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					Anatomy and Medicine
   Discoveries in Biology and Anatomy
Just as astronomers moved away from the works of ancient Greeks, other
scientists used the scientific method to acquire new knowledge and make
great discoveries in the fields of Biology and Anatomy.

    Biology                  Vesalius                   William
• European Middle        • Used bodies of               Harvey
  Ages doctors relied      executed criminals
                                                   • English physician,
  on Greek, Galen          for dissection
                                                     early 1600s
• Galen’s works          • Hired artists to
                                                   • Observed, explained
  inaccurate               produce accurate
                                                     workings of human
                           drawings
• Flemish doctor                                     heart
  Andreas Vesalius       • On the Workings of
                                                   • Described blood,
  became known for         the Human Body,
                                                     circulatory system
  work in anatomy          1543
                                                     functions
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
• Dutch scientist, 1600s
• Used interest in developing magnifying lens to invent
  microscope
• First to describe appearance of bacteria, red blood cells,
  yeast, other microorganisms

Robert Hooke
• English physician, inventor
• Used early microscope to describe appearance of plants at
  microscopic level
• Credited with creating the term cell
   Scientific Revolution: Paracelsus:
   Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus
      Bombastus von Hohenheim
• 1493 to 1541 AD          • He was the first to
                             realize that poisoning
• Swiss                      could causes diseases
• One of the first to        like breathing metal
  challenge the ideas of     vapors
  Galen                    • He was the first to think
                             of chemicals as
• Said that people
                             medicine
  could only learn by
                           • Unfortunately his
  experience                 favorite medicine was
• So when he became          mercury, so he actually
  a teacher, he burned       poisoned the people he
  the books of Galen         was trying to heal
       Paracelsus (1493-1541)
•   Rejected the work of both
    Aristotle and Galen
•   Replace the traditional system
    with a new chemical
    philosophy based upon a new
    understanding of nature
    derived from fresh observation
    & experiment
•   Believed disease was caused
    by chemical imbalance in the
    organs which could be solved
    by chemical remedies
•   Although chemical remedies
    had been used, Paracelsus
    and his followers differed by
    giving careful attention to the
    proper dosages of their
    chemically prepared metals &
    materials
          Paracelsus
Paracelsus (11 November or 17
   December 1493 in Einsiedeln,
   Switzerland - 24 September 1541)
   was an alchemist, physician,
   astrologer, and general occultist.
   Born Phillip von Hohenheim, he
   later took up the name Philippus
   Theophrastus Aureolus
   Bombastus von Hohenheim, and
   still later took the title Paracelsus,
   meaning "equal to or greater than
   Celsus", a Roman physician from
   the first century BC.         “Bier is a really divine
                                  medicine”. Paracelsus (1493 –
                                  1541).
Paracelcus
           Paracelsus: Genius with bad press agent
•   Attended Universities of Heidelberg, Freiburg, Ingolstadt,
    Cologne, Tübingen, Vienna, Erfurt and Ferrara, left without
    degree, drank to excess, and wandered over most of known
    world, took part in the Peasants War (1525)
•   Practiced medicine in Spain, Portugal, England, Denmark,
    Poland, Prussia, Hungary, Arabia, Egypt, Turkey, probably
    other places as well, frequently aggravating established
    practitioners.
•   Investigated the use of opium, coined the term laudanum for
    tincture of opium, an opium extract containing 40-80%
    ethanol.
•   Pioneered use of chemicals, elements in medicine (Zn, Hg,
    Au)
•   Introduced draining to replace amputation or cauterization
•   Introduced dose-response concept
•   Recognized the first industrial disease in miners
                Paracelsus
•    Alle Ding' sind Gift
    und nichts ohn' Gift;
    allein die Dosis
    macht, dass ein
    Ding kein Gift ist.
    ("All things are
    poison and nothing
    is without poison,
    only the dose
                            Paracelsus crater
    permits something       photographed by Apollo
    not to be               15. An 83 km crater on the
    poisonous.”)            far side of the moon.
          Paracelsus: a few weird facts
•   “Paracelsus” a 1943 film by Georg Wilhelm Pabst,
    essentially a Nazi propaganda film.
•   Professor Bulwer in 1922 Murnau film 'Nosferatu' is a
    follower of Paracelsus
•   “Paracelsus” (lengthy dramatic poem by Robert
    Browning)
•   Paracelsus is mentioned as an inspiration to Victor
    Frankenstein, the main character in Mary Shelley's
    Frankenstein.
•   Paracelsus is one of the people featured on a Chocolate
    Frog card in Harry Potter. A bust of Paracelsus is in the
    castle at Hogwarts, near Gryffindor, between the
    entrance to the Gryffindor common room and the Owlry,
    as mentioned in Order of the Phoenix
 Andreas Vesalius (1514 to 1564)
Barber surgeon (combination
 barber, dentist, doctor).
Got special permission from the
 Pope to dissect criminals.
First scientist to understand human
 anatomy.
Wrote the first accurate book on
 human anatomy – Fabrica.
Andreas Vesalius: 1514 - 1564
• Belgian
• Proved Galen wrong by stealing bodies
  and dissecting them
• Grave-robbing for corpses became
  common
      Shortage of cadavers
• In England and Scotland, medical
  schools began to open.
• No one donated bodies to science
  – churchgoers believed in literal
  rising from grave, so dissection
  spoiled chances of resurrection.
• Became a tradition to rely on
  executed prisoners, even up to
  18th and 19th centuries.
          Serious Crimes
• The added punishment of being
  dissected after death was considered
  another deterrent from crime.
•    Ex. – Steal a pig: you were hung
•          Kill a person: you were hung
           and dissected
• Anatomists were often associated
  with executioners.
       Need for Body Parts
• Because they needed body parts,
  anatomists at medical school
  bought odd things.
• A man could sell the leg of his son
  if it had to be amputated
        Grave Robbing
• Some medical students raided
  grave yards; some professors
  did also.
• In certain Scottish schools in
  1700s, you could trade a
  corpse for your tuition.
         Resurrectionists
• By 1828 in London, body snatchers
  (or resurrectionists) provided the
  medical schools with corpses.

