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					                                                                                                                                                                 Survey of
                                                                                                                                                                 Earned
                               SED
This fact sheet presents results for four specific types of
                                                                                                                                                                 Doctorates
doctoral degree recipients: non-US citizens with temporary
visas, and three underrepresented minority groups among
U.S. citizens: African, Asian, and Hispanic Americans. The
data presented are from the Survey of Earned Doctorates,
an annual census of U.S. research doctorate recipients
                                                                                                                                                                 Fact Sheet                           Sponsored by
sponsored by the National Science Foundation and five
other federal agencies. The 2007 survey round includes                                                                                                                 NSF
data on U.S. doctorate recipients who graduated between
July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007.


I. A Profile of Non-U.S. Citizen Doctorate Recipients with Temporary Resident Visas
   While the number of doctorate recipients who are U.S. citizens has remained relatively steady over the past twenty years, the number
   of doctorates awarded to non-U.S. citizens who are temporary visa holders has steadily increased. This section compares the trends
   in counts and percentages of research doctorate degrees awarded to temporary visa holders and to their U.S. citizen peers.
   • In 2007, students on temporary visas received 15,115 research doctorates. This represented 34 percent of the 44,515 research doctorates
     recipients with known citizenship awarded by U.S. institutions last year. The percentage of new doctorates awarded to individuals on temporary
     visas has increased in the last 30 years, from 11 percent of all doctorate recipients who reported citizenship in 1977 to 34 percent in 2007.
     (See Figure 1.1)

                40                                                                                                                                                                             Doctorates Awarded
                                                                                                                                                                                         34%
                35                                                                                                                                                                 33%            Temporary U.S. Residents
                                                                                                                                                                             30%

                30                                                                                                                                                     27%
                                                                                                       26%                                                       26%
                                                                                                 25%         25%
                                                                                                                                                       24% 24%
                25                                                                                                 23%                       23% 23%
                                                                                           22%                                 22% 22% 22%
                                                                                                                         21%
                                                                                 19% 19%
      Percent




                20                                                 17% 17% 17%
                                                             16%
                                                       15%
                                                 14%
                15                         13%
                               12%
                     11% 11%         11%

                10


                 5


                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                               Figure 1.1
                     1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007                                                                                           Percentage of doctorates awarded to temporary
                                                           Year
                                                                                                                                                                                               U.S. residents, 1977-2007

   • The growing numbers of doctorates awarded to foreign students on temporary visas has accounted for virtually all of the overall growth in the
     number of doctorate recipients since 1977.
   • Compared to U.S. citizen doctorate recipients, fewer temporary resident doctorate recipients are female. In 2007, more than half (52 percent)
     of all U.S. citizens who were awarded research doctorates were female compared to about a third of temporary residents (34 percent).
   • Non-U.S. citizens on temporary visas are most highly represented in the science and engineering fields. The vast majority of them (84 percent)
     received research doctorates in an S&E field (30 percent in engineering, 24 percent in the physical sciences, 20 percent in the life sciences, and
     10 percent in the social sciences). Temporary visa holders were therefore much less likely to receive doctorates in any of the non-science and
     engineering fields with 5 percent in the humanities, 4 percent in education, and 7 percent in other fields. In contrast, U.S. citizens were more
     than twice as likely as non-U.S. citizens on temporary visas to receive a doctorate in a non-science and engineering field (38 percent). Life
     sciences was the field in which U.S. citizens earned the most doctorates (24 percent) followed by education (19 percent), social sciences (18
     percent), humanities (13 percent), physical sciences (13 percent), engineering (8 percent), and other fields (6 percent). (See Figure 1.2)
               35                                                                                                                 Field of Study
                                                                            30.3%
               30                                                                                                                    U.S Citizen
                                                                                                                                     Temporary Resident
               25
                                            24.2%
                    23.6%
               20
     Percent



                            20%
                                                                                    18.8%
                                                    17.7%
               15

                                                                                                    13.4%
                                    12.6%
               10
                                                            9.7%
                                                                     8.1%
                5                                                                                                          6.6%
                                                                                                            5.3%    5.7%

