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Education and globalization


									  Vol. XVI, No. 2                                                                                                          APRIL-JUNE 1998

           Education and globalization

        ccording to the definition given          In January 1998 at a conference organized by the University of
        by Jacques Hallak during the             Bristol’s Centre for International Studies in Education ,1 Jacques
        conference on “Educational
                                                   Hallak presented a paper on the following theme: Education
Reconstruction and Transformation
of Education. Challenges for the 21st            and globalization. Later, in March 1998, the Director of IIEP
Century”, globalization is a                       again debated this theme with participants in IIEP’s Annual
combination of much freer trade in               Training Programme. Some of the ideas that arose during these
goods and services combined with free              two conferences and ensuing discussions are outlined below.
capital movements. The phenomenon
dates far back in history with the
                                                 growing over the past three decades. It           initiative-taking is more important
development of international trade.
                                                 is estimated today at over a million              than obedience, and where strategies
However, for the past few years, we
                                                 individuals. All the same, in most cases,         are especially complex because of the
have observed a high acceleration in
                                                 the teaching provided does not meet               expansion of markets beyond national
this trend due to a political and
                                                 the new demands being created by                  borders. Therefore, education must
ideological environment eminently
                                                 globalization.                                    help individuals to perform tasks for
favourable to its development and
                                                     Thus, as Mr. Hallak emphasized                which they were not originally trained,
rapid advances in technological
                                                 during his two presentations, the aim             to prepare for a non-linear career path,
innovation, especially in the area of
                                                 of most existing educational systems,             to improve their team skills, to use
telecommunications. Educational
                                                 which consists in serving a national              information independently, to develop
planners – wherever they come from –
                                                 economy by training an adequate                   their capacity for improvisation as well
must think seriously about the
                                                 workforce for definite tasks and                  as their creativity, and finally to lay
consequences of such a phenomenon,
                                                 allowing a limited elite to acquire               the basis of complex thinking linked to
particularly in terms of shifts in the
                                                 management and administration                     the harsh realities of practical life.
job market, in order to better adapt
                                                 responsibilities, appears somewhat out
their country’s training system.                                                                         Adapting education
                                                 of step with changes affecting contem-
                                                 porary society. This is confirmed by                    systems to deal with
    Implications of                              new forms of illiteracy observed in                     the changes
    globalization on                             some of the most developed countries.
    training needs                                   To meet the challenges of globaliza-          In the booklet based on the speech he
                                                 tion, it would in fact appear necessary           delivered at the Bristol conference,2
International scope is not totally               to prepare individuals for a workplace            Mr. Hallak drew a distinction between
absent from current education sys-               where responsibilities are constantly             the various fields of educational activity
tems. For example, at university level,          changing, where vertical management               where reforms could be carried out, so
and especially in the areas of science,          is replaced by networking, where                  as to take into account changes
technology and research, the flow of             information passes through multiple               involved in the trend towards globali-
foreign students has not ceased                  and informal channels, where                      zation. Adapting education systems to

 Inside             UNESCO Report                   Software                         Research                         Obituary
                    IIEP reviews UNESCO’s           A new interface of a Data        Does partnership make it         A tribute to Clarence Beeby,
                    fourth World Education          Entry Manager software           possible to improve the          an intellectual architect of
                    Report on Teachers and          designed by IIEP is now          efficiency of technical and      modern education and one
                    teaching in a changing          being used by IEA for            vocational training policy?      of the most influencial
                    world.                          TIMSS Surveys.                   An issue for discussion.         founding partners of IIEP.
                                             3                                  6                               7                             12
                         All articles may be reproduced without prior authorization, subject to the source being cited.
    new training needs is not the only path       and social problems, so as to provide
    available, as shown in the three examples     relevant guidelines for the various          In this issue:
    which follow:                                 participants who make up society; (iii)the
                                                                                               Education and globalization –
    ® Modify the role of teachers: in order to    role of secondary teaching in this
                                                                                               main issues discussed at a
    train independent individuals who are         framework raises a problem: should this      recent conference at Bristol
    capable of tracking down information,         level of teaching be progressively           University, UK.               1
    processing it and interpreting it, teachers   abandoned, or should it become part of
    should review their teaching methods,         basic education?                             Changing teachers for a
    and move from the role of speaker to the                                                   changing world – Review of
    role of guide. To accomplish this it would        Debate on globalization                  UNESCO’s fourth World
                                                                                               Education Report.                  3
    be important to draw on new information
    and communications technologies which         Among the various questions raised by
    they should both teach and use in the                                                      A success story – A new
                                                  the trainees in the Annual Training          interface of a Data Entry
    classroom. This evolution specifically        Programme during Mr Hallak’s presen-         Manager (DEM) software
    implies that: (i) they have a certain         tation given at the IIEP on 5 March          developed by IIEP .                6
    freedom in various areas like teaching        1998, two comments especially claim our
    methods, the organization of classroom        attention:                                   Partnership in training policy –
    space and the timetable, the possibility      ® To what degree is Africa involved in       An analysis of the role of
    of adapting teaching to individual needs,     the globalization process? In other words,   parternship in technical and
    etc. (ii) they be trained in new                                                           vocational training.            7
                                                  is it relevant to try and adapt African
    information technologies, and that they       education systems to globalization in that   Seminars on Current Issues
    have the necessary equipment at hand,         African participation is low in the          in Educational Planning.   9
    and (iii) their salaries be indexed           financial and commercial movements
    according to performance criteria and on      that are at the source of this phenomenon    Designing development
    the basis of regular evaluations.             and the changes which result from it?        projects in basic education –
    ® Review certification procedures:            Also, it should be borne in mind that        An intensive training course
    certification procedures should be                                                         for Caribbean countries.      10
                                                  only the African elite have access to the
    modified so as to indicate an individual’s    new information and communication            Creating space for women –
    capacity to adapt to a rapidly changing       tools which allow economic development.      Review of a new IIEP
    job market. Criteria should take into         ® Does globalization pose a threat to        publication on gender-linked
    account non-cognitive skills (like a talent                                                issues in management.        11
                                                  continuing cultural diversity? Are not
    for teamwork), as well as expertise           the new patterns of behaviour required
    acquired during a professional career.        for adapting to globalization (and which
                                                                                               Obituary of Dr. Clarence
    Moreover, certification should be stan-                                                    Beeby.                           12
                                                  are available only through education)
    dardized so as to be widely applicable,       based on a western model, i.e. a model
    and thus facilitate the mobility of                                                        IIEP Activities.                 13
                                                  which is foreign to the unique values of
    students, as well as workers. A certifying    other regions of the world?
    body, working either at the regional or           These two questions give rise to many
                                                                                               Reducing repetition – issues
    international level (which would include                                                   and strategies. Review of a
                                                  others, including: should one consider       new IIEP Fundamental.        14
    representatives from both the supply and      globalization as an inevitable process to
    demand side of education, as well as          which all countries must adapt in the
    evaluation experts) could be created to       end, or is it a passing fad with a limited
    achieve these goals.                          lifespan? It is impossible to answer these
    ® Rethink the objectives of each level of     various objections here. However,             The IIEP Newsletter is published
    education: the modernization of educa-        drawing on Mr. Hallak’s remarks, it             quarterly in English, French,
    tion systems involves a redistribution of     should be borne in mind that (i) failing
                                                                                               Portuguese, Spanish and Russian.
    responsibilities among the various levels     to take into account the trend towards         All correspondence should be
    of education: (i) the accent should be        globalization runs the risk of marginali-
                                                                                                           addressed to:
                                                                                                            The Editor,
    placed on a basic education for everyone,     zing, even more than at present, some                  IIEP Newsletter,
    so as to build a society of productive,       countries excluded from the trans-
                                                                                                    International Institute for
                                                                                                      Educational Planning
    involved and responsible citizens,            national world economy; (ii) apart from         7-9, rue Eugène-Delacroix,
    capable of reacting and thinking              any internal reform, most education and
                                                                                                           75116 Paris.
    independently on contemporary trends;         vocational training systems are directly           Fax: +
    (ii) higher education should set objectives   affected by the trend towards globaliza-
    for training managers, engineers and          tion to the degree that it favours the
                                                                                                          IIEP web site:
    technicians skilled in dealing with
    change and analyzing urgent economic                                 continued on p. 6 