• Not a crime; a dead body could not
  be owned or stolen.

• (Anatomy studies were only
  conducted from October to May to
  avoid stench of decomposition.)
  Reactions to Grave Robbing
• Wealthy people chose to be buried
  in iron cages, some covered in
  concrete.
• Also churches built ―dead
  houses‖ which were locked and
  guarded.
             The Body in the Scientific Revolution
      A New Doctor – A New Body
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
  • Dutch-born Physician
  • Taught medicine at University of
   Padua (Italy)

  • 1543 –Publishes new textbook on
   anatomy, On the Workings of the
   Human Body
  • Same year Copernicus publishes On
   the Revolutions of the Heavenly
   Spheres

  •Textbook attacks many of the
   established theories of Aristotle and
   Galen on the basis of Vesalius’s own
   dissections.
  • Book is illustrated with detailed
   printed images.
              Andreas Vesalius:
                              (1514-64)
•   Belgian anatomist and physician whose work help correct many
    of the misconceptions of the time
•   Dissected actual human bodies, in a belief that Galen’s work was
    inaccurate because it was based on animals
•   Published his finding in 1543 in On The Structure of the Human
    Body
•    wrote De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Structure of the
    Human Body) – seven volumes on the structure of the human
    body which he illustrated himself
     – These were the most accurate and comprehensive anatomical
        texts at the time
     Appointed as physician to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
                   Vesalius




• Images from Vesalius’s
 book
This anonymous German
print shows a thigh
wound being
cauterized. Above the
action we can see the
various medical
instruments used for
different types of
wounds



