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					ASSUMPTIONS

 Identification and test of
external factors influencing
DoSE’s ability to deliver the
  planned outputs and to
   achieve the purpose
                     ECD

• That existing centres will continue to provide ECD
  services at same levels

• Adequate resources will be available for growth in
  GER

• Can attract that many additional children

• That this is a useful goal

• That parents can continue to afford to pay for
  private ECD

• Parents can continue to sustain operation of
  ECDs attached to lower basic schools

• That qualified teachers/monitors are available
Assumptions for Basic Education
•   That adequate funding for education would be available for 10
    years from Gov and donor community for both investments
    and recurrent costs

•   That basic education is free and compulsory

•   That macro-economic environment improves

•   That good quality education personnel can be recruited and
    retained

•   That special needs and disadvantaged children can be
    accommodated

•   That adequate qualitative inputs are available

•   That parents accept education as priority especially in
    traditional areas

•   That population growth rate will decline (now 2.1)

•   That communities willingly participate in school mgmt and
    development and head teachers will allow communities to do
    maintenance

•   That NGOs/civil society are supportive of these education
    goals

•   That political will is there for free and compulsory education
•   The Madrassa proprietor and secretariate will continue to
    cooperate with DoSE
          Assumptions for Adult
            and non-formal:
• That NGOs and CBOs will accept service
  contracts, and will have capacity to deliver

• That funds would be adequate, sustained and
  efficiently utilised

• That populations would be willing to learn

• That adequate, qualified and motivated facilitators
  would be available

• That the enabling environment exists to support
   continued literacy
Assumptions for Secondary education:

• That private sector will continue to provide and
  finance senior secondary education

• That area councils will have funds to support
  schools

• That adequate budget would be available for the
  absolute increase in SSS places

• That adequate funding is available for curriculum
  development and implementation

• That the economy can absorb the increased
  number of SSS graduates

• That Gov can offer adequate incentives to recruit
  and retain qualified Gambian SSS teachers

• That girls will continue to be 50% of enrolment
 Assumptions for Tertiary education and
               research:

• Economy continues to grow to absorb graduates
• Education system is training in the right
  disciplines in the right numbers to meet country’s
  needs
• Sufficient number of qualified female applicants
• Funding in place for planned activities, including
  observatory
• Adequate numbers of qualified lecturers can be
  recruited and retained
• Effective managers can be recruited and retained
• Incentives for personnel can be put into place
• Parents/students would be willing and able to pay
  33.3% of real unit cost
• There is political will to merge tertiary institutions
  into UTG
• Qualified researchers are available
        Assumptions for TVET:
• Tertiary Ed Directorate can articulate TVET policy
  and regulate implementation

• Financial and teacher resources for UBE pre-
  TVET courses are available

• Students will opt for skills training

• Perception about TVET as being for failures will
  change

• Accreditation system acceptable to private sector
  is established for all TVET centres

• Adequate funding (including Training Levy)
  available for TVET

• LMIS managers will be retained in DoSE
Assumptions for Quality assurance:
• Learning targets are realistic and examinations
  are based on these targets
• Readiness of learners
• Ongoing support from headteachers
• Availability of quality human resources
• Inadequate teachers can be removed from civil
  service
• Willingness to enforce reporting rules
• Capacity for curriculum revision
• Willingness and ability of communities to
  participate in PPM
• Readiness of teachers to cooperate in PPM
• Sensitisation and clear messages to communicate
  to communities
• Availability of relevant and validated textbooks
  (Survey on prevalence required)
• Alignment between textbooks and teacher
  syllabus
• Sufficient number of Gambian authors (Promotion
  of Gambian textbook publishing)
• Adequate number of female teachers
• Adequate deployment to remote and poor areas
• Adequate staffing accommodation
    Assumptions for Sector Management:
•    That human and financial resources are available
•    That priorities remain unchanged
•    That PMO and Finance agree to changes that lead to
     creation of posts
•    That DOSE can attract and retain qualified staff
•    That DOSE has influence over budget transfers to
     LGAs
•    That budget transfers will sufficiently cover needs
•    That timely data collection is accurately done at
     school/RED levels
•    That PMO/PSC agree to performance
     awards/sanctions proposed
•    That qualified Records staff are keeping files accurately
     and honestly
•    That performance monitoring can be done consistently
     and fairly
•    That incentives/sanctions effectively improve
     performance
•    That HR decisions will not have outside political
     interference
•    That work environment will help attract and retain staff
•    That Government salary review leads to improved
     salary scales
•    That career development opportunities are available for
     staff
•    That computerizing records management is permitted
     by National Records Service at PMO
  Sustainability
    Analysis