           Changing teachers for a

           changing world
UNESCO’s fourth World Education Report, entitled Teachers
and teaching in a changing world, focuses on the role and
status of teachers in a world, undergoing rapid transformation,
not least in the field of communications and information, an
issue which obviously has an impact on teachers. The report
examines in some detail the validity of the frequently heard
statement that teachers have lost status. It argues convincingly
that “what society currently expects from teachers in most
countries could be out of proportion to the rewards it is prepared
to accord to teachers and the means typically put at their
disposal.” It also points to the detrimental impact that some very
popular, and seemingly innocent, education policies have had on
teachers’ status.

          EACHINGmight not be the most makers, those relating to concepts as has taken its toll on the teaching
       popular profession in the world,      status or quality are difficult to verify. profession. High unemployment
       but it is undoubtedly the most        The World Education Report 1998 levels, which seem endemic in much
populated: there are indeed some 57          investigates how changes in the of the developed and the developing
million teachers in the world, about         demographic, economic and techno- world, are – rightly or wrongly – linked
two-thirds of whom work in the logical environment have affected to weaknesses in the education system,
developing world. The irony in this teachers and asks if education policies which reflects badly on teachers. At
statement hides a preoccupying truth. have successfully drawn benefit from the same time, some people enter the
Teachers are an important force in our       these changes to improve teachers’ teaching profession as a stopgap
societies, not only because of their motivation and performance.                           measure, in the absence of anything
sheer numbers, but much more                     The recent economic environment better. This has resulted in a lack of
because they are the
guarantors of the edu-      Box 1
cation of future gene-     Trends in the number of Internet hosts         Wired up
rations, especially in     in the world, 1990-97                          Internet hosts per 1,000 population, January 1998
developing countries,
where few other
resources are made
available to schools. At
the same time, teachers
feel weakened and
complain about loss of
their status and dimi-
nishing respect. A
complaint reflected in
parents’ criticism that
teachers and schools
are offering an irrele-
                           Source: Network Wizards (http://              Source : Network Wizards ( quoted in
vant and mediocre
                  quoted in UNESCO 1998            The Eonomist, Vol. 346, No. 8056, 21-27 February 1998.
education.                 World Education Report.
   Although state-
                           The Internet is experiencing an exponential expansion, which, however, has so far benefited mainly
ments about teaching
                           developed countries. Its impact on education and on teaching in particular is potentially great, but
are easily made, by both   so far of little use to the majority of teachers.
teachers and policy-

                                                                                         IIEP NEWSLETTER / APRIL-JUNE 1998
                                                                                                                             •     3
    faith in education, a feeling probably
                                                   Box 2
    strengthened by the ideological mood
                                                   Averages hide disparities and this is particularly true for pupil/teacher ratios,
    of the moment, which has turned
                                                   as the following example from Benin shows.
    opinion against the public service and             The overall primary-school pupil/teacher ratio in Benin in 1995/96 was
    in favour of the introduction of market        high, but – according to some studies – not unacceptably so: 52 pupils per
    forces in education. Partly as a result        teacher. One school in Atacora department has a ratio, somewhat higher than
    of this, the Report claims, teachers are       the average: 414 pupils for seven teachers, including the headteacher, or a ratio
    considered to be “carriers of light into       of 59 to one.
                                                       What this actually means for the total number of pupils in each classroom,
    dark places, be it tolerance, interna-
                                                   is shown in the following table:
    tional understanding or respect for
    human rights, and, on the other hand,            Grade              1          2          3          4          5          6
    as costly ‘factors of production’ in an
    enterprise which absorbs a significant           Classes/
    proportion of public budgets.” In a              Teachers           1         1           1          1          1          1
    number of countries, this pro-market             Pupils            128        75         92        35         45         39
    mood has led to breaking down some of
    the hardearned privileges of teachers          Grades one, two and three are obviously overcrowded. One solution would be to
                                                   employ one additional teacher for each of these grades. However, this would
    and, as we will see further on, to several
                                                   bring the pupil/teacher ratio to 41 to one and would imply significant additional
    other strategies with an adverse impact        expenditure. Another solution would be to lower the high drop-out rates, but to
    on the teaching profession. At the same        do this one arguably needs to decrease pupil/teacher ratios.
    time, public authorities – and teachers
    – are requested to work harder towards       city of Tokyo”, and that “a majority of     main ‘input’, namely the teachers, has
    Education For All, or EFA.                   the world’s schools still do not have       been cut in three main ways by:
        In the least developed countries         electricity”. Secondly, and more            ® hiring teachers on specific contracts
    especially, achieving EFA is becoming        worryingly, teaching has seldom made        with lower remuneration and fewer
    every year more challenging, because         use of, or demanded, technological          rights;
    of the continued rapid population            innovations (the examples of radio and      ® employing teachers with less
    growth. Combine this with the finan-         television are quoted). One reason for      qualifications;
    cial squeeze, in which these countries       this, beyond the obvious financial one,     ® increasing pupil/teacher ratios and
    find themselves, and it is easy to           probably lies in the nature of the          introducing ‘staff saving’ modes of
    imagine the headaches with which             sector’s work: an activity which has at     teaching, e.g. double-shift schools and
    educational planners wake up. The            its heart human interaction and which       multigrade classes.
    temptation to save on what is the largest    relies for its success on the quality of        The two last strategies in particular
    budget item (teachers) is difficult to       that interaction. Reluctance to inno-       have been promoted by, for instance,
    resist, in particular when some              vate what is felt to be at the core of      the World Bank, which refers to a
    research seems to show that such             teaching is therefore to be expected.       number of studies showing that the
    savings can be obtained without              On the other hand, it is true that the      quality of education does not suffer
    sacrificing quality.                         computer is probably the most child-        from these measures. The Report
        Before looking in some detail at         friendly (and hence the most teacher-       usefully challenges this picture. With
    how education policies have reacted to       threatening?) of these recently             regard to pupil/teacher ratios, it notes
    this complex environment, the ques-          developed tools.                            for instance that the debate so far has
    tion needs to be asked if technological          It could be argued that the informa-    focused on cognitive outcomes, and
    changes, and the information revolu-         tion age has, to date, had a detrimental    that little is known about the acquisi-
    tion in particular, could not help           impact on teachers’ status. While           tion of personal and social skills and
    improve both the access to and the           teachers used to be one of the few          attitudes, especially among poor
    quality of education. The Report briefly     voices of authority for any child, now –    learners. Large classes, moreover, are
    touches on the potential of for instance     with the expansion of informal learning     bound to have an impact on teachers’
    the Internet to render teaching              opportunities – they have merely            motivation and stress. In addition,
    methodology more creative, interactive       become one of many references and, in       when pleas are made to raise pupil/
    and individualised. However, it also         many cases, one that is rather out of       teacher ratios to 45 or 50 to one, little
    stresses a number of sobering facts.         step with reality.                          attention is given to the fact that these
    Firstly, this revolution has so far              Depending on the context and            are averages, which naturally hide
    benefited mainly the developed               especially the financial room for           extremes, within the country and
    countries and the more affluent groups       manoeuvre, policy-makers have res-          between grades. The early school years
    (cf. Box 1). The Report notes in this        ponded in different ways to the             will be particularly overloaded,
    regard that “all of Africa, for example,     challenges described above. In the less     because of the high drop-out rates (cf.
    has barely more telephones than the          developed countries, spending on the        Box 2). The fact finally that the more