   Source: Hans von
   Gersdorff,
   Feldbuch der
   Wundartzey
   (sSrasbourg, 1540).
          Andreas Vesalius
• The new anatomy of the sixteenth century was
  based on the work of Andreas Vesalius.
• He reported his results from dissecting human
  bodies as a professor of surgery at the
  University of Padua, presenting an accurate
  view of the individual organs and general
  structure of the human body.
• He erroneously believed that the body had two
  kinds of blood
    Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
•    His studies corrected Galen in relation to anatomy -
     believed practical research as the best way for
     understanding human anatomy
•    1543 published On the Fabric of the Human Body
    – Based upon his lectures at Padua
    – Deviated from traditional practice by personally
        dissecting a body to illustrate what he was
        discussing
•    Through his “hands-on” approach, Vesalius rectified
     some of Galen‟s more glaring errors
•    For example, the belief that the great blood vessels
     originated from the liver, but he still clung to Galen‟s
     belief about the ebb & flow of two kinds of blood in the
     veins and arteries
                  The Body in the Scientific Revolution
An anatomy lesson from the title
page of Vesalius’s book.
   Giovanni Morgagni: 1682 –
            1771AD
• Italian
• Studied the effects of disease on the
  body‟s insides
• Published a big book listing the effects of
  diseases on the body‟s organs
• Proved the ancient doctors wrong and that
  death was caused by damage to organs
  and not by humours
                      Morgagni
• Giovanni Battista Morgagni was born at Forli, Italy, on
  February 20, 1682; he died at Padua on December 6, 1771.
• He was educated at the University of Bologna, receiving a
  degree in philosophy and medicine there in 1701.
• He studied under A. M. Valsalva (1666-1723), whom he
  venerated for the rest of his life;when Valsalva left Bologna
  for Parma, Morgagni succeeded him as demonstrator in
  anatomy.
• He was made President of the Accademia at the age of
  24,and he gained a reputation for his dislike of speculation
  as opposed to accurate observation.
• In 1706 he began publication of a series of anatomical
  works, which led to his becoming known in Europe as an
  anatomist.
                        Morgagni
• In 1712, he left Bologna for Padua, where, except for a short
  unsuccessful attempt at practicing medicine in Forli, he was to
  spend the rest of his life as Professor of Anatomy.
• Shortly after settling in Padua, he married Paola Vergieri of
  Forli,with whom he had 15 children.
• His eight daughters all entered convents, which is said to have
  caused him considerable sadness near the end of his life.
• After his wife died in 1770, the aged widower did not have
  much desire to continue living.
• Ironically, his life, which had contributed so much to the
  understanding of the pathological basis of stroke, came to an
  end on December 6, 1771, when he (like his teacher Valsalva
  before him) succumbed to the condition.
                         Morgagni
• Morgagni taught at the renowned University of Padua for 56 years
  (1715 to 1771).
• His greatest professional achievement came in 1761 when, at the
  age of 79, he published his masterpiece, De Sedibus et Causis
  Morborum (translated into English as On the Sites and Causes of
  Disease).
• The book, consisting of five volumes of letters (for a total of 70
  letters), described Morgagni's observations of some 700 autopsies,
  and it included his correlationsbetween clinical symptoms and
  postmortem findings (lesions) for each of the cases studied.
• (Morgagni expressed his debt in De Sedibus to previouslypublished
  work by Theophile Bonet, 1629-1689, although the latter's work,
  Sepulcretum, translated in English as Graves), is generally
  considered to be a poorly organized and inconclusive summary of
  autopsy findings up to 1679.)
                         Morgagni
• It was Morgagni's study that introduced the clinical principles and
  practices that are still used today.
• Morgagni also drew on the ideas of Hippocrates, whose methods of
  observation and reasoning formed the basis for many of Morgagni's
  own ideas.
• For example, whereas Hippocrates made systematic
  differentiations of diseases based on observed external symptoms,
• Morgagni went farther and related the external expressions of the
  particular disease to the internal conditions within the body.
• Morgagni thus focused on theinternal damage within the body that
  gives rise to disease.
• In clinical practice, Morgagni carefully noted the symptoms during
  the course of a patient's illness, and then attempted to identify the
  organic or pathological causes off that disease during the
  postmortem examination.
                         Morgagni
•Because Morgagni's studies were so extensive, it became possible
for him to predict or visualize internal conditions based on
symptomatic observations.
• Morgagni's work was also instrumental in debunking the ancient
humoral theory of disease, according to which there is one cause for
all diseases.
•Morgagni'sDe Sedibus clearly identifies the pathologies of a number
of diseases, including hepatic cirrhosis (acute yellow atrophy),
cerebral gummata, cardiac valvular lesions, renal tuberculosis,
pneumonic solidification of the lungs, and syphilitic lesions
(aneurysms) of the brain.
•Morgagni also proved, through many autopsies, that cerebral lesion
in stroke occurs on the opposite side from the resulting paralysis.
•Morgagni has bequeathed his name to many anatomical part's and
conditions of the human body, e.g., the Morgagnian cataract.
•
                          Morgagni
• Morgagni was held in high esteem by his colleagues and
  students; he was the friend of many Venetian senators and several
  popes.
• His international reputation was attested to by his election to the
  Academia Naturae Curiosorum(1708); the Academy of Science,
  Paris (1731); the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg (1735); and the
  Berlin Academy (1754).
• Morgagni was largely responsible during the more than 50 years he
  spent as a professor at the University of Padua for that university's
  foremost reputation in Europe during the 18th century.
• Besides being recognized today as one of the leading figures in
  18th-century medicine, he is considered the father of morbid
  anatomy, and a founder of modern anatomy and pathology.
            William Harvey:
• English Physician
• Also disproved many of Galen’s hypotheses
• discovered the circulation of blood, the function of valves in
  the heart
• Worked with small animals and with humans
• Published his observations in Exercitatio Anatornica de Moto
  Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus aka De Moto Cordis
• Discovered the lack of circulation to the lungs in the fetal stage
  and therefore that lungs were collapsed and inactive in this
  phase
• Largely influenced by the mechanical philosophy in his work
  with the flow of blood
• First doctor to use quantitative and observational methods in
  his experiments
• Very skeptical of spontaneous generation; proposed that all
  animals originated from an egg
                      Harvey