                0
                                                                                             4%
                                                                                                                                  Figure 1.2
                      Life          Physical         Social                                                          Other        Field distribution of doctorates awarded to U.S.
                    Sciences        Sciences        Sciences        Engineering     Education       Humanities       Fields
                                                                                                                                  citizens and temporary U.S. residents, 2007

   • Non-U.S. citizens with temporary visas were less likely than U.S. citizens to report having a definite commitment for employment or post-
     doctoral study or research after graduation (66 percent vs. 71 percent). Among those with definite commitments, non-U.S. citizens with temporary
     visas were more likely than U.S. citizens to pursue postdoctoral studies (43 percent versus 33 percent).
   • Non-U.S. citizens on temporary visas with definite commitments to remain in the U.S. after graduation were less likely than U.S. citizens to
     have work commitments in academe (44 percent versus 67 percent). Reflecting their concentration in the broad fields of physical sciences and engineering,
     temporary visa holders were much more likely than U.S. citizens to have plans for employment in industry or self-employment (45 versus 17 percent).

II. A Profile of Black/African American Doctorate Recipients
   This section compares trends among U.S. citizen doctorate recipients of black/African American origin with their non-Hispanic white
   counterparts. The figures reported here are based on the 2007 SED universe of 27,155 U.S. citizens who indicated their race/ethnicity.
   • African Americans earned a total of 1,821 doctorates from U.S. institutions in the period of July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007. This represented
     7 percent of all research doctoral degrees awarded to U.S. citizens in that year. Non-Hispanic whites earned 79 percent of those doctorates, while
     Asians earned 6 percent, and Hispanics earned 5 percent.
   • Over the past ten years, there has been a modest increase in the proportion of U.S. citizen doctorate recipients who were African American
     (from 5 percent in 1997 to 7 percent in 2007). At the same time, there has been a decrease in the proportion of whites (from 86 percent in 1997
     to 79 percent in 2007). Over the same period, the proportion of research doctorates awarded to other non-white U.S. citizens (Asians and
     Hispanics) has increased.
   • The proportion of African American doctorate recipients who are female slightly increased over the last 10 years, from 60 percent in 1997 to 66 percent
     in 2007. The proportion of female doctorates among whites has also increased in the same period, from 46 percent in 1997 to 50 percent in 2007.
   • In 2007, 38 percent of African American doctorate recipients received their degrees in education, 17 percent in the social sciences,
     4 percent in engineering, and 6 percent in the physical sciences. In comparison, 18 percent of white doctorates received a doctorate in education,
     18 percent in the social sciences, 13 percent in physical sciences, and 8 percent in engineering. (See Figure 2.1)

               45                                                                                                                 Field of Study
               40                                                                                                                    Black/African American
               35
                                                                                    38.4%                                            Non-Hispanic White

               30

               25
     Percent




                            23.9%
               20

               15                                           17.5%                           17.9%
                    16.3%                           16.8%
                                            13.2%                                                           13.9%
               10

                5
                                    6.4%
                                                                            7.8%
                                                                                                    9.5%
                                                                                                                    8.3%
                                                                                                                           5.7%
                                                                                                                                  Figure 2.1
                0
                                                                     4.3%
                                                                                                                                  Field distribution of doctorates awarded to
                      Life          Physical         Social                                                          Other        black/African American and non-Hispanic
                    Sciences        Sciences        Sciences        Engineering     Education       Humanities       Fields
                                                                                                                                  white U.S. citizens, 2007

   • Over the past two decades, the percentage of African Americans whose doctoral degree was in education has declined from 50 percent in
     1978 to 38 percent in 2007. This decline accompanied an increase in doctoral degrees in the life sciences. In 1987, 10 percent of African Americans
     earned their doctoral degree in the life sciences, compared to 16 percent in 2007.
   • African American doctorate recipients in 2007 were less likely than their white counterparts to have definite postgraduation plans.
     Sixty-four percent of African American doctorate recipients indicated they had commitments for postgraduation study, employment, or another
     full-time degree program, compared to 72 percent of whites. Of African Americans with definite plans, the vast majority (76 percent) had plans
     for employment, while 22 percent had plans for postgraduate study. The remaining 2 percent planned to enter another full-time degree program
     after graduation. Among white doctorate recipients with definite plans, 66 percent had plans for employment, 32 percent had plans for
     postgraduate study, and 2 percent planned another full-time degree program. (See Figure 2.2)
               80                                                                                                                        Postgraduation Plan
                                                                  75.7%
               70                                                                                                                           Black/African American
                                                                                         66.2%                                              Non-Hispanic White
               60


