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					A History of Psychology

 Chapter one:
 The study of the History of Psychology
A note before studying history of psychology
    Historical facts can change:
         Several Freud’s document will not be available until the 21th century

    Bias: History is highly selective and subjective
    Zeitgeist (the spirit of the time) influences the decision/trend
    “Internal” (psychology) vs. “external” (socio-cultural,
     political, or economic context) history
    Presentism (looking at past events from today’s perspectives) vs.
     Historicism (placing past events into their actual social and
     intellectual context)
Approaches to the History of psychology
(Wertheimer, 2000)

   1. Quasi-chronologies:
       one trend and then a different trend
   2. The Great Schools of Psychology:
         structuralism, functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt
         Psychology, Psychoanalysis, Humanistic and Cognitive
         movement
   3. Personal or professional autobiographies
   4. Major figures in the history of psychology
   5. History of organizations
   6. History of psychological research
Why study history of psychology
   Avoid mistakes
   Indicate the original ideas, the lines of
    development
   The influence of the past helps shape the
    present
   …….
I. The Development of Modern
Psychology
   One of the oldest disciplines
   Issues first raised in philosophy and
    theology
       Can be traced back to 5th B.C.
       Plato and Aristotle
I. The Development of Modern
Psychology
   Modern psychology distinct from the old
    discipline of philosophy
       A primarily scientific field
       Applies tools and methods from biology and
        physiology
       Relies on controlled observation and
        experimentation
       Objectivity and precision are continually
        sought and refined
Eastern Traditions in Psychology
   Similarly, psychology had been philosophical, religious,
    and moralistic in the eastern culture (e.g., Chinese culture)
       I-Ching
       Yin-Yang (balance and harmony within the environment)
       Confucius
           A series of practical teaching directed toward morals and

            politics; the rules of proper conduct in relationships
       Taoist Philosophy (e.g., Lao-Tze)
           Book of the Ways and of Virtue: a path to wise living

           A simple life that is close to nature

           Living in harmony with environment

       Buddhism
II. The Relevance of the Past for
the Present
   History of psychology: common
    requirement for majors
       As early as 1911
       64% of undergraduate: history of psychology as
        degree requirement
   Unique among the sciences in the focus on
    our history
    II. The Relevance of the Past for
    the Present
   Graduate training in history of psychology
       1969: history of psychology course in graduate training
         (U of Florida, U of Oklahoma, U of Pennsylvania, $ Texas A&M)
   Journal and other document:
       1965: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Science

       1965: Archives of the History of American Psychology (at
        University of Akron, Ohio)--25,000 books, 3,000
        photographs, hundreds of film, etc.

       1998: History of Psychology (Div 26 journal)
II. The Relevance of the Past for
the Present
   Formal Organizations
       APA Division of the History of Psychology
        (Division 26) founded in 1966

       The International Society for the History of the
        Behavioral and Social Science was founded in
        1969
II. The Relevance of the Past for
the Present
   The nature of history of psychology
       Values diversity within psychology
       Provides a framework for a coherent picture
       Values the influence of the past which shape the present
       History is the most systematic way to integrate the
        areas and issues in modern psychology
       Recognize relationships among ideas, theories, and
        research efforts that make the whole cohesive
III. The Data of History:
Reconstructing psychology’s past
   How we study history
       Historiography: The principles, methods, and
        philosophical issues of historical research
       Data of science
            Conduct a laboratory experiment, observe behavior under
             controlled real-world conditions, take a survey, or calculate
             correlations….
            Can be replicated by other scientists at other time and places
       Data of history
            Materials used to reconstruct lives, events, eras
            Not replicable, conditions not controlled
            From data fragments
III. The Data of History:
Reconstructing psychology’s past
   Lost or suppressed data
       Lost: permanently or temporarily
       Suppressed: Freud’s materials to be opened in
        the 21st century (to protect the privacy of Freud’s patients
        and their family and reputation of Freud and his family)
       Altered:
            Self-interest: Freud’s case; Skinner’s youth
            To protect: Freud’s cocaine use
III. The Data of History:
Reconstructing psychology’s past
   Data Distorted in Translation
       Deliberately: Freud’s use of I and it (ego and
        id)
       Lack of equivalents b/w languages: Zeitgeist
        Gestalt
       By participants carelessly recording the
        relevant events
III. The Data of History:
Reconstructing psychology’s past
   Self-serving data
       Skinner described in his autobiography his rigorous
        self-discipline as a graduate student. However, he
        denied later on
        => consulted other sources.

       History is dynamic and constantly changes and
        corrected when new data are reinterpreted or revealed.
IV. External Context in Psychology

    Economic opportunity
    War (WWI and WWII)
    Prejudice and Discrimination
IV. External Context in Psychology
---Economic opportunity
   From Experimental Psychology to Applied psychology
   More Ph.D. than job opportunities
   Established university In Midwest and West and increased
    teaching job
   But, psychology is the newest science and received
    smallest financial support
   Solving real world problems to get financial support
   1890-1918: increased public school enrollments to 700%
    due to immigrants
   Actively apply psychology into education, teaching, and
    learning.
IV. External Context in Psychology
---War (WWI and WWII)
    Personnel selection, psychological testing, or engineering
     psychology---This work demonstrated to the public how
     useful psychology could be.

