Minnesota Immigration Statistics

					                                                                                                                      June 2004 OSD-04-112

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                                                                                                         S TAT E A N D C O M M U N I T Y S E R V I C E S
STATE DEMOGRAPHIC CENTER                                                                                     Department of Administration

                                        Estimates of Selected Immigrant Populations
                                        in Minnesota: 2004
         P O P U L AT I O N N O T E S

                                        Barbara J. Ronningen

                                        In the late 1970s,             In the 1990s, Minnesota        Minneapolis’ Lake Street
                                        Minnesota began to see a       created jobs at a rate         to ethnic markets in many
                                        new wave of international      twice that of its population   small cities in greater
                                        immigration. Following         growth, and workers were       Minnesota to a Buddhist
                                        the end of the war in          especially scarce in areas     temple in a farm house
                                        Vietnam, large numbers of      of the state with aging        outside Worthington,
                                        refugees from Southeast        and declining populations,     immigrants have become
                                        Asia began to arrive in        especially southwestern        a very visible presence in
                                        Minnesota. After the fall of   and western counties. Many     many parts of the state.
                                        the Soviet Union in 1991,      workers came looking for       Schools were asked to
                                        an increased number of         jobs in the meat, poultry      provide English language
                                        refugees came from Eastern     and food processing            training to children and
                                        Europe. The hostilities        industries in Greater          their parents, health
                                        in Bosnia-Herzegovina          Minnesota. Most of these       care providers needed to
                                        brought more refugees          workers were Latinos; some     establish protocols for
                                        from what was Yugoslavia.      from other states and some     patients who do not speak
                                        Famine and civil war bring     from Mexico and other          English and police and
                                        large numbers of refugees      Latin American countries.      courts had to find ways
                                        from Africa. Minnesota’s       However, immigrants from       to deal fairly with new
                                        non-profit organizations       other parts of the world       residents unaccustomed to
                                        are welcoming and              also sought employment         American judicial structures.
                                        provide needed services        in these industries.           Employers had new rules
                                        and support to these           Newcomers were welcomed        to follow especially when
                                        newcomers, and Minnesota       by employers who needed        a potential employee was
                                        has become a prime             to fill positions in their     an immigrant. Hiring an
                                        destination for refugees.      processing plants, and often   undocumented worker is
                                                                       these jobs did not require     illegal, and Minnesota’s
                                        During this same period        fluency in English or high     companies suddenly had
                                        of time, immigrants came       skill levels. Latino workers   to negotiate the rules
                                        to Minnesota to work           also found employment in       and regulations from
                                        in high tech industries.       landscaping, roofing and in    the Immigration and
                                        Large numbers of people        dairy.                         Naturalization Service (now
                                        came from India, China,                                       part of the Department of
                                        and Pakistan. These well-      The effects on Minnesota       Homeland Security (DHS)
                                        educated and well-trained      have been far reaching         and known as the U.S.
                                        immigrants were hired by       with visible changes in        Citizenship and Immigration
                                        the booming technological      Minnesota’s small towns        Services - USCIS).
                                        companies throughout the       and cities, schools and
                                        state.                         businesses. From the
                                                                       revitalization of St. Paul’s
                                                                       University Avenue and
Immigrant Populations                    but in the mid-1990s, the             Most immigrant groups in             estimate focuses on recent
                                         numbers began to increase             Minnesota are comprised              immigrants (arriving in the
In the most recent data
                                         dramatically. Immigrants              of both foreign-born and             last fifteen years) and their
(federal fiscal year
                                         from the four Southeast               native-born persons. For             U.S.-born children. Because
2002) from the Office of
                                         Asian countries made up               populations such as the              Russian is an ancestry in
Immigration Statistics,
                                         two-thirds of all immigrants          Latinos who have been in             the Census, many of those
13,522 immigrants came
                                         in 1982. And while the                Minnesota for long periods           answering with Russian
to Minnesota from 160
                                         number of people coming               of time, the population              ancestry have been in
different countries and
                                         from that part of the world           is a mix of native-born              the U.S. for decades. The
every continent except
                                         has remained significant,             Minnesotans — many third             primary focus in estimating
Antarctica. For most of
                                         in 2002, they made up less            or even fourth generation            the Russian population is
those countries the number
                                         than 8 percent of all legal           Americans — recent                   those people who arrived
of immigrants was less than
                                         immigrants (1,042).                   arrivals and people who              in the last twenty years and
50, and for 60 of them the
                                                                               have moved here from                 their children.
number of immigrants was                 In addition to the                    another state. The Hmong
ten or fewer.                            immigrants who come                                                        Estimates
                                                                               began coming to Minnesota
                                         directly from their home              in the late 1970s. Now the
Data from Immigration                                                                                               Estimates of major
                                         country to Minnesota,                 population includes second
Statistics give an indication                                                                                       immigrant populations
                                         many immigrants come                  and third generation
of how the distribution of                                                                                          in Minnesota were made
                                         here from other states                members born in the U.S.
legal immigrants by country                                                                                         in 1999 using age-based
                                         – secondary migration.                as well as Hmong who
of birth changes over                                                                                               multipliers and enrollment
                                         Also, many immigrants                 moved to Minnesota from
time. In 2002, the highest                                                                                          data for language spoken
                                         (non-refugees) return to              other states, especially
number of immigrants                                                                                                at home. With relatively
                                         their home countries. The             California. However, in
came from Somalia, but                                                                                              recent Census data, the
                                         Census Bureau estimates               this report estimates of
just ten years earlier                                                                                              hope was that better age-
                                         that about 30 percent of all          immigrant populations
(1992), only six Somalis                                                                                            based multipliers could be
                                         legal immigrants decide to            include all members of each
immigrated to Minnesota.                                                                                            calculated and estimating
                                         leave the U.S. Movement               group whether native- or
The number of immigrants                                                                                            these populations would be
                                         of immigrants makes                   foreign-born, except for
from Mexico was less than                                                                                           less problematic. However,
                                         estimating their numbers              Russians. The Russian
200 per year prior to 1990,
                                         more difficult.