“[The heart] is the household divinity which,
  discharging its function, nourishes, cherishes,
  quickens the whole body, and is indeed the foundation
  of life, the source of all action” - Harvey
         William Harvey
• He also showed that the same
  blood runs through veins and
  arteries and that the blood makes
  a complete circuit through the
  body.
• Harvey‟s work was based on
  close observation and
  experiment.
      William Harvey and the Human
              Blood System
•   It was only with the discoveries of William
    Harvey that this belief was corrected
•   Through his research & observations,
    Harvey demonstrated that the heart, not the
    liver, was the beginning point of circulation
    of blood in the body, that the same blood
    flows in both veins and arteries, and most
    important, blood makes a complete circuit
    as it passes through the body
       The Body in the Scientific
             Revolution
From Observation to
Experimentation

William Harvey’s experiments
to demonstrate the circulation
of blood (1628).


This illustrates an experiment
to show that blood in the veins
only flows toward the heart
because of valves that stop
blood from flowing back away
from it.
    LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU (1689-1762)

· A famous poet
· Herself a smallpox victim;
 In December 1715 smallpox ruined her good looks left her without
eyelashes and with deeply pitted skin
•Lady Mary was the wife of the British Ambassador to Turkey (1716-1718).
Learned how to variolate persons in Turkey and variolated her son in 1717
and her daughter in England in 1721.

· Although there was much resistance to the acceptance of this vaccination
method and Lady Mary was heavily criticized by the higher society in
England, the permission to vaccinate the children of the Prince and Princess
of Wales in 1772 dramatically promoted the adaptation of this method in
England and in other part of Europe.