 Box 3                                                                                            willingness in national development
 GNP per capita and pupil-teacher ratio in primary education, by region.1 1995.                   policies to provide more resources for
                                                                                                  education.” This has led to an increa-
                                                                                                  sed sense of isolation among teachers.
                                                                                                      The above should not be read as an
                                                                                                  indication that all countries have
                                                                                                  disregarded teachers’ needs. Several,
                                                                                                  such as Sri Lanka and Namibia for
                                                                                                  example, recently increased their
                                                                                                  salaries significantly. Surprisingly
                                                                                                  enough, this has apparently not led to
                                                                                                  a visible improvement in their efficien-
                                                                                                  cy or performance. Perhaps this is not
                                                                                                  so startling: it confirms that to change
                                                                                                  teachers, it is not sufficient just to
                                                                                                  raise their salaries, but that more
 1. Individual countries within each region are represented by dots, diamonds and squares.        comprehensive policies are necessary.
 Source: 1998 UNESCO Education Report. Paris: UNESCO, 1998.
                                                                                                  The World Education Report 1998
developed countries have almost                     belief that such competition will almost      gives few indications on how teacher
systematically tried to increase the                automatically lead to improved teacher        policies should be changed. Recent
qualifications of teachers and to lower             and school performance. However, so           research shows that such policy
the pupil/teacher ratios seems to show              far, little is known about the ways in        packages should include strategies to
that these options, when affordable,                which teachers change their practice          improve their working conditions, to
are preferable (cf. Box 3).                         and how to motivate them to do so,            strengthen feedback and support,
    These ‘teacher-cost-saving’ poli-               except for the fact that it is not            including through practice-oriented
cies, the Report stresses, are fed by an            sufficient to point out that they are not     and school-based in-service training,
undiscriminating use of the cost-                   doing well. Moreover, improving               to set up structures which allow more
effectiveness approach to education,                education quality might well need more        interaction and co-operation between
which views teachers as an input                    co-operation between schools and              teachers, to develop motivational
rather than a ‘creative partner’.                   teachers rather than more competition.        career ladders, to get communities to
Interestingly, what seem to be more                     The Report comments in the same           show an interest in their teachers. It is
‘innocent’ policies have also led to                vein on the present concern with              only by giving teachers more support
greater demands on teachers, in part                improving quality and setting up              and more authority that more can be
because of a poor understanding of                  mechanisms to monitor learning                expected from them.
their needs and situation. The empha-               achievement. Teachers are aware that
sis on creating competition between                 this concern “has not generally been
schools, for instance, is justified by the          matched up to now by a greater                                        ANTON DE GRAUWE


  Two IIEP programmes give specific                 quatre monographies nationales. (forth-       ® Khaniya, T. R. 1997. Teacher support
  attention to teachers’ issues and several         coming) Paris: UNESCO/International           through resource centres: the Nepalese case.
  recent or forthcoming publications                Institute for Educational Planning.           Paris: UNESCO/IIEP.
  examine in particular teacher manage-             ® A. Traoré. 1997. La gestion du personnel    ® Ali, Mehrunnisa Ahmad. 1998.
  ment and supervision.                             enseignant en Afrique francophone. Paris:     Supervision for teacher development: a
     The following publications were                UNESCO/International Institute for            proposal for Pakistan. Paris: UNESCO/
  prepared in the framework of the project          Educational Planning.                         IIEP.
  on The management of teachers:                       The programme on Improving teacher         ® Improving teacher supervision and
                                                    supervision and support has so far            support in Asia: a comparative analysis
  ® The utilization, deployment and                                                               of the experiences of five countries:
  management of teachers in Botswana,               prepared the following studies and
                                                    monographs:                                   Bangladesh, India, Korea, Nepal and Sri
  Malawi, South Africa and Uganda.                                                                Lanka. (forthcoming) Paris: UNESCO/
  Synthesis report on a sub-regional                ® Carron, G. ; De Grauwe, A. 1997.            IIEP.
  workshop and four country monographs.             Current issues in supervision: a literature
  (forthcoming) Paris: UNESCO/Interna-                                                            ® Fergusson, V. Reforming school
                                                    review. Paris: UNESCO/International
  tional Institute for Educational Planning.                                                      supervision and quality control in a context
                                                    Institute for Educational Planning.
                                                                                                  of school based management: the New
  ® La gestion des ensignants dans quatre           ® Perera,W. J. 1997. Changing schools         Zealand experience. (forthcoming) Paris:
  pays d’Afrique francophone (Bénin,                from within: a management intervention        UNESCO/IIEP.
  Burkina Faso, Mali, Sénégal). Rapport             for improving school functioning in Sri
  de synthèse sur un atelier sous-régional et       Lanka. Paris: UNESCO/IIEP.

                                                                                                   IIEP NEWSLETTER / APRIL-JUNE 1998
                                                                                                                                          •      5

                         A success story
                         A new interface to the data entry manager, or DEM,
                         software developed by IIEP is now being used by the
                         IEA for the TIMSS Surveys.