    Immigrant Numbers from Published Data
                                      1990 Census                2000 Census                  2000 Census                       2003-2004
                                       Population                 Population            Foreign-Born Population             School Enrollment
                                                                                                                             (language data)
    Latinos                                53,884                   143,382                        57,573                           26,035
    Hmong                                  16,833                    45,443                        26,234                           21,613
    Somalis                             Not available1               11,164                         9,338                            5,734
    Vietnamese                                 9,387                 20,570                        15,193                            2,910
    Russians                               31,900                    35,513                         6,061                            2,346
    Laotians                                   6,381                 11,516                         6,751                            2,258
    Cambodians                                 3,858                   6,533                        4,100                            1,718
    Ethiopians     2               Not available   1                   5,413                        4,487                            1,329
    1The1990 Census reported only Sub-Saharan African ancestry with a total of 5,415 reporting. No information is available for specific African
    ancestries. Immigration Statistics data show no Somalis prior to 1990; in 1990 there were 126 Ethiopian immigrants compared with 3 Somalis.
    2In the Department of Education Language file, there are three separate languages spoken in Ethiopia: Amharic (520 speakers), Oromo (612) and
    Tigrinya (197). There are many more languages spoken in Ethiopia, and some speakers of those languages may be counted in the unspecified
    "African" language.
    Source: US Census, Minnesota Department of Education