· By the second half of the 18th century, Europe was being ravaged by
smallpox epidemics.
By this time, in rural England, it was noticed that women who milked cows
were frequently spared clinical smallpox disease and several undocumented
accounts suggest that the connection was made between contact with
cowpox virus and protection from smallpox.
 Edward Jenner: 1749 - 1823
• Developed the first vaccination in 1796
• It was to treat smallpox.
• His vaccine used smallpox pus from the
  less deadly disease cowpox.
• by 1800 most were using it. Jenner was
  awarded £30 000 by Parliament to enable
  him to continue carrying out his tests.
• Deaths from smallpox plummeted and
  vaccination spread through Europe and
  North America.
• Jenner worked in a rural community and most of his patients were
  farmers or worked on farms with cattle.
• In the 18th century smallpox was a very common disease and was a
  major cause of death.
• The main treatment was by a method which had brought success to a
  Dutch physiologist Jan Ingenhaus and was brought to England in 1721
  from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortly Montague.
• This method involved inoculating healthy people with substances from
  the pustules of those who had a mild case of the disease, but this often
  had fatal results
• In 1788 an epidemic of smallpox hit Gloucestershire and during this
  outbreak Jenner observed that those of his patients who worked with
  cattle and had come in contact with the much milder disease called
  cowpox never came down with smallpox.
• Jenner needed a way of showing that his theory actually worked.
• Jenner was given the opportunity on the 14 May 1796, when a young
  milkmaid called Sarah Nelmes came to see him with sores on her
  hands like blisters.
• Jenner identified that she had caught cowpox from the cows she
  handled each day.
• Jenner now had the               •   He explained to the farmer that if his
  opportunity to obtain the            theory was correct, James would
  material try out his theories.       never contract smallpox. Surprisingly,
  He carefully extracted some          the farmer agreed.
  liquid from her sores and        •   Jenner made two small cuts on
  then took some liquid from           James's left arm.
  the sores of a patient with      •   He then poured the liquid from
  mild smallpox.                       Sarah's cowpox sores into the open
                                       wounds which he bandaged.
• Jenner believed that if he
                                   •   James went down with cowpox but
  could inject someone with
                                       was not very ill.
  cowpox, the germs from the
                                   •    Six weeks later when James had
  cowpox would make the
                                       recovered, Jenner vaccinated him
  body able to defend itself           again, this time with the smallpox
  against the dangerous                virus.
  smallpox germs which he          •   This was an extremely dangerous
  would inject later.                  experiment. If James lived Jenner
• Jenner approached a local            would have found a way of preventing
  farmer called Phipps and             smallpox.
  asked him if he could            •    If James developed smallpox and
  inoculate his son James              died he would be a murderer.
  against smallpox.
• Jenner wrote a paper in 1798 explaining his experiments, and
wanted to report his first case study in the “Transactions of the
Royal Society of London” His study was rejected.
•He then went to London to demonstrate his theory.
•No one would submit to his vaccination. Discouraged, Jenner
returned to Berkeley.

   In 1801, Jenner published “The Origin of the Vaccine
Inoculation” describing how cowpox virus was prepared and used to
protect ("vaccinate") healthy persons against smallpox.
Material used as the vaccine was prepared from the arm of a
vaccinated child, thus the distribution of vaccine involved the
transportation of vaccinated children all over Europe.
Orphans were often used for this purpose.
Eventually, material from infected cows was used directly as
vaccine. By 1840, the British government had banned other
preventive treatments against smallpox.

“Vaccination,” the word Jenner invented for his treatment (from the
Latin, vacca, a cow), was adopted by Louis Pasteur for immunization
against any disease.
               Florence Nightingale
• Florence Nightingale (1820 - 1910)
   – In 1854 Florence Nightingale took 38 women to Turkey to nurse
     wounded and sick British soldiers in the Crimean War.
   – This was the first time the government had allowed women to do this.
   – She suffered from PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) for the rest of
     her life.
   – She became not only the first modern war nurse and nurse commander
     but its first documented psychological casualty.
   – She publishes a small booklet titled "Notes on Nursing." It is very
     popular.
   – It is expanded and published again in 1860 and in 1861 with special
     section on taking care of babies.
   – This book sold millions all over the world: the only money she ever
     earned in her life was her royalties from this book.
   – This book establishes the foundation for the nursing profession
1854 heard of Crimean War                     Men happy to have cleaner
 (between Britain & Russia)                    hospitals and good food.




                                                Florence cared for the
Bad conditions during war                         soldiers by walking
for injured (hurt) soldiers   The Lady with       round at night and
                                the Lamp          checking they were
                                                        alright


  Most soldiers sent to
        Turkey

                                                  So, soldiers called
                                                      Florence...
 Florence got supplies and
  a group of nurses to go
         and help
Florence Nightingale
      • In 1854 the Crimean War
        broke out – England was at
        war with Russia
      • People in England heard that
        soldiers in hospitals were
        poorly treated.
      • Florence was invited to take a
        group of 38 female nurses to
        work in hospitals in the
        Crimea.
    Florence became famous when
          war ended in 1856



    Queen Victoria wanted to meet
                 her.



                 1860
          Florence set up the
Nightingale School of Nursing in London




    Lots of people wanted her help
              and advice



           She died in 1910
Florence Nightingale
          Florence is
          remembered today
          as the person
          responsible for
          improving
          conditions in
          hospitals and
          making nursing an
          acceptable job
      Why was Florence called
      „The Lady with the Lamp‟?