       I N February 1998, the Director of
         the International Institute for
       Educational Planning received a
                                                         errors at the data preparation phase of
                                                         the research cycle.
                                                                                                   controls for the quality of the data
                                                                                                   being prepared. For each variable,
                                                                                                   there are ways to establish
       letter from the Executive Director of                 How was it developed?                 specifications in order to ensure that:
       the International Association for                                                           i) correct identification codes are
       Evaluation of Educational Achieve-                The original DEM software, developed      assigned, ii) unadministered or
       ment (IEA). The letter indicated that             by the IEA in 1989 and used for its       unanswered questions, incompre-
       the IIEP version of the new interface             Reading Literacy Study undertaken         hensive or out-of-range responses,
       to the Data Entry Manager (DEM)                   in 32 countries, mainly targeted high-    and invalid entries are all handled
       software has been contributing to                 level computer experts. Recognizing       properly, and iii) inconsistencies
       the success of the IEA’s Third                    the software’s importance in large-       between questions, within a group
       International Mathematics and                     scale educational research, the IIEP,     of respondents, and between files
       Science Studies (TIMSS) – both for                in co-operation with the IEA, started     are also intercepted. Secondly, the
       the 1996 study involving 41 countries             to develop a new user interface           software provides automatic saving,
       and for the 1998 TIMSS replication                (DEM008.OVL) which provided an            smooth switching between the
       study.                                            easy-to-use data entry editor enabling    different modes of data preparation
                                                         educational planners to set up simple     (data entry, data cleaning, data
                      What is DEM?                       structure files which could be used to    verification, data repair), and is
                                                         enter and clean data without the aid of   compatible with popular data analy-
       In order to monitor the quality of an             professional statisticians. This new      sis software. The third factor in its
       education system, one of the most                 interface underwent various trials in     favour is that the software is easy to
       crucial steps is the collection and               several training workshops in 1994,       use and does not require sophisti-
       processing of data needed for infor-              and the finalized version was used in     cated hardware.
       med decision making. This can be a                IIEP’s research programmes during
       problem in many educational plan-                 1995. A French version of the DEM              How to obtain your copy
       ning offices because insufficient                 was produced in 1997, and since then
       attention is paid to the preparation              both versions have been used by           The Data Entry Manager software is
       of data prior to analysis on the                  participants in the IIEP’s Annual         distributed free-of-charge to all
       computer. Data of poor quality can                Training Programme.                       participants in IIEP training pro-
       cause extensive delays in the subse-                                                        grammes. All other external requests
       quent survey implementation. The                      Special features                      should be made directly in writing
       Data Entry Manager interface has                                                            to the Director of the IIEP.
       been developed in order to address                One of the most important features of
       this problem. It helps to minimize                this new interface is its multi-level                                MIOKO SAITO

     continued from p. 2

    emergence of new educational                             To conclude, it is regrettable that   1
                                                                                                     Conference on Educational Reconstruc-
    resources (especially from the private               the theme of regionalism was not          tion and Transformation. Challenges for
    sector) and novel approaches (e.g.                   mentioned at any point during the         the 21st Century, organized between
                                                                                                   5-7 January 1998 by the Centre for Inter-
    consumer-driven) within the field of                 debate, since it would allow the
                                                                                                   national Studies in Education, University of
    education; (iii) finally, if globalization           problem of globalization to be            Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    inevitably involves the risk of cultural             approached from a slightly different      2
                                                                                                     Jacques Hallak. 1998. Education and
    and technological ‘colonization’, it                 angle, perhaps one that is more
                                                                                                   globalization. IIEP Contributions No. 26.
    should not be assumed that attempts                  acceptable to most of the countries       Paris: UNESCO/International Institute for
    to adapt to this phenomenon pose an                  affected.                                 Educational Planning, 1998.
    actual threat to local identities.                                           MURIEL POISSON

         •           IIEP NEWSLETTER / APRIL-JUNE 1998
            Partnership in
            training policy
Does partnership make it possible to improve the efficiency of
technical and vocational training policy? The frequent
appearance of this term in specialized literature and also its
influence on government policies leads one quite naturally to ask
the question. Unfortunately, a lack of perspective and especially of
relevant data make it impossible to accurately gauge the impact of
this new kind of government practice. All the same, one can
perhaps prepare the ground by attempting to probe the real
meaning of the term and pass in review some concrete examples.
Indeed, policy documents rarely provide any precise explanation
on the rationale of partnership and how it works. The article
below attempts to discuss this issue further ...

    N technical education and               From the research viewpoint, recent        the structure of partnership must
    vocational training, partnership        theoretical development influencing        extend beyond them to include trade
    aims principally at mobilizing          public action tends to support a trend     unions, parent/teacher associations
collective effort so as to improve the      in favour of partnership. For example,     (PTAs), vocational institutions, and
efficiency of the system and its            institutional economics, rejecting both    NGOs, all of which are key players.
contribution to the economic and            the orthodoxies of traditional planning    Their degree of involvement varies
social goals which are assigned to it. In   and pure market mechanisms, seek to        according to the area, whether initial
other words, by involving the relevant      understand the motivation of economic      or continuing education, or according
stakeholders, especially the business       agents in order to improve governance      to the level of decision making:
community, it strives to make voca-         through participation and co-              national, regional or local. As for
tional training more responsive to the      ordination. Sociologists specializing in   continuing         education,        the
job market which is today undergoing        organization theory draw similar           participation of both employers and
massive transformation everywhere.          conclusions in their analysis of           employees seems self-evident. This is
Partnership thus appears at first           collective action and the negotiating      an important theme for social dialogue
glance as a means of achieving a higher     process conducted among key players.       and collective negotiations at the
degree of efficiency in the use of public   Those on the front line intuitively        national level, as well as at the
money. It must also contribute to           understand the need for co-ordination,     industrial or corporate level. Thus, in
mobilizing outside resources in the         as they are faced with the complexity      France, a study done by the Depart-
form of expertise and private invest-       and variety of partners involved in        ment of Labour and Social Affairs
ment. In addition to this technical         technical and vocational training. In      concerning collective bargaining
dimension, partnership also involves        the absence of clear proof that partner-   among industries revealed that, in
a political vision. The mobilization of     ship is a source of efficiency, theory     1996, vocational training and appren-
key players, concerted effort, and          and experience thus tend to support        ticeship were a prime concern for
dialogue are also considered as a way       the idea that, in the medium term, it      salaried workers, after salaries and
of regulating training resources            can make a significant contribution to     bonuses.
democratically and through con-             policy reform.                                 The participation of social partners
sensus. Partnership is not just                                                        in the management and monitoring of
concerned with initiative-taking and            Encouraging employers                  technical education and initial voca-
management, it is also a value system           to get more involved                   tional training is often less evident. In
and a goal. In this respect, there is an                                               fact, their degree of involvement varies
evident connection in several coun-         It seems obvious that the state and the    according to tradition and the struc-
tries between democratization and           business community are natural             ture of the technical and vocational
partnership initiatives (South Africa,      partners in the area of education and      education and training system. For
Mali, Hungary, etc.).                       training for the working life. However,    example, it is evident that in many