2         Minnesota State Demographic Center     June 2004
these populations are          Children who speak              age range. Age-based              illegal immigrants becomes
becoming more diverse          Chinese, Asian Indian           multipliers give estimates        more difficult. Latinos in
with many more U.S.-born       languages and Arabic            that are much lower than          Minnesota include natives,
and native English speakers.   also number over 1,000.         the 2000 Census counts.           legal immigrants and illegal
                               For a number of reasons,        All of these factors reduce       immigrants. Their numbers
Age-based multipliers are      estimates will not be made      the reliability of estimates      are characterized by a high
derived using age data from    for these populations. An       of these populations in           proportion of males, very
the U.S. Census and other      examination of the school       Minnesota.                        high mobility and very rapid
sources. The calculations      figures indicates that many                                       growth.
involve determining            of these children do not        Latinos
what proportion of the         appear in the language                                            Estimating Latino
population is school-                                          Latinos are perhaps the           population based on school
                               file. While the 2000 Census
aged (generally 5-18)                                          most difficult population to      data is more problematic
                               indicates that about three-
and multiplying to get                                         estimate. Latinos include         than for other populations.
                               quarters of Asian Indians
an estimate of the total                                       native-born citizens,             The 1999 estimate of Latino
                               and two-thirds of Chinese
population. Using age-                                         naturalized citizens, legal       population in Minnesota
                               are foreign-born, 60 percent
based multipliers assumes                                      immigrants and illegal            was 125,000 with a margin
                               of Chinese and 82 percent
that both the school                                           immigrants. In Minnesota          of error of 15,000. Census
                               of Asian Indians speak only
enrollment figures and the                                     according to the 2000             2000 reported 143,382,
                               English or English very well.
age data in the Census                                         Census, nearly 60 percent         with 27.3 percent of the
                               For Arabs, the proportion
are comparable and very                                        of all Latinos were native-       population age 5 to 18. This
                               who are foreign-born is
accurate. Unfortunately,                                       born (84,213), and 8              gives a multiplier of 3.66.
                               much lower (32 percent),
these assumptions are                                          percent were naturalized          Using this multiplier with
                               and the proportion who
not always true. Problems                                      citizens (11,471), leaving        the Hispanic enrollment
                               speak only English or
specific to individual                                         less than a third who were        for 1998-1999 and 1999-
                               speak English very well
populations are detailed                                       not citizens (46,102). Many       2000 school years, gives an
                               is 84 percent. All of these
below, and adjustments                                         Minnesota Latinos speak           estimate of the population
                               populations grew rapidly in
have been made based                                           English and have lived            between 82,700 and
                               the 1990s with the Chinese
on other sources of                                            in the state for decades.         92,000, substantially less
                               population doubling, Asian
information to get more                                        According to the 2000             than the Census Bureau
                               Indian population 150
accurate population                                            Census, about one-third of        count.
                               percent larger in 2000 and
estimates.                                                     all Latinos in Minnesota
                               Arab population increasing
                                                               speak English only. This          Several problems
                               90 percent.
Using the data from                                            long-established Latino           complicate estimating the
the 2000 Census, the           Immigration Statistics          population may not appear         Latino population using
Minnesota Department of        reported 2,812 immigrants       in the Department of              school data. Enrollment
Education, the Department      from India, Pakistan, Sri       Education data.                   figures appear to be
of Homeland Security’s         Lanka and Bangladesh                                              underreported and may be
Immigration Statistics, and                                    The Department of                 much lower than actual
                               between 2000 and 2002;
the Minnesota Department                                       Homeland Security’s               student-age population.
                               2,014 came from China and
of Health, estimates can be                                    Immigration Statistics            Enrollment by race and
                               Taiwan; and 1,180 from
made of Minnesota’s major                                      estimates 60,000 illegal          ethnicity is not necessarily
                               Arabic-speaking nations.
immigrant populations:                                         immigrants in Minnesota.          self-reported; sometimes
                               These populations are
Latinos, Hmong, Somalis,                                       However, this number              school officials enter this
                               not refugees, and many
Vietnamese, Russians,                                          seems very high given the         data. Enrollment figures
                               of the Chinese and Asian
Laotians, Cambodians and                                       preponderance of Latinos          show an increase of
                               Indians came as employee
Ethiopians, These eight                                        in illegal populations in         3,200 to 3,400 Hispanic
                               preference immigrants.
national origin, ethnic or                                     the U.S. and the small            students per year over the
                               Age distribution is skewed
language groups each                                           number of non-citizens            last 5 school years, or an
                               especially in the Asian
represent more than 1,000                                      in Minnesota’s Latino             annual average increase
                               Indian population where 44
children in Minnesota’s                                        population. Nonetheless,          greater than 10 percent.
                               percent of the population
schools in the 2003-2004                                       the task of estimating            The number of children
                               is between age 25 and 39.
school year.                                                   any population with a             who speak Spanish at
                               For the Chinese population,
                                                               significant number of             home continues to grow,
                               31 percent are in this