…because Florence cared for the soldiers
 by walking round at night and checking
           they were alright.
    She gave them good food to eat.
The Men of Biology
         Louis Pasteur
         - Confirmed the theory of
           diseases
         - Introduced the process of
           pasteurization
         - First to create a vaccine
           against rabies
         - Disproved the theory of
           spontaneous generation
                 Medical Breakthroughs
Preventing Disease
• Breakthroughs in late 1800s as result of scientific advances earlier in century
• Fundamental concepts of disease, medical care, sanitation revealed
• Mysteries of what caused diseases began to be solved

Microbes and Disease
• Louis Pasteur showed link between the two, 1870
• Disproved spontaneous generation concept of bacteria from nonliving matter
• Showed bacteria always present though unseen, can reproduce

Fermentation
• Bacteria in the air causes grape juice to turn to wine, milk to sour
• Heating liquids, foods can kill bacteria, prevent fermentation
• Process became known as pasteurization, makes foods germ-free
                Medical Breakthroughs
Anthrax
• Deadly disease a constant threat to people, livestock
• Pasteur sought to prevent anthrax
• Injected animals with vaccine containing weakened anthrax germs

Antibodies
• Vaccine worked because body builds antibodies
• Antibodies fight weakened germs when they enter body

Rabies
• Pasteur’s next goal
• Developed vaccine, 1885
• Saved life of young boy bitten by rabid dog
                    Louis Pasteur
• Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1881)
   – He proved that air contains living organisms (bacteria)
   – That these microbes can produce putrefaction
   – That these microbes could be killed by the heating of the
     liquid they were in - sterilization by high temperature ->
     Pasteurization
   – He proved that the old idea that diseases start out of
     nothing (spontaneous generation) was inaccurate and
     that micro-organisms cause disease.
   – Demonstrates the presence of bacteria in air and
     explains how disease can be transmitted by airborne
     route.
Louis Pasteur: 1822 – 1895AD
• French                 • Found the causes of
• Developed the theory     anthrax and cholera
  that the bacteria we   • Discovered how to
  call germs caused        weaken germs by
  disease and not bad      heating them up until
  smells                   they are damaged
• Found out how to         and can no longer
  preserve wine by         multiply
  heating it to kill     • He used this to
  germs---                 develop vaccinations
  pasteurization           for rabies
       Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)



Stereochemistist: molecular asymmetry

Fermentation and silk worker disease, Pasteurisation ,
Germ Theory of disease
Thus started microbilogy

         Attenuated vaccines for cholera, anthrax, and rabies
On July 4, 1886, 9-year-old Joseph Meister was bitten repeatedly by a
rabid dog. Pasteur treated him with his attenuated rabies vaccine
two days later. Meister survived.
Joseph Meister later become a gatekeeper for the Pasteur Institute.
In 1940, when he was ordered by the German occupiers to open
Pasteur's crypt, Joseph Meister refused and committed suicide!

 Another way to look at Louis Pasteur:

THE DREAM AND LIE OF LOUIS PASTEUR
by R. B. Pearson

http://whale.to/a/b/pearson.html
                   Pasteur’s contributions

   First, championed changes in hospital practices to
minimize the spread of disease by microbes.

   Second, discovered that weakened forms of a microbe
could be used to immunize against more virulent forms of the
microbe.

  Third, found that rabies was transmitted by agents so
small they could not be seen under a microscope, thus
revealing the world of viruses. As a result he developed
techniques to vaccinate dogs against rabies, and to treat
humans bitten by rabid dogs.

  And fourth, developed "pasteurization," a process by
which harmful microbes in perishable food products are
destroyed by heat, without destroying the food.
   Pasteur and the Defeat of Spontaneous Generation
• Louis Pasteur
  (1822-1895)
 – Discovered that alcoholic
   fermentation was a
   biologically mediated
   process (originally thought
   to be purely chemical)
 – Disproved theory of
   spontaneous generation
    • Led to the development of
      methods for controlling the
      growth of microorganisms
 – Developed vaccines for
   anthrax, fowl cholera, and
   rabies
  The Defeat of Spontaneous
Generation: Pasteur‟s Experiment
   What Causes Fermentation?
• Spoiled wine threatening livelihood of
  vintners, so they funded research into how
  to promote production of alcohol, but
  prevent spoilage by acid during
  fermentation
• Some believed air caused fermentation
  reactions, while others insisted living
  organisms caused fermentation
• This debate also linked to debate over
  spontaneous generation
Pasteur‟s Experiments on Pasteurization