                                                                                        IIEP NEWSLETTER / APRIL-JUNE 1998
                                                                                                                            •      7
    German-speaking countries, where Project).2                                            operation in the definition and the
    apprenticeship is a highly favoured             Countries in transition offer a        setting up of training policies, the
    path for obtaining professional qualifi- radically different pattern, for it is not    public authorities must provide
    cations, the social partners have a so much a lack of involvement of social            adequate means for encouraging the
    structurally important role to play.1       partners which is deplored but their       various parties concerned. Redefining
    But in most other countries, getting non-existence.3 Thus, stakeholders                the legal framework is a necessary
    businesses to commit themselves to          must pass through a phase of social        condition for setting up partnerships
    training young people is hard to construction, during which the main                   and making them work. In many
    achieve. This difficulty is compounded protagonists coalesce, often as part of a       countries, the establishment of payroll
    in periods of crisis or economic            tripartite organization. These mecha-      tax to finance training has provided
    uncertainty. The problems that the nisms and structures for social                     the stimulus for shared management
    dual German system is encountering dialogue which are gradually put into               between the state and its social
    today, and the temptation to                                 place with the sup-       partners.4 However, far more effective
    introduce compulsory legis-          “Ironically, it is      port of the govern-       than forced participation is voluntary
    lation to obtain what was          precisely when an         ment, clearly illus-      adhesion, which best expresses the
    traditionally granted volun-                                 trate a transition from   spirit of partnership. In this respect,
                                      economic downturn
    tarily illustrates this pheno-                               administrated regula-     incentives such as tax rebates play an
    menon perfectly.                   forces business to        tion to a co-operative    important role in encouraging training
        Ironically, it is precisely    opt out of training       approach. Thus, in        investment. The contractual approach,
    when an economic downturn programmes that in                 Hungary, the creation     whereby public authorities and
    forces business to opt out of many countries the             in 1991 of a national     businesses commit themselves to a
    training programmes that in                                  training council laid     negotiated project for the development
                                        public authorities
    many countries the public                                    the basis for incor-      of training programmes, also expresses
    authorities want to saddle want to saddle them               porating training         the willingness to use partnership as a
    them with extended responsi-          with extended          within a wider social     form of public action. As for financing,
    bilities, especially for helping    responsibilities.”       dialogue.                 fiscal incentives and contracts do not
    young people to fit into the job                                 Despite its rapid     necessarily exclude legal obligations.
    market. In fact, they are often consi- progress, the theme of partnership              On the contrary, they allow scope for
    dered to be the best placed to provide seems, at first sight, to have limited          manoeuvre by creating zones for
    the right kind of training, and also to applicability to many countries,               initiative taking, and dialogue which
    teach the values and attitudes appli-       especially in Africa where the major       can lead to mixed forms of regulation.
    cable to working life. This wish            portion of the active population lives     Besides the financial aspects, partner-
    sometimes also coincides with a outside the formal sector. However,                    ship at the central level often involves
    political idea which assigns business a the experience of some countries               other key concerns like the drawing
    social role alongside their economic which are creating genuine co-                    up of curricula and pathways, and
    one. Such thinking also implicitly          operation between the state and            increasingly, certification procedures.5
    assumes that this social mission goes       representatives from the informal
    hand in hand with economic efficiency.      sector has shown that the concept of            Partnership at
    Here again, structural conditions play partnership can be applied beyond the                the local level
    a key role and countries which give limits of the modern economy. In Mali,
    high priority to social dialogue and        the dialogue launched between the          However, it is certainly at the local
    collective negotiations find it much National Federation of Malian                     level that partnership finds its clearest
    easier to mobilize employers concer- Craftsmen and the public authorities              expression through co-operation
    ning youth-employment schemes. This allowed apprenticeship to be organi-               between businesses and training
    is how business is induced to contri- zed, and gave micro entrepreneurs                institutions. These links are most often
    bute to active labour market pro-           access to training. This example shows     designed to allow for periodic training
    grammes for young people in several that under certain conditions partner-             periods, or industry-tailored courses.
    European countries. Similar youth ship can express a principle of economic             But they also frequently aim at
    employment schemes can be found in and social democracy which can apply                providing guidance for young people,
    other parts of the world as well, to all sectors, without neglecting the               retraining teachers, or even the setting
    especially in Latin America, where the      most disadvantaged members of              up of programmes to meet specific
    organization of the job market often        society.                                   needs of the local economy. The trend
    follows models derived from continen-                                                  towards decentralization moreover
    tal Europe. In Argentina and Chile,              Incentive mechanisms                  multiplies opportunities for co-
    businesses are closely involved in an                                                  operation at the local level. Neverthe-
    ambitious youth training programme, When the culture and the structural                less, transforming public institutions
    called Proyecto Joven (the Youth conditions do not naturally lead to co-               into stakeholders on the local scene

presupposes providing them with a               curricula reform within the dual               tionale for partnership as a way of co-
legal framework and decision-making             German system, clearly illustrate this         ordinating the provision of technical
powers. Such status must grant                  problem. Next, the review of national          and vocational education and training.
institutions a genuine autonomy in              experiences shows that partnership is
several areas: legal, financial, peda-          often conditioned by history. When                                   DAVID ATCHOARENA
gogical and management. Despite the             the apparatus for social dialogue, like
expected benefits, these trends give            collective agreements, find themselves           A deeper analysis of this topic can be
rise to some delicate questions on the          solidly rooted in national tradition, it             found in the following book:
financial and managerial capacity of            is easier to extend these practices to
local actors. The relevance of a local          technical and vocational training for
and concerted regulation of the                 young people. Without this historical
training ‘supply’ also presupposes an           background, the setting up of partner-
adhesion to a national framework, to            ships pre-supposes a favourable
avoid the risk of hampering the                 environment, and this means organi-
mobility of the workforce and ending            zing a legal framework and providing
up with a somewhat irrational use of            fiscal incentives and other forms of
public resources.                               encouragement.
    In a nutshell, partnership in                   Between the two extremes of
technical education and vocational              reliance on bureaucratic rules and on
training can be summed up in a few              market forces, partnership seems to                D. Atchoarena. Le partenariat dans
simple observations. First, dialogue            offer another alternative for regulating              l’enseignement technique et la
takes time; it slows down and compli-           training systems. Regardless of specific         formation professionnelle: le concept et
cates decision making and therefore             national conditions, economic and                    son application. New trends in
                                                                                                technical and vocational training. Paris:
involves a cost factor. The transition          institutional constraints, as well as
                                                                                                     IIEP, 1998. Price: FF15/US$3
process in South Africa, as well as             political changes, reinforce the ra-

 1. X. Greffe. 1997. La mise en place de        Cono Sur. Paris: UNESCO/International           4. D. Atchoarena. 1994. Financement et
formations initiales en alternance: enjeux,     Institute for Educational Planning,            régulation de la formation professionnelle :
problèmes et solutions. Paris: UNESCO/          forthcoming.                                   une analyse comparée. Paris: UNESCO/
International Institute for Educational                                                        International Institute for Educational
                                                 3. G. Prokhoroff ; D. Timmermann. 1997.
Planning, 1997.                                                                                Planning.
                                                Five years later. Reforming technical and
 2. C. Jacinto; M.A. Gallart. 1998. La          vocational education and training in Central   5. O. Bertrand. 1997. Evaluation et
evaluación de programas de capacitación         Asia and Mongolia. Paris: UNESCO/              certification des compétences et
dejóvenes desempleados : Una ilustración        International Institute for Educational        qualifications professionnelles. Paris:
de los enfoques evaluativos en los países del   Planning, 1997.                                UNESCO/International Institute for
                                                                                               Educational Planning.