                                                                             June 2004    Minnesota State Demographic Center    3
increasing by 2,515                be much more mobile than        population in the 1990         are enrolled in school).
students over last year and        men with families. Since        Census was 48,000.             In the 1999-2000 school
5,359 over 2001-2002.              the 2000 Census was taken,      However, the 1999 estimate     year, there were 20,371
                                   the economy has been in         was adjusted upward to         Hmong-speaking children
Another problem with               recession. Some Latino          60,000 with a suggestion       in Minnesota schools. In
estimating Latinos is that         workers may have lost their     that this number should        the following year, 21,579
fewer Latinos of school age        jobs and moved to other         be considered the “upper       Hmong-speaking children.
are enrolled in school than        states or returned to their     limit.” The Census counted     Using a multiplier derived
children of other racial and       home countries.                 45,443 (this number            from the 2000 Census,
ethnic groups. According                                           represents Hmong alone         the Hmong population
to the 2000 Census, only           All of these factors            or in combination with         estimate ranges from
87.3 percent of Latinos            contribute to problems with     another race). The 1999        44,486 (1999-2000 school
15 to 17 years old were            estimating this population.     estimate was based on          year) to 47,125. The count
enrolled in school, or 10          Using the age-based             an incorrect assumption        from the 2000 Census
percent less than for all          multiplier results in an        that Hmong fertility rates     falls within this range,
Minnesotans of this age            estimate less than the 2000     would decline as second        and is not very different
and significantly lower            Census count. Latinos in        generation Hmong began to      than the estimate derived
than any other racial or           Minnesota are estimated         form families. Nonetheless,    using the 1990 multiplier.
ethnic group. Latinos also         to number 175,000. This         births to women born in        There is no independent
have much higher drop-out          estimate assumes a slower       Laos (most Hmong were          age distribution data for
rates than other ethnic and        rate of growth in the first     born in Laos, although not     this population, and the
racial groups. Assuming            four years of this decade       all Laotian-born people        assumption here is that the
that school enrollment             than in the 1990s.              are Hmong) range from          actual age distribution of
serves as a good proxy for                                         1,286 in 1995 to 1,008 in      the Hmong population is
the school-aged population         Hmong                           2002, and showed only          not significantly different
only works if nearly all                                           a slight decline from the      from the distribution
                                   The Hmong came as
children are enrolled. This is                                     mid-1990s. These numbers       reported in the 2000
                                   refugees beginning in the
not the case for Latinos. The                                      do not include births to       Census.
                                   late 1970s. Because they
2000 Census reports that                                           Hmong mothers born in
                                   have been in Minnesota for
94.5 percent (34,336) of all                                       the U.S. Hmong family          The rate of increase of
                                   a generation, the population
Latino children aged 5 to                                          size, according to the 2000    the Hmong population
                                   includes U.S.-born children
17 were enrolled in school.                                        Census remains very large,     in the 1990s was slightly
                                   and grandchildren. Since
Consequently, the multiplier                                       averaging 6.4 persons per      higher than for the Latino
                                   very few Hmong have
produces an estimate that                                          family.                        population in Minnesota.
                                   entered Minnesota as
is too low.                                                                                       Part of this growth was
                                   refugees in recent years, age
                                                                   The 1999 estimate assumed      fueled by movement of
According to the 2000              data from the Department
                                                                   that the proportion            Hmong from California,
Census, there were 118             of Health’s Office of Refugee
                                                                   of Hmong who are               but most was due to
Latino men for every 100           Services is unavailable for
                                                                   school-aged children,          natural increase and some
Latino women, and men              this population. Also many
                                                                   as enumerated by the           international immigration.
ages 20 to 39 make up              younger Hmong may speak
                                                                   Minnesota Department of        International immigration
nearly one quarter of the          English and as a result not
                                                                   Education, would become        from Southeast Asia
population. For foreign-           be counted in the language
                                                                   smaller as Hmong fertility     continued at a fairly
born, non-citizen Latinos,         data from the Department
                                                                   began to approach that         high rate in the 1990s,
the gender ratio is 150.           of Education. However,
                                                                   of the white native-born       but unfortunately, it is
While the Latino gender            the Hmong population is
                                                                   population. However,           impossible to know how
ratio in Minnesota is              large and is included in the
                                                                   this assumption proved         many of those immigrants
lower than in many other           Census’ detailed race tables.
                                                                   incorrect. According to the    were Hmong. This
states, the high proportion                                        2000 Census, 56.4 percent      population continues to
                                   The 1999 estimate of
of males – especially for                                          of Hmong are under age 18,     grow in Minnesota, but like
                                   Hmong population derived
foreign-born non-citizens                                          and nearly 46 percent are      the Hispanic population,
                                   from language data and
- makes it more difficult to                                       school age (5 through 18       many Hmong children now
                                   a multiplier based on the
estimate this population.                                          - of course, not all 5-year-   speak only English, and as
                                   age distribution of this
Single male workers can                                            olds nor all 18-year-olds      a result, are not counted in

