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Exam Study Guide Answers

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									U.S. History Final Exam Study Guide

Be able to explain in DETAIL the following questions: Essay Exam Rubric:
1) Define discrimination.Describe who has been discriminated against through-out United States History, and provide at least three examples of groups of people who experienced discrimination in the United States. Give DETAILS of how they were discriminated against. Pg 79, 392, 425-428, 615-619, 628-633 Discrimination is unequal treatment shown to a group because of their race, religion, ethnic background, or place of birth. In the 1800s, all peoples except white Protestant men were discriminated against Women: Women could not vote, join unions, get into most colleges and universities, hold most jobs, or have a say in government; Catholic immigrants: largely Protestant U.S. population feared that the Catholic immigrants threatened the "American" way of life; Jewish immigrants: Landlords, employers, and schools discriminated against Jews. Eastern European’s / Jews faced prejudice both as Jews and as Eastern Europeans, whom many Americans regarded as more "foreign" than Western Europeans; Asian Americans: White Americans claimed that Chinese immigrants, who worked for lower wages, took away jobs. African Americans: Although officially free, African Americans faced discrimination in both the North and the South. They were systematically denied basic rights and restricted to second-class citizenship. Native Americans: Created the "Society of American Indians" to improve living conditions, & educate whites about different Native American cultures. Mexican Americans were excluded from many reform groups so they formed mutualistas-self defense associations- to raise money for insurance and legal help. Also to deal with overcrowding, poor sanitation, and inadequate public services. Accept all reasonable answers that show that in this era many Americans believed that white, male, native-born Americans had the right to make decisions for all of society. 2) What were working conditions like in factories 1800-1900’s. What did workers do to improve them? (must have 4 items and G) Pg. 391, 572-575, 585 a) Factories and mines were noisy, unhealthy, and unsafe. b) Accidents were common. Steel workers suffered burns from spills and hot steel. c) Coal miners died in cave-ins and from the effects of gas and coal dust. d) Textile workers' lungs were damaged by airborne lint. e) Garment workers toiled in crowded urban factories called sweatshops, where they ruined their eyesight by sewing for hours in poor light. f) Filled with flammable materials, the sweatshops were also firetraps. G) Factory workers formed labor unions, and went on strike to get their demands met. -1-

3) How did the Nazis treat the Jews, starting with Hitler’s rise to power in Germany and ending with the Nazi’s "final solution"? (must have 8 items AND letter N) Pg. 752-755 775-776 a) not allowed to go to school b) took away rights c) took away businesses d) forced to wear the “Star of David” e) set curfew f) synagogues closed g) confiscated property h) moved to ghetto’s i) moved to concentration camps, labor camps, death camps j) shaved their heads k) tattooed number on arm l) took last bit of belongings m) gave little to eat n) exterminated in gas chamber and burned in ovens /mass “genocide” 4) The problems that led to the Great Depression began to send warning signals in the early 1920s. (must have 5 items and Germany/Japan info.) Pg. 711, 722-749 753, 754, 762 a) Farm income shrank throughout the decade. b) The textile, lumber, mining, and railroad industries also declined. c) The automobile and construction industries suffered from lagging orders. d) As a result, employers cut wages and laid off workers. With their income slashed, many Americans could no longer afford the goods that the nation's industries had been churning out. e) The growing gap in wealth between rich people and most other Americans also fueled the Depression. f) Since borrowed money fueled much of the economy, when people defaulted, banks suffered . The Great Depression had hit Germany especially hard. Millions of people had lost their jobs, and Germany's economy teetered on the edge of collapse due to war re-payments imposed by WW I treaty. Germans rallied around Adolf Hitler who gained popularity by exploiting people's concern about unchecked inflation and severe unemployment. Japanese also grew frustrated with their government's failure to solve economic problems. As a result, military leaders rose to power in the early 1930s. These leaders thought they would solve Japan's problems by expanding Japanese power in Asia, so they invaded Manchuria. Within three years, Japan signed a pact of alliance with Germany and Italy. 5) How did Joseph Stalin react to the West's plans for West Germany, and how did the West respond to Stalin's actions?
Pg. 788-794

When the United States, Great Britain, and France announced they were uniting their zones to form a new West German republic including each nation's section of Berlin, Stalin rushed Soviet troops into position around the edge of West Berlin. Since West Berlin lay entirely within Soviet-held territory, Soviet troops created a blockade, stopping traffic on all highway, railroad, and water routes. As a result, West Berlin and its 2 million citizens were cut off from vital supplies. The Soviets hoped this blockade would drive the West out of Berlin. The Americans and British organized a massive airlift. Cargo planes flew food, fuel, and other supplies into West Berlin day and night for more than 10 months, delivering about 2.5 million tons of supplies to West Berlin. As a result, Stalin ended the blockade.

6) What made President Abraham Lincoln decide to emancipate African Americans? Pg. 473-477 -2-

Although Abraham Lincoln's personal opinion was that all people should be free, he was hesitant to move against slavery because of the border states. Once public opinion began shifting, he knew he could strike a blow against slavery. He knew doing so would make France and Great Britain less likely to aid the South. Lincoln was also convinced that slavery helped the South continue fighting because every enslaved person who worked enabled a white Southerner to fight. Lincoln also faced political pressure to take action. He believed it was important that the president, rather than the antislavery Republicans in Congress, make the decision ending slavery. 7) Why were the tensions between the United States and the Soviets that began in the late 1940s called a cold war? Pg. 788-794 Although there was hostility between the two nations, it never reached military action. It was a "cold" war because it did not involve the "heat" of an actual battle. Instead, each nation built up its military forces and arms to intimidate the other.

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