Can delivery of services
    and benefits be
  continued after the
   completion of the
project implementation?
           Basic Education:
            Sustainability
• Maintenance of equipment and vehicles including
  fuel
• Capacity building, esp. long-term training
• Resources & capacities exist for rolling out Whole
  School Development model
• Pilot is adapted to Gambian conditions over time
  even if it goes beyond program period
• Involvement of other local partners in
  development phase (decentralization)
• Updating of ICT curriculum implementation (25%
  of hardware costs annually)
• HIV/AIDS orphans may require significant budget
  resources
• Free and compulsory basic education requires
  funds, political will and ability to implement and
  enforce
• Construction, maintenance and rehabilitation
  require both funding and technical capacity at
  local levels
• Community involvement in maintenance will
  require their willingness, funding to ensure equity
  and training to ensure capacity
• Equalization grants from Government will have to
  address differences in fund-raising ability among
  LGAs
       Secondary Education

              Sustainability Issues

• Funding related to classroom construction
• Funding for facilities maintenance
• Capacity of collecting, updating, processing and
  disseminating education data
• Motivation and retention of teachers
• Availability of sufficient resources to support
  career development plan implementation
• Implementation of M&E strategies (PTA & Boards
  of Governors)
• Availability of resources to support the scholarship
  program
• Recruitment and retention of curriculum
  developers
• Efficient use of resources
Secondary Education
1.   Funding related to classroom construction
      Intensified D/Shifting classrooms
      Sources of funding
2.   Funding for facilities maintenance
      Maintenance plan/policy
      Draw up MOU between Board of Governors and the
         communities
      Capacity building of communities
3.   Capacity of collecting, updating, processing and
     disseminating education data
      Train Regional Planners
      Train IT staff and provide IT equipment to Regional
         offices
      Regular update of data
      Release quarterly reliable data
4.   Motivation and retention of teachers
      Clear career path developed
      Staff incentive packages
      Recruit, motivate and retain teachers
5.   Implementation of M&E strategies (GIA & Boards of
     Governors)
      Clear M&E systems
      Conduct PETS
6.   Availability of resources to support the scholarship
     program
      Involve LGAs, NGOs in scholarship provision
7.   Recruitment and retention of curriculum developers
      Panel systems for various subjects
      Recruit panelists from school as per activities
      Sources of funding
      Relevance of secondary education
          TESTS
       ASSUMPTIONS
• That adequate funding is available for
  curriculum       development      and
  implementation? (Funding ?)

• That Government can offer adequate
  incentives to recruit and retain qualified
  Gambian SSS teachers

• That girls’ share of enrolment increases
  to 50% (Adequate number of girls &
  Willingness of parents to send girls in
  school)
     SUSTAINABILITY
    ISSUES TERTIARY
       EDUCATION
•   Funding after donor support
•   Human resource capacity
•   Human, physical and financial
    resource availability
•   Continued political will and
    support
•   A sustained enabling environment
    and conditions of service
•   Availability of qualified candidates
    for admission to tertiary
    institutions
   Sustainability of TVET OVIs:
  Activities/Outputs that continue
• Increase in enrolment at GTTI
   – Will require Levy and cost recovery measures to
     increase enrolment
       • Activities: Private sector outreach to improve
         participation in Levy; cost recovery at registered
         training institutions fully collected by NTA; validate
         collection of GAT with Commissioner of Income
         Tax; improve organization of private sector via
         Chamber of Commerce and Industry
   – Equity may be adversely affected if cost
     recovery is keeping out the less well-off
       • Activities: Accurate identification of needy
         students for subvention
• LMIS updating biannually & continued
  maintenance
   – Has to be sustained under Government budget
   – Attracting and retaining skilled staff within
     Government budget
       • Activities: Review Government salaries for
         specialized skills; provide opportunities for
         training and skills upgrading; work environment
         enhancement with appropriate tools for working
         effectively;
   – Institutions providing labor market information
     are able to do in time and accurately (Central
     Statistics, training institutions, DOSE, private
     sector)
       • Activities: Formal data sharing arrangement put
         in place; surveys will be conducted to confirm
         Sustainability of TVET
              (continued)
• Accreditation of Prior Learning
    – Funding for NTA staff for accreditation and staff &
      equipment for data maintenance will have to secured
        • Activities: Evaluation of all existing programs to
          determine quality of training provided and standard of
          program; Establish database for accumulating credit
          information, the use of which will generate funds
• Government continues to provide 75% of Levy to
  NTA (0.25% of Gross Annual Turnover) as per
  National Education and Technical Training Levy
  Act signed in 21 July 2005
    – Levy may not be sufficient to cover focus areas of
      NTA
        • Activities: Prioritization of NTA target areas to fit within
          budget
• Localization of technical/vocational and
  commercial examinations
    – Cost recovery from test takers will cover costs of
      local exams
    – Agreement of stakeholders on continued quality of
      localized exams
        • Activities: Establish trade committees to work on
          curricula for each major skill area; Establish unit cost
          for local examinations development to determine if
          localization will lead to cost savings; sensitization of
          industry and private sector to advantages and
          disadvantages of localization process
       Sustainability of TVET
            (continued)
• Entrepreneurship training for new job
  entrants
   – Provision of courses for entrepreneurship
     including financial management, business
     development, etc.
   – Availability of financing for new business
     creation
       • Activities: Establish pilot training program at
         GTTI because both trainers and facilities are in
         place; Bring together micro-finance institutions
         including Indigenous Business Advisory Service
         (IBAS), Gambia Women’s Finance Association
         (GAWFA), etc.
• In-service training for private sector
  employees
   – Availability of coherent training plans by
     private sector enterprises
       • Activities: Assist private sector enterprises in
         the development of training plans and finance a
         significant share of the implementation
   – Availability of training providers and trainers
       • Activities: Database of training providers
         including the quality and quantity of courses
         provided; Evaluation of courses by students;
         Tracer studies of training course completers
  Testing Assumptions for
           TVET
• Tertiary Ed Directorate can articulate TVET policy and
  regulate implementation
   – Need qualified staff
     Should post-basic TVET activities be under Tertiary Ed
     Directorate?