4    Minnesota State Demographic Center   June 2004
the school language data.         justify aggregating them in    78 births in 1995, 573 in        (ancestry) meaning that
The number of children            Summary File 4.                1999, 808 in 2000, 994 in        this question was asked
speaking Hmong at home                                           2001 and 1,038 in 2002.          of approximately 1 in 6
declined between 2002-            Data on Somalis is             Was the estimate in 1999         households; consequently,
2003 and 2003-2004 from           limited and have been          too low? Using the new           there could be some
22,117 to 21,613. The rate        supplemented using the         multiplier and school data       sampling error. There may
of population increase in         Advanced Query tool            from the 1998-1999 school        be Somalis who entered
the Hmong population is           from the U.S. Census. In       year gives a population          Minnesota in recent
probably somewhat slower          the 2000 Census, 11,164        estimate of 6,800. Given         years under the family
than in the 1990s, but            people reported Somali         the rapid rate of growth,        preference provisions of the
assuming smaller families         ancestry. The 1999 estimate    the estimate made in 1999        immigration law or who
and lower fertility rates         of Somali population in        was surprisingly accurate,       came here after initially
proved incorrect. This            Minnesota was 6,000            and the count in Census          settling in another state. In
population numbers 60,000,        with a range of 4,500 to       2000 also looks good.            both cases, these Somali
but will grow to 65,000           7,500. The multiplier (3.8)                                     immigrants would not be
by the end of 2004 as the         used in the estimates          The multiplier based on          included in the refugee
refugees from Thailand            was derived from a small       refugee age distribution         numbers and may explain
(Wat Tham Krabok) arrive          sample of Somali families      is lower than that based         the differences in the age
in Minnesota.                     in a Minneapolis school.       on the 2000 Census. For          distribution. Nonetheless,
                                  According to Census 2000,      refugees who arrived in          this comparison of the 1999
Somalis                           about 28 percent of Somalis    Minnesota in 1999, about         estimate and the Census
                                  are between the ages of        43 percent were children         2000 count supports the
Somalis are very recent           6 and 17 (unfortunately,       age 6 to 17, giving a            Census count.
immigrants, arriving after        single year of age is          multiplier of 2.34. For
1990. Most Somalis arrived        unavailable). Interestingly,   refugees who arrived in          Growth in the number of
as refugees, and most             the Census counted 2,675       2000, about 41 percent           Somali children in schools
Somali children speak only        Somalis ages 6 through 17,     were children age 6 to           slowed in this year, only
Somali when they arrive.          a difference of 66 from the    17, or a multiplier of 2.41.     94 more than in 2002-
Consequently, the data from       school enrollment figures      These multipliers are lower      2003. Unlike many other
the Departments of Health         for 1999-2000. Using this      than that derived from           immigrant populations,
and Education is very             age group as a proxy for       2000 Census data. Using          most Somalis speak
useful in estimating this         school age population          these multipliers gives a        Somali at home, making
population. One difficulty in     gives a multiplier of 3.6.     range of population from         the estimate using the
estimating Somali numbers         Using the multiplier and the   6,096 to 10,129. While the       age-based multiplier fairly
is the rapid growth of            number of Somali-speaking      lower number from 1999 is        accurate. The number of
this population — both            children enrolled in           close to the 1999 estimate,      legal immigrants coming
through natural increase          Minnesota’s schools (2,609     the higher number based          to the U.S. from East
and immigration. Because          in 1999-2000 and 4,196 in      on refugee arrivals in 2000      Africa and the Middle East
Somalis come as refugees,         2000-2001) gives a range       and the number of children       has slowed, and there
the numbers published             for 2000 of 9,300 to 15,000,   speaking Somali in the           is no evidence of large
by Immigration Statistics         again a range that includes    2000-2001 school year            numbers entering illegally.
do not reflect the entire         the count in Census 2000.      is slightly lower than the       The increase seen in the
population. Refugees who          The range is wider than        Census count. Looking at         numbers from Immigration
entered seeking refugee           is desired, but given the      the most recent data (2000       Statistics for federal
status may not be counted         dearth of data, the estimate   through May 2004) gives          fiscal year 2002 reflects
until their status has been       and the Census count seem      a multiplier of 2.57, higher     adjustment of status
adjusted to legal immigrant.      reasonable.                    than the earlier years, but      for refugees – meaning
However, since most Somali                                       still much lower than the        that many of the Somalis
children speak Somali at          The Somali population is       Census multiplier.               counted in 2002 had been
home, the enrollment data         growing very rapidly. The                                       in the U.S. for years waiting
is quite useful. Finally, while   number of births to Somali-    A number of factors              to be granted permanent
Somali is an ancestry in the      born women increased           could contribute to the          residence status. This
2000 Census, the numbers          each year since 1990 when      differences. The Census          population is young and
nationwide (36,313) do not        there was only one, to         count is a sample data item      has a very high fertility rate