 Seminars on Current Issues in Educational Planning

 THE following Seminars on Current              y 24 March 1998. How students                  Education, University of Waikato,
 Issues in Educational Planning                 finance themselves in France by                Hamilton, New Zealand.
 were organized at the IIEP in Paris            Jean-Claude Eicher, Emeritus
 for the 1998 Spring Term:                      Professor, University of Bourgogne,            Although the initiator and arduous
                                                France.                                        organizer of these seminars, Bikas C.
 y 27 February 1998. Adapting
                                                                                               Sanyal, is retiring end-May 1998,
 information systems to EFA
                                                y 13 May 1998. New borders for                 this series will be continue under
 objectives: The case of the French-
                                                education: Redefining the role and             the direction of Kenneth N. Ross as
 speaking African countries by
                                                sites of education in the future by            from October 1998. So don’t forget ...
 Michel Debeauvais, Emeritus
                                                Professor David Mitchell, Director of          should you be passing through Paris,
 Professor, University of Paris 8,
                                                International Programmes, School of            contact the IIEP to see whether a
                                                                                               seminar coincides with your visit.

                                                                                                IIEP NEWSLETTER / APRIL-JUNE 1998
                                                                                                                                     •        9
                   Designing development

                   projects in basic
 An intensive two-week training course on The design of
 development programmes/projects in basic education for
 selected countries of the English-speaking Caribbean was held in
 Castries, St. Lucia, from 9 to 21 February 1998. The course was
 organized by the IIEP in co-operation with the Ministry of
 Education, Human Resource Development, Youth and Sports,
 Saint Lucia.

 T    HE overall objective of the course
      was to introduce the participants
 to issues involved, and methods used,
                                                    theories and concepts, were illustrated
                                                    by examples drawn from international
                                                    and regional experiences. Practical
                                                                                              improve the quality of education.
                                                                                              There were interesting differences
                                                                                              between the projects and the strategies
 in the identification of educational               exercises in working groups were built    elaborated, testifying to the rich and
 projects, within a specific national               around the elaboration of project         varied professional experience and
 policy context and to provide them                 documents, based on the case study of     creativity of the participants. The
 with an opportunity for hands-on                   a fictitious Caribbean country,           discussion in working groups and the
 experience in project elaboration.                 Caribba.                                  project documents prepared by the
     Course participants came from                      The course benefited from the         participants illustrated that the main
 eight English-speaking countries in                experience gained in previous similar     points of the course had been well
 the Caribbean i.e. Barbados, Dominica,             courses held in other regions. How-       assimilated, namely to:
 Grenada, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis,             ever, this time, there was a complete     ® analyse and discuss as realistically
 Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and The                 integration in the practical exercises    as possible the educational situation
 Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.               of the ‘problem tree’ and ‘objective      and policy prior to defining a strategy
 They included experienced practi-                  tree’ analysis as well as the Logical     and subsequently elaborating a project;
 tioners, with a range of professional              Framework approach; furthermore,          ® anticipate likely implementation
 profiles, some of whom hold high- and              the use of special computer software      difficulties;
 middle-level management positions in               for preparing and revising the main       ® carefully examine the sustaina-
 ministries of education. Others came               tables of the project design i.e. work    bility of the project.
 from a ministry of finance and a tertiary          plan, staff recruitment and training,         The half-day presentation and
 level institution. Although several                yearly and total costs, additional        discussion devoted to negotiation of
 participants had prior practical                   anticipated recurrent costs after         education development projects, tur-
 experience in project design or                    project completion and the Logical        ned out to be both passionate and
 management, the majority had no                    Framework chart.                          instructive. The focus was less on
 previous formal training in the subject.               The dispersion of participants in     negotiations with donors than the
     The course had an applied, practical           the different working groups was done     process of preparing, negotiating and
 orientation. A first day was spent on              in such a way as to ensure an equitable   following-up projects between the
 the presentation and discussion of                 composition both in terms of natio-       Ministry of Education and the Ministry
 national experiences with education                nality and professional experience. The   of Finance on the one hand, and
 development projects, which are either             participants fully adhered to the         between various departments within
 completed or still under implemen-                 simulation activities of the practical    the Ministry of Education on the other.
 tation. The preparation of these                   exercise. The pragmatic work organi-      The last course session consisted in
 presentations by the different teams               zation adopted, allowed the groups to     the presentation of projects prepared
 had been part of the preparatory work,             progress very rapidly and the working     by the three working groups each of
 requested from participants who had                climate was very good.                    which had to advocate their proposal,
 been admitted to the course.                           The development projects iden-        applying a number of common criteria.
     During the remainder of the course,            tified and prepared by the three          This combination of approaches was
 lecture and discussion sessions                    working groups all focussed on the        highly appreciated by the participants.
 alternated with case-study exercises.              competency and motivation of the          Those who felt less confident with
 Lectures in plenary focusing on                    primary school teachers as a means to     assimilating the more theoretical parts

       •        IIEP NEWSLETTER / APRIL-JUNE 1998
of the course, presented during the         tions in Castries were excellent. The       ners and administrators of the sub-
lectures, felt that applying the concepts   only complaint made concerned the           region to enable them to exchange
during practical exercises helped them      lack of time given to discussion of all     experiences, through networking.
to master course contents well.             aspects of the practical exercise,          Some participants will immediately
    Informal feedback received during       equally in-depth during the working         apply what they have learned to their
the course and the final course             group sessions. Contacts made with          national contexts. For instance,
evaluation showed that the partici-         officials from other countries of the       Dominican participants are developing
pants perceived the course as very          region, during the two weeks of             an in-service teacher education project
important for their work, and that they     training, were seen as very beneficial.     to meet the needs of untrained
appreciated the combination of ap-              Several participants stressed the       teachers, trained teachers and school
proaches and applied orientation of         importance of maintaining links             principals.
the course.                                 between participants and, more                DOMINIQUE ALTNER, LARS O. MÄHLCK
    The pedagogical and social condi-       generally, between educational plan-                           AND PIERRE RUNNER