               50
     Percent




               40


               30
                                              31.7%

               20           22.4%

               10                                                                                                                        Figure 2.2
                0
                                                                                                            1.9%            2%
                                                                                                                                         Postgraduation plans of black/African American
                                                                                                                                         and non-Hispanic white U.S. citizens, distributed
                                    Study                             Employment                             Degree Program
                                                                                                                                         by plan category, 2007

III. A Profile of Asian Doctorate Recipients
   This section compares trends among U.S. citizen doctorate recipients of Asian origin with their non-Hispanic white counterparts.
   The figures reported here are primarily based on the 2007 SED universe of 27,155 U.S. citizens who indicated their race/ethnicity.
   • Asians earned 1,561 research doctorates in 2007, or 6 percent of the total number of U.S. citizen doctorate recipients. The percentage of Asians
     among U.S. citizen doctorate recipients doubled in the past 20 years. Non-Hispanic whites earned 79 percent of those doctorates, while African
     Americans earned 7 percent, and Hispanics earned 5 percent.
   • In 2007, 32 percent of Asians received their doctorates in the broad field of life sciences, more than any other field. The next most popular fields
     were engineering and social sciences (both 16 percent), followed by the physical sciences (15 percent). Similarly, the life sciences also ranked as the
     most popular broad field among white doctorate recipients in 2007 (24 percent). (See Figure 3.1)

               35                                                                                                                        Field of Study
               30
                    32.4%                                                                                                                   Asian
                                                                                                                                            Non-Hispanic White
               25

                            23.9%
               20
     Percent




                                                              17.5%                                 17.9%
               15
                                                      15.6%               15.7%
                                      14.7%
                                              13.2%                                                                13.9%
               10

                                                                                             9.0%           8.9%
                5
                                                                                  7.8%
                                                                                                                                  5.7%   Figure 3.1
                0
                                                                                                                           3.8%
                                                                                                                                         Field distribution of doctorates awarded to
                      Life            Physical         Social                                                               Other        Asian and non-Hispanic white U.S.
                    Sciences          Sciences        Sciences        Engineering            Education      Humanities      Fields
                                                                                                                                         citizens, 2007

   • Over the past two decades, both Asians and whites have shown increasing parity in the number of males and females comprising their
     respective groups, reaching roughly a 1:1 ratio of males to females in 2007. In contrast, in 1987 women comprised 32 percent of Asian doctorate
     recipients and 41 percent of the white doctorate recipients.
   • Asian doctorate recipients in 2007 were less likely than their white counterparts to have secured definite postgraduation plans. Sixty-six percent
     of Asians indicated they had commitments for postgraduation study, employment, or another full-time degree program, compared to 72 percent of
     whites. Of Asians with definite plans, just over half (54 percent) had plans for employment, 44 percent had plans for postgraduate study, and just
     about 2 percent planned to enter another full-time degree program. Among white doctorate recipients with definite plans, 32 percent had plans for
     study, and 2 percent planned another full-time degree program. (See Figure 3.2)

               70                                                                                                                        Postgraduation Plan
                                                                                         66.2%
               60                                                                                                                           Asian
                                                                                                                                            Non-Hispanic White
               50                                                 53.8%