                                                                              June 2004    Minnesota State Demographic Center   5
with 1,000 births each year            Vietnamese population is             was born in the U.S.,                 smaller, with fewer
to Somali-born mothers.                estimated at 25,000.                 and nearly half of the                immigrants and fewer births
Natural increase contributes                                                population speaks only                to Cambodian mothers. This
to strong growth in the                Russians                             English or speaks English             population is estimated at
population. Data on refugee                                                 “very well.” Immigration              7,500, an increase of 2,000
                                       The population of recent
arrivals showed a slowing                                                   from Laos has been less               since the 2000 Census.
                                       Russian immigrants is
in 2002 and 2003, but a                                                     than from Vietnam but
                                       estimated at 12,500, very
substantial uptick for the                                                  slightly higher than from             Ethiopians
                                       close to the estimate
first 4 months of the current                                               Cambodia and Thailand.
                                       derived using the age-                                                     Estimating the Ethiopian
year. The Somali population                                                 However, both Laotians and
                                       based multiplier. The 2000                                                 population is fraught with
is estimated at 25,000.                                                     Hmong people come from
                                       Census gives a foreign-                                                    difficulties. The language
                                                                            Laos. According to the 2000
                                       born population of 6,061;                                                  data is divided between
                                                                            Census (5% Public Use
                                       Immigration Statistics show                                                Amharic, Oromo and
                                                                            Microdata Sample data),
The Vietnamese population              a total of 1,411 immigrants                                                Tigrinya, birth data for
                                                                            approximately 71 percent of
in Minnesota is not as                 for 2000, 2001 and 2002.                                                   mothers born in Ethiopia
                                                                            Laotian-born persons were
visible as some of the other           Births to mothers born                                                     includes mothers born in
                                                                            Hmong and 18 percent
immigrant groups from                  in Russia have increased                                                   Eritrea, and finally, ethnic
                                                                            Laotian. Births to mothers
Southeast Asia. According              each year and were at 252                                                  differences within the
                                                                            born in Laos present the
to the 2000 Census, 11                 in 2002. Refugee arrivals                                                  immigrant population from
                                                                            same problem. The estimate
percent of the Vietnamese              continue from Russia with                                                  Ethiopia make estimating
                                                                            for this population based on
population speaks only                 407 arriving between 2000                                                  an Ethiopian population
                                                                            immigration, language and
English and another 28                 and May 2004.                                                              somewhat sensitive.
                                                                            birth data is 13,000.
percent speak English well.                                                                                       Immigration Statistics
The 2000 Census reported               Laotians                                                                   reported a large number
20,209 Vietnamese, more                                                                                           of Ethiopian immigrants
                                       Minnesota’s Laotian
than double the 9,387                                                       Many of the same reasons              (918) in 2002, although if
                                       population did not
in the 1990 Census.                                                         given for adjusting the               these immigrants came as
                                       increase as rapidly as the
Immigration from Vietnam                                                    estimate of the Laotian               refugees, they may have
                                       other Southeast Asian
totaled 1,774 for 2000,                                                     population upward also                been here prior to 2002.
                                       populations, growing 68
2001 and 2002, and births                                                   apply to the Cambodian                Refugee arrivals from
                                       percent between 1990 and
to Vietnamese-born mothers                                                  poulation. The Cambodian              Ethiopia totaled 1,596
                                       2000. Almost 40 percent
numbered in the 400s for                                                    population is somewhat                between 2000 and May
                                       of the Laotian population
the last three years. The