• Financial and teacher resources for UBE pre-TVET
  courses are available
   – Positions already exist
• Accreditation system acceptable to private sector is
  established for all TVET centres
   – Private sector involvement is key
• LMIS managers will be retained in DoSE
   – Need conditions of service to improve (financial and non-
     financial)
• Localisation of technical, vocational and commercial
  exams is acceptable to local stakeholders
   – Need involvement from start of private sector
   – Top-grade students will opt for skills training if training
     leads to better jobs and/or better opportunities for further
     education
   – Perception about TVET as being for failures will change
• Adequate funding (including Training Levy) available
  for TVET
   – Level of investment necessary for meeting all goals,
     especially rural skills upgrading, may not be available
     from just Government so other partners have to be
     brought in
         Quality Assurance
         Programme Area
        Sustainability issues

• Learning targets are realistic and examinations
  are based on these targets
• Capacity exists in system but financial resources
  need to be ensured.
• Feasibility of WAEC to be undertaken.
• Upgrading of skills and appropriate technology for
  WAEC.
• Revise MOU between DOSE and WAEC.
• 2. Readiness of learners
• Support system available at home or in school
  with a focus on reading and writing.
• PPM and WSD fully institutionalized.
• Financial resources are needed.
• Continuous sensitization of communities and
  parents.
• The bill “free and compulsory education” has to be
  ratified by National Assembly.
• Ongoing support from head teachers
• Continuous funding for head teacher management
  training.
• Revise the education management program at UTG.
• Financial resources are needed as well as technical
  assistance for development and implementation
• Printing capacity needs to be available.
• Willingness and ability of communities to participate
  in PPM
• Sensitisation and continuous dialogue with clear
  messages to communicate to communities and
  LGAs.
• Sensitisation of teachers to cooperate in PPM.
  Funding is necessary.
• Rolling out of WSD model
• Attract an equal number of female heads.
• Availability of quality human resources
• Robust teacher training reform and effective in-
  service training on a regular basis.
• Policy guidelines need to be in place.
• Incentives to retain quality teachers in the system
  especially female teachers.
• Funds needed.
• Incompetent teachers can be removed from civil
  service
• Establishment of a performance-based system within
  HR Directorate.
• Financial and logistical means need to be in place.
• Link established with EMIS. Analyse staff capability at
  HR and provide training as necessary.
• Technology is needed.
• Support need to be provided by PMO, PSC, and
  LGAs.
• Reform of civil service initiated by the government.
• Willingness to enforce reporting rules
• Capacity for curriculum revision
• Recruitment of curriculum developers and content
  specialists.
• Retain trained staff.
•   Lessons learned from the pilot are positive.
•   Availability of relevant and validated textbooks
•   Survey on prevalence required.
•   Alignment between textbooks and teacher syllabus.
•   Attract sufficient number of Gambian authors and
    promotion of Gambian textbook publishing.
•   Financial resources required.
•   Adequate deployment to remote and poor areas
•   Provision of staffing accommodation and
    institutionalise incentive packages (financial and
    non-financial resources).
•   Establish up-to-date database at regional level.
•   Capacity needs to be developed.
•   Financial resources needed

				
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posted:8/6/2011
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