Polystyrene Synthesis by liaoqinmei

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									Polystyrene Synthesis

   Uyen – Phuong Lam
   Chem 12B SP 2006
  Professor Adamczeski
                      Abstract
In this PowerPoint presentation I will introduce the properties of
plastics and how it was synthesized, an introduction to
polystyrene. The first discovered polystyrene was attempted by a
German pharmacist by the name Eduard Simon. It was later when
more chemists began to see the relationship between the polymer
polystyrene produce plastic. Plastic is very crucial to ours lives
because of its unique characteristic and properties. Even though
plastic is everywhere and it seems like we have a mass production
of it, we must look into what we can do to recycle plastic, because it
does take a long time to decompose plastics, to help improve the
polluted the environment. There are many different types and levels
of plastics. We must know what it takes a very long time to
completely decompose a plastic and therefore must recycle and be
wise about using plastic products. This presentation will focus on
the synthesis and structures of plastics as well as their
environmental ramifications.
               Outline
•   What is a polymer?
•   Define Polystyrene
•   Polystyrene Discovered
•   Synthesis of Polystyrene
•   Usage of Polystyrene
•   Environmental consequences
•   Characteristics of Plastics
               Polymer
Polymer: something made of many units
called monomers joined together.
Polymers can be thought of as a chain.
Each link of the chains is the “-mer” or the
basic unit that is usually made of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, and/or silicon. To
make the chain, many links of “-mers” are
hooked or polymerized together.
 What does a polymer look like?

At a macro scale level, it would look
  somewhat like a chain of paperclips
    Discoveries of Polystyrene
- 1839: first synthesize by
  German pharmacist, Eduard
  Simon. Simon isolated
  substance from natural resin;
  however, he did not know
  what he had discovered.

- Herman Staudinger, another
  German organic chemist
  relalize Simon’s discovery,
  comprised styrene
  molecules, was a plastic
  polymer.
      Synthesis of Polystyrene
A. Polystyrene: a plastic polymer made from monomer units of styrene,
   a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from
   petroleum, but can be melted at higher temperature for molding than
   resolidified.




   The chemical reaction for the synthesis of polystyrene is shown on top
    Synthesis of Polystyrene
• Before we can
  synthesize
  polystyrene, we must
  make its monomer
  styrene
• Direct catalytic
  dehydrogenation of
  ethylbenzene is the
  main manufacturing
  course of styrene
  Synthesis of Polystyrene
Once styrene is
produced, nearly
65% of it is then
used to produce
polystyrene.
The overall
reaction that
describes the
styrene
polymerization is
shown here.
             Usage of Polystyrene
A.   Once synthesize polystyrene must be cross-linked before it could
     produce plastic products.



B. Usage of Polystyrene:
     1. Polypropylene: auto parts, washing machine agitators, house wares

     2. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE): milk bottles, pipes, shopping bags

     3. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE): film for packaging

     4. Polyethylene terephtalate (PET): packaging, soft drinks bottle
Codes for Different Polystyrenes
Codes                Common uses


        Plastic soft drinks, waters. Ovenable


        Milk, shampoo, medicine bottles


        PVC pipes, window frame, cable
        insulation
       Usable Polystyrene
Code   Common uses

       Squeezable bottles, e.g. ketchup, honey.

       Medicine, catsups bottles,

       Egg cantons, plastic cup, plate, foam

       3 or 5 gallons water bottle, plastic lumber
       application
• DO recycle              • DON’T recycle
  – Soda, water, juice,     – Motor oil bottles, anti-
    food jars, milk,          freeze containers,
    shampoo bottles           gasoline and oil
                              additive bottle
                            – Brown liquor Bottle
                            – All container with
                              these marks
• There a price that must
  be paid for the
  convenience we get from
  using disposable cuts,
  bowls, and Styrofoam.
   – The waste product is
     detrimental to the
     environment.
   – It takes ~500 years for a
     Styrofoam cut to
     completely breakdown.
    Characteristic of Plastics
A. Very resistant to chemical
B. Both thermal and electrical insulator
C. Very light weight with varying degrees of
   strength
D. Can be processed in various ways to
   produce thin fibers of very intricate parts
E. Lates updates: “No clear resolution to
   rising raw material prices” in plastics.
                      Bibliography
1. American Plastic Council <www.americanplasticscouncil.org>
2. The Plastic Today for the Technology Tomorrow
   <ww.polymerplastics.com/history_plastics.shtml>
3. Plastic Fabricators <www.plastic-fabricators.com>
4. Hollo Plastics Equipment, INC
   <http://www.holloplastics.com/plasticinfo/>
5. Ask Science Theatre
   <www.pa.msu.edu/~sciencet/ask_st/090193.html>
6. Chemical & Engineering News: Plastics. Volume 83, Number 37.
   September 12, 2005. Front Cover
7. Leung, Alfred B., Kwang I. Suh, and Rafat R. Ansari. "Particle-size
   and velocity measurements in flowing conditions using dynamic
   light scattering.(Author abstract)." Applied Optics 45.10 (April 1,
   2006): 2186(5). Expanded Academic ASAP. Thomson Gale. CCL
   San Jose City College. 30 April 2006

								
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