 Creating space for women

 H    ISTORICALLY, women played little
      role in the conceptualization
 and organization of the university.
                                            gender-related aspects of practices that
                                            could have an impact upon the career
                                            progress of staff.
                                                                                            According to the author, it is this
                                                                                        incompatibility which explains the
                                                                                        different impact that organizational
 The fact that increasing numbers of           The findings of the study point to       structure, culture, and management
 women are working in higher educa-         the fact that the internal structure of     practices have on men and women.
 tion institutions makes it essential       the university and day-to-day practices         Ms Smulder’s findings are impor-
 for managers to reflect on the impact      lead to differences in career patterns      tant to the objective of ensuring
 of the masculine bias which prevails       that are related to gender. They            optimal human resource manage-
 in some organizations, on both male        highlight that:                             ment. Over the years, attempts have
 and female staff, and its impact on        ® the problems faced by professional        been made in many settings to
 organizational efficiency. In the          women are structural in nature,             increase the number of female staff
 context of increasing and increasingly     ® female responsibilities and images        members . With a change in the staff
 varied demands on higher education         are incompatible with the existing          profile, it may be necessary to re-
 institutions under budget constraint,      (masculine) organization.                   evaluate, and possibly modify,
 the efficient and effective manage-                                                    existing institutional policies and
 ment of resources is essential if the                                                  procedures in order to ensure the
 university is to maintain its role in                                                  professional well-being of all staff.
 society and evolve to meet new needs.                                                      Intended to raise awareness with
     This booklet by Anna Smulders,                                                     regard to problems that are not often
 Educational Consultant, sets out to                                                    recognized, and therefore not addres-
 show why gender and gender-related                                                     sed, the booklet offers a number of
 management issues are an important                                                     possible areas for reflection that could
 aspect of efficient staff management.                                                  be useful to those in charge of higher
 The research behind it was                                                             education institutions.
 undertaken through a series of in-
 depth interviews with a number of                                                                            SUSAN D’ANTONI
 male and female academic staff and
 career administrators in an Indian
 university. The concept of gender,             Creating space for women : Gender-
 which relates to the socially                   linked factors in managing staff in
                                               higher education institutions, by Anna
 determined role and responsibilities
                                                 E.M. Smulders. IIEP research and
 of the individual, was the key tool of           studies programme series. Paris:
 analysis. The objective of the                      UNESCO/IIEP, 1998. 64p.
 interview process was to identify any                    Price US$3/FF15

                                                                                         IIEP NEWSLETTER / APRIL-JUNE 1998
                                                                                                                             •     11
                   ‘Beeb’ – an intellectual
                   architect of modern
 Dr. Clarence Beeby, one of the world’s leading exponents of
 20th century educational principles, died in New Zealand
 on 10 March 1998, aged 95.

 ‘Beeb’, as he was affectionately                   Thailand, 5-9 March 1990. The
 known, was New Zealand’s Assistant                 conference’s World Decla-
 Director of Education in 1939 when                 ration, signed by representa-
 he added a few sentences to the draft              tives of 155 governments,
 of the Annual Report of the Ministry               echoed closely the sentiments
 of Education. What Beeb wrote,                     earlier expressed by Beeb.
 expressing his own deep-rooted beliefs,               Beeb was New Zealand’s
 had a profound effect on the develop-              Director-General of Education from           quality of education in developing
 ment of education, not only in his own             1940 to 1960, with a leave of absence        countries, and every man had to find a
 country but worldwide.                             in 1948-49 when he was appointed             starting-place for himself.”
     He wrote: “The Government’s                    Director of UNESCO’s Department of               He concluded his report on the
 objective, broadly expressed, is that              Education. He was leader of the New          seminar in a typical down-to-earth
 every person, whatever his level of                Zealand delegation to all UNESCO             manner: “Quality in education is not
 academic ability, whether he be rich               General Conferences from the foun-           an absolute. It can only be evaluated in
 or poor, whether he live in town or                ding of the Organization in 1947 until       terms of arbitrarily determined
 country, has a right, as a citizen, to a           1960, becoming New Zealand’s                 standards, and these in turn depend
 free education of the kind for which he            Permanent Delegate to UNESCO from            partly on subjectively formulated aims
 is best fitted and to the fullest extent           1960 to 1963 (coinciding with his            and partly on objective statistical
 of his powers.”                                    appointment as New Zealand’s                 procedures. From any scientific point
     “Formal education beyond pri-                  Ambassador to France). Beeb was to           of view, to argue otherwise is to vanish
 mary level is no longer to be a special            acknowledge (in his biography publi-         into a cloud-cuckoo-land.”
 privilege ... but a right to be claimed by         shed in 1992) that “UNESCO played a              As it turned out, the report on the
 all who want it to the fullest extent              vital part in the development of my          seminar was one of the most influential
 that the State can provide”.                       understanding of education in develo-        (and most widely quoted) publications
     “It is not enough to provide more              ping countries”.                             ever issued by the Institute.
 places in schools of the older academic               In the early years of the                     Afterwards, during the period
 type that were devised originally for              International Institute for Educational      1972-88, he gave invaluable advice on
 the education of the gifted few. Schools           Planning, Beeb played a key role. He         the Institute’s future directions as a
 that are to cater for the whole                    was appointed General Editor of the          member of the IIEP Council of
 population must offer courses that are             ‘Fundamentals of Educational Plan-           Consultant Fellows.
 as rich and varied as are the needs and            ning’ series and was responsible for             In a tribute to Beeb, the present
 abilities of the children who enter                the early booklets in the series which       Education Secretary of New Zealand,
 them.”                                             continues until this day. He also            Howard Fancy said: “For seven
     Here was a blueprint for a modern              co-organized and chaired an inter-           decades, he was a teacher, researcher,
 education system and with the publi-               national symposium for IIEP on the           writer and educational administrator.
 cation of the report and acceptance by             ‘The qualitative aspects of educational      He was the intellectual architect and
 parliament, New Zealand became                     planning with particular reference to        inspiration of the foundations of our
 perhaps the first country to implement             developing countries’. Afterwards, he        education system as we know it today.
 the ideals of equality and education               admitted: “In helping to prepare for         Both at home and overseas, he initiated
 for all. Fifty years on, the World                 this symposium I took comfort from           policies that sought to achieve equality
 Conference on Education for All,                   the fact that most of the writers of the     of educational opportunity. His
 convened jointly by the executive heads            working papers professed to find the         probing intelligence was combined
 of UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and                       topic as elusive as I did. Very little had   with the practical ability to devise
 the World Bank, was held at Jomtien,               previously been written on theories of       policies that gave expression to abstract