                                          Figure 1.14
  Pasteur Strikes it Lucky
• Impressed by Jenner‟s work on Smallpox
   – But Jenner and Pasteur did not understand how
     vaccination worked
   – Trial and error
• Chicken Cholera, 1879
   – Common disease affecting farmers livestock
   – Pasteur experiments with injecting weaker forms of
     disease into chickens
      • Little success
      • His team goes home for the summer
      • On return, they accidentally use a strain that had been left
        uncovered for the whole summer
      • It works!
      • Exposure to the air had weakened the germs
• “Chance only favours the mind which is prepared”
           Medical Breakthroughs

Treatment of Infections
• Many surgical patients died from infections
• English surgeon Joseph Lister, 1860s
   – Began cleaning wounds and equipment with
     antiseptic containing carbolic acid
   – Reduced post-surgery deaths in one hospital ward
     from 45 to 15 percent
                        Joseph Lister
• Joseph Lister (1827 - 1912)
   – A Professor of Surgery at Glasgow University, he was very aware
     that many people survived the trauma of an operation but died
     afterwards of what was known as „ward fever‟
   – Work on ward cleanliness and the link between germs and good
     post-operative health had already been studied by a Hungarian
     doctor called Ignaz Semmelweiss.
   – He argued that if a doctor went from one patient to another after
     doing surgery, that doctor would pass on to the next visited patient a
     potentially life threatening disease.
   – He insisted that those doctors who worked for him wash their hands
     in calcium chloride after an operation and before visiting a new
     patient -> Introduces antiseptic surgery
   – At the time, it was not known that the infections were caused by
     bacteria
       Early needs and success for disinfection
          (Early 1800’s) —— a historic story
•   almost half of post-operative patients died of sepsis (then called “hospital
    disease”). A common report by surgeons was: operation successful but patient
    died.
•   By mid-1800‟s,
•   A hypothesis: ① exposing moist body tissue to oxygen  sepsis; ② best
    prevention: keeping air away from wounds by means of plasters, collodion or
    resins.

•   Having tried methods to encourage clean healing with no success, surgeon
    Joseph Lister discarded the concept of direct infection by bad air but
    postulated that sepsis might be caused by a 'pollen-like dust„, although he did
    not know yet the “dust” was living microbes.

•   When Louis Pasteur suggested the presence of living organisms in the air, Lister
    made the connection with wound sepsis: the microbes in the air were likely
    causing the sepsis and should be destroyed before they entered the wound.

•   Lister had previously heard that 'carbolic acid' was used to treat sewage, and
    that fields treated with the affluent were freed of a parasite causing disease in
    cattle. He then began to clean wounds and dress them with carbolic acid..
    Biography
• A doctor who was Born in
  Prussia in 1843
• Interested in Pasteur‟s Germ
  Theory
• He received a Microscope as
  a present in 1873
• Franco – Prussian Rivalry
   – Franco-Prussian War 1870/1
                                   Read Dialogue
   – German Government gave        page 130
     Koch money to set up a
     research institute to rival
     Pasteur
             Robert Koch
• In the late 19th century two of the most
  dangerous killer diseases were cholera
  and tuberculosis.
• Cholera was nicknamed 'King Cholera'
  because no one seemed to be able to cure
  it.
• Tuberculosis was known as the 'White
  Death' because sufferers vomited up white
  matter as their lungs disintegrated.
• The man who made a breakthrough in the
  fight against these diseases was Robert
  Koch.
     Who Was Robert Koch?
• Koch was a German scientist, born in
  Hanover in 1843.
• Koch read Louis Pasteur's work and in
  1872 began research into the microbes
  affecting diseased animals and people.
     What made Koch famous
• In 1878 Koch discovered that microbes cause
  wounds to go septic, but his big breakthrough
  came when he decided to stain microbes with
  dye, enabling him to photograph them under a
  microscope.
• Using this method he was able to study them
  more effectively and prove that every disease
  was caused by a different germs.
• He identified the microbes that caused
  tuberculosis in 1882 and cholera in 1883.
          How did he do this?
• Koch's discoveries were the result of careful
  research and observation using the microscope,
  photography and dyes.
• As a result of his work, the German government
  also set up an 'Institute of Infectious Diseases' in
  Berlin in 1891 for medical research and
  development.
• These developments set the pattern for the
  future.
• In the 20th century medical research has
  increasingly involved teams of researchers
  supported by large public or private funds.
Robert Koch (1843-1910)

   German physician; also started to
work on Anthrax in 1870's. Identified
the spore stage. First time the
causative agent of an infectious
disease was identified.