    Estimates of Immigrant Populations - 2004

    Immigrant Group                         School Enrollment                    Age-based                  State Demographic Center
                                               2003-2004                         Multiplier                   Estimate of Population
    Latinos4                                       38,643                             3.63                              175,000
    Hmong                                          21,613                             2.22                               60,000
    Somalis                                          5,734                            3.80                               25,000
    Vietnamese                                       2,910                            4.57                               25,000
    Russians                                         2,346                            5.15                               12,500
    Laotians                                         2,258                            3.15                               13,000
    Cambodians                                       1,718                            2.82                                 7,500
    Ethiopians                                       1,329                            4.13                                 7,500
    4Because many Hispanic children speak English at home, Hispanic enrollment numbers from the Gender and Ethnicity file from the Department of
    Education have been used for estimating Latino population.
    Sources: Minnesota Department of Education, Minnesota State Demographic Center

6      Minnesota State Demographic Center     June 2004
2004. The language data         of immigrants seeking
                                                                  Upon request, Population Notes will be made available in alternative
(sum of Amharic, Oromo          work in Minnesota’s food          format, such as Braille, large print or audio tape. For TTY, contact
and Tigrinya speakers) has      processing industries, aging      Minnesota Relay Service at 800-627-3529 and ask for the State
increased by 339 speakers       and population loss in rural      Demographic Center. For more information or additional copies of
since 2001-2002. More than      areas continued in the            Population Notes, contact:
half of the Ethiopians in       1990s. These demographic
the 2000 Census reported        trends are expected to
that they speak only English    continue with resultant
or speak English “very          tight labor markets in areas
well.” The estimate of this     where food, especially                                     � � � � � � � � �
                                                                                         STATE DEMOGRAPHIC CENTER
population is 7,500.            meat and poultry,
                                                                                        658 Cedar St., Room 300
                                processing is concentrated.                                St. Paul, MN 55155
What Can We Expect in           Other industries that rely                          651-296-2557 Fax: 651-296-1754
the Next Few Years?             heavily on immigrant labor                            www.demography.state.mn.us
                                will continue to import                             demography.helpline@state.mn.us
The biggest factor affecting
                                workers, unless there is
the number of immigrants
                                some radical change in
to Minnesota in the near
                                national policy towards that
future is the resettlement
                                type of hiring.
of Hmong from the Wat
Tham Krabok camp in             Changes in the immigration
Thailand beginning in           laws could have marked
summer of 2004. This            effects on the number
group may number as             of people moving to
many as 5,000 persons,          Minnesota from other
and all are expected to         countries. Whether the U.S.
arrive in Minnesota by the      Congress chooses to enact
end of 2004. In addition        a temporary worker law
to the Hmong from               or to restrict immigration,
Thailand, refugee arrivals      the results will affect the
in Minnesota are on a pace      numbers of international
to exceed 3,000 in 2004.        immigrants in Minnesota.
Refugees continue to seek       Policy changes and
new lives in Minnesota, and     developments throughout
the numbers remain high         the world will affect
despite 9/11 and the war        international immigration to
in Iraq.                        Minnesota. Unfortunately,
                                it is very difficult to predict
Those who work with
                                what exactly those effects
refugee health and refugee
                                will be.
resettlement expect to
see increased numbers
of Burmese refugees
coming to Minnesota.
Currently, Burmese are
a small population, but
resettlement efforts could
swell their numbers. Large
numbers of African refugees
continue to arrive each year.
While the recession
may have temporarily
depressed the number

                                                                               June 2004      Minnesota State Demographic Center         7

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