       •        IIEP NEWSLETTER / APRIL-JUNE 1998
                                                    Visits were organized to primary         IIEP will be organizing a new
                                                 and secondary schools, to the               distance education activity on the
                                                 University College of Education and         topic of strategic financial manage-
                                                 the University of Akureyri, Iceland’s       ment for around 70 participants
                                                 second most important town. All             from 15 higher education institu-
                            “An institution in   these institutions provided trainees        tions in English-speaking Southern
                               touch with its
                                                 with an opportunity to meet and             Africa – the target group being
                                                 discuss informally with both                senior- and middle-level financial
                                                 teachers and students to gain a             managers of higher education
u      Study visit of IIEP Trainees to           deeper insight into Icelandic               institutions. The course will cover
       Iceland                                   education policies.                         trends and international experiences
       (15-23 April 1998)
                                                    The visit also helped trainees to        in higher education institutions,
                                                 understand the Icelandic people, to         issues and approaches to financial
At the invitation of the Icelandic
                                                 appreciate their history and culture        management, as well as a scenario-
government, the group of 38 trainees
                                                 as well as the country’s unique             building exercise to explore alter-
participating in IIEP’s 1997/1998
                                                 natural beauty. A cultural evening          native strategies. The training
Annual Training Programme
                                                 took place at the National Gallery of       materials and exercises will be
undertook an eight-day visit to
                                                 Iceland and another evening was set         delivered by e-mail to clusters of
Iceland to study the country’s
                                                 aside during which all members of           participants located in the selected
education system. The visit was both
                                                 the study tour were invited to dine         universities. These clusters will
interesting and beneficial, as well as
                                                 with families in their homes.               discuss issues, techniques, exercises
enjoyable. Iceland is in many respects
                                                    Among the aspects of Icelandic           and strategies for improvement
a unique country, characterized by a
                                                 education which particularly                before interacting, through elec-
hostile natural environment, a
                                                 impressed the group were: the child-        tronic mail, with other participants
cultural and ethnical homogeneity, a
                                                 participatory pedagogy and the              and the tutors in Paris.
well developed economy with a
                                                 creative school architecture, the
sparse population and a people proud
                                                 accent on negotiation rather than           u   Sub-regional intensive course on
of its culture. However, the country                                                             ‘Using indicators in planning
                                                 confrontation in educational
is very much part of the globalization                                                           basic education: methodological
                                                 decision making and the success of
process, and several of its education                                                            aspects and technical tools’
                                                 the decentralization policy, which              (Maputo, Mozambique
policies are influenced by changes
                                                 has given financial power to those              6-17 July1998)
taking place in other countries.
                                                 taking the pedagogical decisions.
    Undoubtedly the most important                                                           Organized by the IIEP in co-
                                                    Iceland will undoubtedly bring
recent reform in education concerns                                                          operation with the Ministry of
                                                 back fond memories to this year’s
the decentralization of responsi-                                                            Education in Mozambique, this
bilities for compulsory schools, from                                                        course will target around 20 partici-
the Ministry of Education to local                                                           pants from ministries of education in
authorities, closer to the schools and           u   Distance Education Course on
                                                                                             Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau,
                                                     ‘Strategic financial manage-
the parents. The strategies used, the                ment in institutions of                 Mozambique and São Tome and
problems encountered and results                     higher education’                       Principe. Fourth in this series of
achieved constituted one of the three                (Southern African Countries             courses, and second of its kind in
topics reviewed by the IIEP trainees                 4 May to 31 July1998)                   Africa, the purpose of this training is
during the study visit. The other two                                                        to strengthen participants’
topics concerned, respectively,                  Building on the experience gained in        knowledge of the concepts, methods
Teacher support, management and                  a similar distance education course         and techniques required to produce
evaluation and Diversifying secon-               organized for universities in the           an annual report of key indicators on
dary education and expanding                     Russian Federation, over a period of        the functioning of their country’s
access to higher education.                      ten weeks from May to July, the             education system.

ideas and convictions. And he had the            into policies and never hesitated to        Director-General of Education and
gift of communicating his vision to              practice what he preached. Even today,      head off to woodwork classes!
others.”                                         it is still recalled in New Zealand that,      IIEP, UNESCO and the world of
    In all of this story of professional         for example, he was one of the longest      education as a whole will, for many a
success, Beeb was also a wonderful               serving students at his local poly-         long year, stand indebted to this
human being who never lost touch                 technic in night-class woodwork – he        intellectual architect of modern
with his roots. He translated his ideas          would pack up after a day as the            education.

                                                                                              IIEP NEWSLETTER / APRIL-JUNE 1998
                                                                                                                                  •   13

     Reducing repetition: issues
     and strategies
     Repetition rates are a powerful measure of educational efficiency.
     In this new booklet in the IIEP Fundamentals Series, the author,
     Thomas O. Eisemon of the World Bank, reviews the causes and
     consequences of high repetition, highlights how global trends
     often conceal regional and even sub-regional ‘cultures’ of
     repetition, and illustrates how difficult it is, despite a panacea of
     policy prescriptions, to target effective intervention ...

     R     EPETITION rates can reach very
           high levels in some countries.
     According to the 1995 UNESCO
                                                repetition. Psychologically, repetition       of cultural minorities and all those
                                                puts the responsibility of failure onto who have to work and contribute to
                                                the pupil rather than onto the teacher,       family incomes, repeat more than
     World Education Report, the propor-        the school or the system. In certain others. The author underlines how
     tion of repeaters in primary educa-        countries, but not all, there is a high repetition is ‘cultivated’ in some
     tion was higher than 20 per cent in        correlation between repetition and            countries and advocates systemic
     some 22 countries, and in six              drop-out. Politically, in countries measures to reduce the phenomenon.
     countries more than one pupil out of       which cannot afford to provide open               In the last chapter, the focus is on
     three was actually repeating. If one       access to secondary or higher edu- policy options and country experience.
     considers that many of those repea-        cation, repetition is used to regulate Different countries have different
     ting finally drop out, one can             student flows: those who fail the             characteristics and causes of high
     understand the extent of the prob-         extrance exam are given a second repetition which need different
     lem. Considerable amounts of money         chance and restricting this possibility remedies to be identified and im-
     are spent in different countries,          would be badly received by both parents plemented.
     forcing pupils to repeat their grades,     and students.                                     The strengths of Mr Eisemon’s
     and both planners and policy-makers            Repetition rates are                                       booklet lie in the very
     need to find ways of reducing this         much higher in some coun-                                      clear and straight-
     phenomenon. However, the issue is          tries than others. For instan-                                 forward manner in
     not as simple as it looks: policy          ce, in Southern Europe and                                     which the arguments
     measures to reduce or eliminate            developing countries with                                      are presented. He uses
     repetition cannot be successfully          Franco-, Hispano- and Luso-                                    examples from a
     designed unless the causes for high        phone traditions, repetition                                   variety of developing
     repetition are clear.                      is common, whereas in                                          countries, each with a
         Repeating is a multi-dimensional       Northern European coun-                                        different history, and
     issue and keen subject of debate           tries, and developing coun-                                    this allows him to have
     among educationalists. Econo-              tries influenced by their                                      a very balanced view.
     mically, asking 20 to 40 per cent of       tradition, the tendency is to                                  He demonstrates how
     pupils to repeat a year is very            opt for automatic promotion. Reducing repetition: issues high repetition rates
                                                                                      and stragegies
     expensive – how many more pupils           Once again, there is no           by T.O. Eisemon. IIEP        often reflect poor lear-
     could be enrolled within the same          evidence that pupils in the        Fundamentals No. 55.        ning environments
     budget framework if repetition were        first group of countries have      Paris: UNESCO/IIEP,         and structural weak-
                                                                                 1997. Price: FF50/US$10.
     abolished? Pedagogically, pupils           a higher achievement level                                     nesses which cannot
     repeat because they have been              than those in the second group.               easily be changed through stan-
     absent too often for different reasons         Thomas Eisemon’s monograph dardized policy remedies or through
     and/or are not considered as having        reviews the magnitude of repetition in        automatic promotion.
     reached the required level to move         different countries. The causes are                               FRANÇOISE CAILLODS
     up to a higher grade, but a number         analyzed – some linked to the child
     of studies prove that repeating is not     and family characteristics, others to           We wish to inform our readers that,
     the answer to low educational              the teaching/learning conditions in the         at the time of printing this issue, we
     achievement. However, teachers             school and teaching practices, and              learned the sad news of Mr Eisemon’s
     unable to handle heterogeneous             others to the system itself and to              sudden death, late April 1998.
     classes are reluctant to reduce            policies implemented. Girls, children

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