  Koch's postulates: conditions that
must be satisfied before accepting
that particular bacteria cause
particular diseases.

  Discovered the tubercle bacillus
and tuberculin.
  Detailed tuberculin skin test (DTH).

  Awarded 1905 Nobel Prize.
       Isolating the Germs that
           caused Anthrax
• Explain how 1 Sheep and 20
  generations of mice allowed Koch to
  prove that a particular germ caused
  Anthrax. Explain why he succeeded?
  Germ Cultures
• Koch‟s isolation technique
  pioneered the use of culture
  plates
  – He extracted the blood from an
    infected animal
  – He found that if he injected an
    animal with the infected blood it
    would catch the disease much
    quicker
  – The more times he did this the
    stronger the disease would
    become
  – Eventually, this germ could be
    extracted and be encouraged to
    breed a pure form in a glass
    culture plate.
     The Floodgates open
• Using Koch‟s methods, other
  scientists were able to isolate
  and identify the germs that
  caused particular diseases
• List the causes of diseases
  discovered in the 1880s and
  1890s
• However, knowing the cause of
  these diseases still did not help
  to treat any sick patients, yet.
                   Robert Koch

• Robert Koch (1843-1910)
  – Definitively demonstrated the link between microbes and
    infectious diseases
     • Identified causative agents of anthrax and tuberculosis
  – Developed techniques (solid media) for obtaining pure
    cultures of microbes, some still in existence today
  – Awarded Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1905


  – Koch‟s postulates
          Koch’s Postulates

1. The microbe must be present in
   every case of the disease but
   absent from healthy organisms
2. The suspected microbe must be
   isolated and grown in a pure culture
3. The same disease must result when
   the isolated microbe is inoculated
   into a healthy host
4. The same microbe must be isolated
   again from the diseased host
Koch‟s Postulates
Koch‟s Postulates
                      Robert Koch
• Robert Koch (1843 - 1910)
   – Koch was a German doctor, influenced by Pasteur's work. In 1872,
     he began research into the microbes affecting animals and people.
   – The first animal disease that Koch investigated was anthrax. Koch
     found out that the anthrax microbe produced spores that lived for
     a long time after an animal had died. He also proved that these
     spores could then develop into the anthrax germ and could infect
     other animals.
   – Koch also devised a method of proving which germ caused an
     infection: Koch Postulates
   – He perfected the technique of growing pure cultures of germs
     using a mix of potatoes and gelatine. This was a solid enough
     substance to allow for the germs to be studied better.
   – In 1882 he identified the bacteria causing tuberculosis (TB).
   – In 1883, he identified the bacteria causing cholera.
   – By 1900, twenty-one germs that caused diseases had been
     identified in just 21 years
   Koch’s Postulates (1884)

1. Suspect pathogenic organism
   should be present in all cases
   of the disease and absent
   from healthy animals


2. Suspect organism should be
   grown in pure culture


3. Cells from a pure culture of
   suspect organism should
   cause disease in healthy
   animal


4. Organism should be
   reisolated and shown to be
   same as the original
         Results of his Research
• The scientific evidence
  of microbes helped
  reformers in public
  health prove that
  pollution spread disease.
• It meant certain kinds of
  action could be taken to
  prevent certain types of
  disease, since cholera
  was carried in water, for
  example, its spread
  could be prevented with
  clean water supplies.
       Long Term Importance
• Koch was responsible for establishing the new
  'Science of Modern Bacteriology'.
• By 1900 he and his students had identified 21
  germs causing diseases.
• Koch's assistant, Emil Behring, developed the
  first anti-toxin that could help to destroy the
  poison spread by bacteria in the blood stream.
• Koch's research on bacteria won him the Nobel
  Prize in 1905.
The Men of Biology
         Sir Alexander Fleming
         - Isolated and discover
            the antibiotic
            properties of
            penicillin.

				
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