               40           43.8%
     Percent




               30
                                              31.7%


               20


               10

                                                                                                            2.3%
                                                                                                                                         Figure 3.2
                                                                                                                            2%
                0
                                                                                                                                         Postgraduation plans of Asian and
                                                                                                                                         non-Hispanic white U.S. citizens, distributed
                                    Study                             Employment                             Degree Program
                                                                                                                                         by plan category, 2007
IV. A Profile of Hispanic Doctorate Recipients
   This fact sheet compares trends among U.S. citizen doctorate recipients of Hispanic origin with their non-Hispanic white counterparts.
   The figures reported here are primarily based on the 2007 SED universe of 27,155 U.S. citizens who indicated their race/ethnicity.
   • U.S. citizens of Hispanic origin earned a total of 1,489 research doctorates from U.S. institutions in the period of July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007.
     This represented 5 percent of all doctorates awarded to U.S. citizens in that year. Non-Hispanic whites earned 79 percent of those doctorates,
     while African Americans earned 7 percent and Asians earned 6 percent.
   • In 2007, nearly two-thirds of doctorate degrees earned by Hispanics were awarded in three broad fields – life sciences (21 percent), social sciences
     (22 percent), and education (22 percent). The next most popular field was humanities (14 percent). (See Figure 4.1)

               30                                                                                                                        Field of Study
                                                                                                                                            Hispanic
               25
                                                                                                                                            Non-Hispanic White
                            23.9%

               20   21.2%                            21.5%                                   21.7%


                                                             17.5%                                   17.9%
     Percent




               15
                                                                                                             14.3% 13.9%
                                             13.2%
                                                                           7.4%   7.8%
               10

                                      8.9%

                5
                                                                                                                           4.8%
                                                                                                                                  5.7%   Figure 4.1
                0
                                                                                                                                         Field distribution of doctorates awarded to
                      Life            Physical        Social                                                                Other        Hispanic and non-Hispanic white U.S.
                    Sciences          Sciences       Sciences          Engineering           Education       Humanities     Fields
                                                                                                                                         citizens, 2007

   • The number of Hispanics receiving doctoral degrees has increased by 140 percent in the last twenty years from 617 in 1987 to 1,489 in 2007.
     While the proportion of Hispanics among U.S. citizen doctorates has increased over the past two decades (from 3 percent in 1987 to 5 percent
     in 2007), the proportion of white doctorate recipients has declined over the same time period (from 92 percent in 1987 to 79 percent in 2007).
     The proportion of other non-white U.S. citizens (Asians, and black/African Americans) receiving research doctorates has also increased during
     this period.
   • The proportion of females among Hispanics receiving doctoral degrees has increased in the last 10 years, from 49 percent in 1997 to 56 percent
     in 2007. Hispanic females have received more doctoral degrees than Hispanic males each year since 1999. The proportion of female doctorates
     among whites has also risen, from 46 percent in 1997 to 50 percent in 2007.
   • Hispanic doctorate recipients in 2007 were slightly less likely than their white counterparts to have secured definite postgraduation plans. Sixty-
     nine percent of Hispanic doctorate recipients indicated they had commitments for postgraduation study, employment, or another full-time
     degree program, compared to 72 percent of whites. Of Hispanics with definite plans, 64 percent had plans for definite employment, while 34
     percent had definite plans for postgraduate study. The remaining 2 percent planned to enter another full-time degree program after graduation.
     Among white doctorate recipients with definite plans, 66 percent had plans for employment, 32 percent had plans for postgraduate study, and
     2 percent planned another full-time degree program. (See Figure 4.2)

               70                                                                                                                        Postgraduation Plan
                                                                                         66.2%
               60                                                    64%                                                                    Hispanic
                                                                                                                                            Non-Hispanic White
               50


               40
     Percent




               30           33.9%
                                             31.7%


               20


               10
                                                                                                                                         Figure 4.2
                                                                                                              2%            2%
                0
                                                                                                                                         Postgraduation plans of Hispanic and
                                                                                                                                         non-Hispanic white U.S. citizens, distributed
                                    Study                              Employment                             Degree Program
                                                                                                                                         by plan category, 2007


               For additional information and results from the Survey of Earned Doctorates, please go to:
                    http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/doctorates or http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/sed
                                     You may also contact the SED by e-mail at:
                                            4800-sed@norc.uchicago.edu
                                                   Or by phone at:
                                                   1-800-248-8649

				
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