations
           Introduction
 60% of Ghana’s GDP is from
  Agriculture
 Objectives of the Poverty Reduction
  Strategy (GPRS II) of Ghana (2004-
  2007) includes: Poverty Reduction
  through the progressive development
  of small-scale irrigation agriculture to
  be managed at the community level.
         Introduction (cont’d)
   Since 1957 the Government of Ghana has been
    constructing water storage facilities for irrigation
    and drinking water purposes.
   Currently there are two large dams, 156 small
    reservoirs and 73 dugouts in the Upper East
    Region of Ghana.
   The prospects of Horticultural Production continues
    to trigger other forms of Irrigation Technologies in
    the White Volta.
   The prevailing irrigation technologies include: small
    reservoirs, large reservoirs, temporal and
    permanent shallow wells, riverine alluvial dugouts,
    riverine water.
         Research Objective

   What are the characteristics of irrigation
    technologies in the White Volta basin and
    how can they be developed to reduce
    poverty in the sub-region and also ensure
    efficient, sustainable and equitable use of
    water in the basin.
Study Area
Selected Catchments
    What is Irrigation Technology?

   Irrigation Technology is the means by
    which water is abstracted/diverted from a
    water source, transported/conveyed and
    applied on the farm.
   There are different irrigation technologies
    as a result of different water sources and
    different technologies used in abstraction,
    transportation and application.
Irrigation Technologies in the
    White Volta Sub-Basin

         Water Storage Methods;
  Water Abstraction & Application Methods
               Small & Large Reservoirs




        Irrigable Area               Canal and Furrow for water transport


   Cultivable area for small reservoirs range from 8ha to 20ha
    (average of 12ha)
   There are two large reservoirs in the Upper East with Tono
    having cultivable area of 3000ha and Vea having 850ha
  Temporal and Permanent Shallow Wells




Temporal Shallow Well with Hip-pump   Permanent Shallow Well

      Most farmers using shallow wells have three to four
       wells per quarter acre (0.1ha) of farmland
      Permanent wells are mostly one per farm with farm sizes
       being about quarter of an acre. Most permanent well
       farms are fenced and maintained throughout the year.
           Riverine Water & Dugouts




         Riverine Water                       Riverine Dugouts


   The water in the river happens to be the excess water from upstream
    releases (from large dams) and return flows from farms
   Dugouts are shallow wells of irregular size shape and depth located
    in the river channel. Farmers dig about three to four of this per half
    acre of farmland for irrigation
                Data Collection
                              Tomato Farmers Analysed
Irrigation          Anayari    Atankwidi Yarigatanga    Total
Technologies
Small Reservoirs      3            0           9         12
Large Reservoirs      0            0          13         13
Temporal              2            0           0         2
Shallow Wells
Permanent             5            0           0         5
Shallow Wells
Riverine Alluvial     0            9           0         9
Dugouts
Riverine Water        0            0          10         10
Data Analysis
                    Range of Farm Sizes per Irrigation
                              Technology
                                                            Range of Farm Sizes

                 0.900

                 0.800

                 0.700
Farm Size (ha)




                 0.600
                                                                                                                                   Avg
                                                                                                                                   Max
                 0.500
                                                                                                                                   Min

                 0.400

                 0.300

                 0.200

                 0.100

                 0.000
                         Small Reservoirs Large Reservoirs Temporal Shallow    Permanent      Riverine Alluvial   Riverine Water
                                                               Wells          Shallow Wells      Dugouts
                                                              Irrigation Technology
   Seasonal Expenditure on Water
Irrigation      Water Bill   Digging      Fuel     Pump Hire    Total
Technology      ($/ha)       ($/ha)       ($/ha)   ($/season)   ($/ha)
Small           22-72        None         None     None         22-72
Reservoirs
Large           57           None         None     None         57
Reservoirs
Temporal        None         40 wells @   None     None         1200
Shallow Wells                30$each
Permanent       None         None         None     None         0
Shallow Wells
Riverine        None         650          710      55           1,415
Alluvial
Dugouts
Riverine        None         None         550      55           605
Water
Water Consumption (2006/2007)
Irrigation Technology    Water Consumption
                           (mm/season)
Small Reservoirs                605

Large Reservoirs               510

Temporal Shallow Wells         800

Permanent Shallow              960
Wells
Riverine Alluvial              296
Dugouts
Riverine Water                 380
Percentage Cost Components of Irrigation
              Technologies
Economic Yield of Tomatoes for 2006-2007

                                                   Range of Economic Yield in Tomato Irrigation (2006/2007)

                            70


                            60
Economic Yield (Tonne/ha)




                            50


                            40                                                                                                                Avg
                                                                                                                                              Max
                            30                                                                                                                Min


                            20


                            10


                             0
                                 Large reservoir   Riverine Water   Small Reservoirs   Riverine Alluvial    Permanent      Temporal Shallow
                                                                                          Dugouts          Shallow Wells       Wells
                                                                         Irrigation Technologies
                       Income-Expenditure Analysis for
                            Tomato Cultivation
                                             Finacial Comparison of Irrigation Technologies 2006/2007



                9000

                8000

                7000

                6000
Amount ($/ha)




                                                                                                                       Average Expenditure
                5000                                                                                                   Average Sales
                4000                                                                                                   Average Net Profit
                                                                                                                       Average Net Loss
                3000

                2000

                1000

                   0
                       Large reservoir Riverine Water     Small      Riverine Alluvial  Permanent        Temporal
                                                        Reservoirs      Dugouts        Shallow Wells   Shallow Wells
                                                        Irrigation Technologies
Irrigation Technologies in Relation to
 Poverty Reduction/Gender Balance
                                     Direct Labour   Income to
 Irrigation            Women         Expenses to      Farmers
 Technology          Participation    Community        ($/ha)
 Small                Greater than                     1384
 Reservoirs              30%            10-15%
 Large                                                 194
 Reservoirs          Less Than 10%      16-20%
 Temporal                                               ---
 Shallow Wells           10%            5-10%
 Permanent                                             8194
 Shallow Wells            0%         Less than 5%
 Riverine Alluvial                                     569
 Dugouts                  0%            25-30%
 Riverine Water           0%            11-15%          ----
                    Conclusion
   The Productivity of Irrigation Technologies in
    tomato cultivation for 2006/2007 was heavily
    affected by lack of market, resulting in a heavy loss
    for farmers, especially those with relatively large
    farms and located in densely cultivated areas.
   Shallow wells users, consume three times the
    water used by pump irrigators. There is the need to
    educate shallow wells users on crop water
    requirements and also improve water application
    method.
   Technologies which favor larger cultivable areas
    employ more labour thereby producing more
    employment and reducing poverty, but on the other
    hand they have relatively low women participation.

				
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posted:8/6/2011
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