African American life in 1930
By: Whitney Collins and
Ku Klux Klan
• They apparently derived the name from the Greek word kyklos,
from which comes the English “circle”; “Klan” was added for the
sake of alliteration and Ku Klux Klan emerged.
• The Klan members sought to make whites supreme over blacks.
• Dressed in robes, the Klan members whipped and killed black
freemen and whites that were supporting them.
• Forest (the first grand wizard) ordered that the Klan disbanded.
• The bills authorized that the president should suspend the writ of
habeas corpses, suppress disturbances, and impose heavy
penalties to the terrorist organizations.
• the government finally decided that the Ku Klux Klan was
unconstitutional, but by then most of the Klan had disappeared.
They are still around but are separate around the world.
Plessey v. Ferguson
• Plessey v. Ferguson was the first major inquiry into the meaning of
the Fourteenth Amendment's (1868) equal-protection clause, which
prohibits the states from denying “equal protection of the laws” to
any person within their jurisdictions.
• Although the majority opinion did not contain the phrase
“separate but equal,” it gave constitutional sanction to laws designed
to achieve racial segregation by means of separate and supposedly
equal public facilities and services for African Americans and whites.
• The Separate Car Act did not conflict with the Thirteenth
Amendment, according to Brown, because it did not reestablish
slavery or constitute a “badge” of slavery or servitude.
• In Scottsboro nine young youths were charged with rape on two
• they were sent to trial and were able to have two voluntary lawyers
• Despite testimony by doctors who had examined the women that no
rape had occurred, the all-white jury convicted the nine, and all but
the youngest, who was 12 years old, were sentenced to death.
• the announcement brought a storm of charges from outside of the
south that a gross injustice had happened.
• In a 1935 decision (Norris v. Alabama), the U.S. Supreme Court
overturned this conviction, ruling that the state had systematically
excluded blacks from juries .
• Harlem Renaissance refers to an era of written and artistic creativity
among African-Americans that occurred after World War I and lasted
until the 1930’s depression
• A major factor leading to the rise of the Harlem Renaissance was
the migration of African-Americans to the northern cities. Between
1919 and 1926.
• large numbers of black Americans left their rural southern states
homes to move to urban centers such as New York City, Chicago,
and Washington, DC.
• What began as a series of literary discussions in lower Manhattan
(Greenwich Village) and upper Manhattan (Harlem) was first known
as the 'New Negro Movement.'
• No crime in American history-- let alone a crime that never occurred--
produced as many trials, convictions, reversals, and retrials as did an
alleged gang rape of two white girls by nine black teenagers.
• The Scottsboro Boys spent the two years between their first trials and the
second round, scheduled to begin in March, 1933 in Decatur, in the
deplorable conditions of Depression-era Alabama prisons.
• As their trial date approached, they were moved to the Decatur jail, a rat-
infested facility that two years earlier had been condemned as "unfit for
• In the end the guy price who defended the boys lost and they sent the main
person of the problem to death.
• a form of violence in which a mob, under the pretext of administering
justice without trial, executes a presumed offender, often after
inflicting torture and corporal mutilation.
• Historically, the fehmic courts of medieval Germany imposed some
punishments that involved lynching, as did the Halifax gibbet law
(execution of those guilty of theft valued over a specific amount) and
Cowper justice (trial after execution) in the border districts of
• Vigilante justice has been practiced in many countries under
unsettled conditions whenever informally organized groups have
attempted to supplement or replace legal procedure or to fill the void
where institutional justice did not yet exist.