    Psychologist relocated from Europe to the US (because of
     Nazi menace in 1930s)

    After witnessing the WWI and WWII,
       Freud proposed that aggression as a significant
        motivation force for the human personality
       Erich Fromm: interested in abnormal behavior
IV. External Context in Psychology
----Prejudice and Discrimination

                        Discrimination against women:
                            Denied admission to graduate
                             school, excluded from faculty
                             position, lower salaries,
                             encountered barrier to tenure

                            Eleanor Gibson (Visual Cliff):
                             not allow to use graduate
                             students’ library, cafeteria,
                             director’s facility in lab, or take
                             seminars in Freudian psychology
                             at Yale University
                                   

    Eleanor Gibson
IV.External Context in Psychology
----Prejudice and Discrimination
                        Discrimination against women:

                            James Cattell (mental testing): urging
                             the acceptance of women in psychology

                            1983: he nominated 2 women for APA
                             membership

                            APA—the 1st scientific society to admit
                             women.

                            Female APA members: 15% (1893-
     James Cattell           1921), 20% (1938)….
IV. External Context in Psychology
----Prejudice and Discrimination
                       Discrimination against women:
                          Mary Calkins (psychology of

                           selves): APA first female
                           president in 1905

                           denied her doctorate from
                            Harvard University. She only
                            can be a person to sit-in one
                            class or a guess in the lab.
     Mary Calkins
IV. External Context in Psychology
----Prejudice and Discrimination

                    Discrimination based on ethic origin
                        Late 1800s: a policy to exclude Jewish
                         professors from faculty position (John
                         Hopkins University and Clark
                         University)

                        1960s: admissions quotas for Jewish
                         college students

                        Julian Rotter (Internal vs. External
                         Control) : was warned that “Jew simply
                         could not get academic jobs regardless of
Julian Rotter            their credentials” in 1941.
IV.External Context in Psychology
----Prejudice and Discrimination

                        Maslow was urged by his
                         professor at the University
                         of Wisconsin to change his
                         first name to “something
                         less obviously Jewish”, so
                         that he would have a better
                         chance to obtaining an
                         academic job. Maslow
                         refused to do so.
 Abraham Maslow
IV.External Context in Psychology
----Prejudice and Discrimination

                   Discrimination based on ethic origin
                       8 out of 3700 Ph.D in psychology was Black
                        (1920-1966)

                       Kenneth Clark (psychological effects of
                        racial segregation):

                       1st African American president at APA.
                        Rejected by Cornell U graduate admission
                        because of race, received his doctoral degree
                        from Columbia University in 1940
The Clarks
IV.External Context in Psychology
----Prejudice and Discrimination
                     Mamie Clark (his wife): earned a
                      doctoral degree at Columbia
                      University

                     Could not find the academic job;
                      found a job analyzing data

                     The Clarks’ research on racial
                      identity and self-concept issues for
                      Black children impacts the decision
                      to end racial segregation in public
                      school in 1954.
IV.External Context in Psychology
                            Recent…Prejudice and
                             Discrimination
                                Few female and minority
                                 psychologist were listed in the
                                 history of psychology or great
                                 psychologists

                                Book: Even the Rat was White
                                 (1998)

                                A project of “Great psychologist
                                 of color” is conducting by U of
                                 Notre Dame (2003)

Even the Rat was White
V.Personalistic and Naturalistic
theory of scientific history
   Personalistic theory:
       The view that progress and change in scientific
        history are attributable to the ideas of unique
        individual; focused on the achievement and
        contributions of specific individuals.
       However, often individuals were not
        recognized during their lifetimes.
V.Personalistic and Naturalistic
theory of scientific history
   Naturatlistic theory
       The view that progress and change in scientific
        history are attributable to the Zeitgeist (the
        spirit or climate of the times), which makes a
        culture receptive to some ideas by not to others
       Darwin: his theory developed is because the
        intellectual climate was ready to accept such a
        way of explaining the origin of the human
        species.
V.Personalistic and Naturalistic
theory of scientific history
   Problems?
       An established theory can determine the ways in which
        data are organized and analyzed as well as research
        results permitted to be published or not.
       Findings oppose current thinking may be rejected by a
        journal’s editors.
       John Garcia: challenging the S-R learning theory.
        Major journals refused to accept his articles. (later, he
        received the APA’s Distinguished Scientific
        Contribution Award for his research
VI. Schools of Thought in the
evolution of modern psychology.
   School of thoughts
       A group of psychologists who become
        associated ideologically and sometimes
        geographically, with the leader of a movement.
VII. Schools of Thoughts
   Each school points to the weakness of the
    old school and offered new definitions,
    concepts, and research strategies to correct
    the previous school.
VII. Schools of Thoughts
   Structuralism
   Functionalism
   Behaviorism
   Gestalt psychology
   Psychoanalysis
   Humanistic psychology
   Cognitive psychology

				
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