Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence
Entry-to-Practice Competencies (Approved September 2006; Effective December 2006) -
Aiken, L. H., Havens, D. S., & Sloane, D. M. (2000). The magnet nursing services
recognition program: A comparison of two groups of magnet hospitals. American
Journal of Nursing, 100(3), 26-36.
Aiken, L. H., Havens, D. S. & Sloane, D. M. (2000, March). The magnet nursing
services recognition program [On-line serial]. NursingCenter.com. Available:
Adlersberg, M., & S. Regan. (1999). Dispelling the myths about continuing
competence. Nursing BC, 31(2), 13-15.
Alberta Association of Registered Nurses. (1992, January). A Discussion of
Continuing Competence of the Registered Nurse. Author.
Alberta Association of Registered Nurses. (1999). Continuing competence. Alberta
RN, 55(4), 23.
AARN welcomes new staff: Assistant registrar/continuing competence. (2001).
Alberta RN, 57 (7), 9.
Alexander, M. F., & Runciman, P. J. (2003). ICN framework of competencies for the
generalist nurse: Report of the development process and consultation. Geneva,
Switzerland: International Council of Nurses. Call number WY16.I6 (AARN library).
Allen, P. & Nagy, E. (1995). Competencies defined [Online]. Bowling Green, Ohio:
Career Services Bowling Green State University. Available:
Alspach, G. Concern and confusion over competence. Critical Care Nurse, 12(4), 9-
American Association of Occupational Health Nurses. (2003). Competencies in
occupational and Environmental Health Nursing. AAORN JOURNAL, 51(7), 290-302.
American Nurses Association. (1997). ANA Response to Pew Commission Report [On-
line]. Available: http://www.nursingworld.org/readroom/pew.htm
American Nurses Credentialing Center. (2000, February 25). ANCC to make
certification available to all registered nurses through Open Door 2000 program.
Nursing World [On-line serial]. Available:
American Nurses Credentialing Center. (2002). Magnet nursing services recognition
program [On-line]. Available: http://www.nursingworld.org/ancc/magnet.htm.
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 1
Baker, C., Beglinger, J., King, S., Salyards, M. & Thompson, A. (2000, July/August).
Transforming negative work cultures: A practical strategy. The Journal of Nursing
Administration, 30(7/8), 357-363.
Baker, R. S. Identifying and Assessing Competencies: A strategy to Improve
Healthcare Leadership. Heathcarepapers, 4(1), 49-58.
Bargagliotti, T., Luttrell, M., & Lenburg, C. B.(2004). Reducing threats to the
implementation of a competency-based performance assessment system. Online
Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved July 20, 2004, from
Barnhill, G. C., & Webb, L. C. (1997). Testing, testing...1, 2, 3. Grady and Lynn on
continuing competence. CLEAR Exam Review, Summer, 8-11.
Barry, J. (1999). RN exam to be based on new list of competencies. Nursing BC,
Beatty, A. & Bramlet, C. (1999, March 11). The 7 steps of competency. Psychological
Associates [On-line]. Available: http://www.q4solutions.com/art48.html
Beecroft, P. C. (2001). Quality improvement and error rates. Clinical Nurse
Specialist, 15(1), 1.
Bell, M., Robertson, D., Weeks, M., & Yu, D. (2002). A virtual team group process.
Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership, 15(3), 30-33.
Boblin-Cummings, S., Baumann, A., & Deber, R. (1999). Critical elements in the
process of decision making: A nursing perspective. Canadian Journal of Nursing
Leadership, 12(1), 6-13.
Bradley, D. (2003) Validating Competency at the Bedside. Journal of Nurses in Staff
Development, 19(4), 165-173.
Brady, C., K. Becker, L.E. Brigham, J. Goldman, B.B. Wilson and E. George.
Breisch, L. R. (1999, March). Motivate! Nursing Management, 27-29.
Britton, B.P., Raper, J.T. & Walden, C.M. (1995). From development to evaluation:
Making a competency plan work. Journal of Nursing Staff Development, 11(4), 210-
214. Brookfield, S. D. (1990). The Skilful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and
Responsiveness in the Classroom. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S. D. (1990). The Skilful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and
Responsiveness in the Classroom. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brunke, L. (1997). Regulatory notes: Nurses review ways to demonstrate
competence. Nursing BC, January/February, 22-23.
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 2
Brunt, B. A. (2002). Identifying Performance Criteria for Staff Development
Competencies. Journal of Nurses in Staff Development, 18(6), 314-321.
Budgell, G.R. (2000, June). Quality nursing care: competence for today. Presentation
by Assessment Strategies Inc., Ottawa, Ontario.
Burke, A. (2000, February). How to accomplish organization-wide competency and
education. Nursing Management, 20-25.
Byers, J. F. (2000, July/August). Knowledge, skills, and attributes needed for nurse
and non-nurse executives. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 30(7/8), 354-356.
Campbell, B. & Mackay, G. (2001, Winter). Continuing competence: An Ontario
nursing regulatory program that supports nurses and employers. Nursing
Administration Quarterly, 25(2), 22-30.
Canadian Nurses Association. (1998, March). Policy Statement: Educational Support
for Competent Nursing Practice. Ottawa, Ontario: Author.
The Case for Mandatory Certification. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31 (10),
Challenges of Continuing Education, (1-5).
Cipriano, P. (1986). Debate: Regulatory vs. professional approaches to continued
competence. Issues – National Council of State Boards of Nursing Inc., 7 (4), 6-10.
Clark, A. P. (2003). Truthfulness. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 17(1), 17-18.
Clark, A. P., & Taxis, J.C. (2003). Developing Ethical Competence in Nursing
Personnel. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 17(5), 236-237.
Clouder, L., & Sellars, J. (2004). Reflective practice and clinical supervision: An
interprofessional perspective. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 46(3), 262-269.
College of Nurses of Ontario. (1998, Oct. 15). Growing Quality in Nursing [On-line].
Continuing competence. (2000, January/February). Alberta RN, 56(1), 19.
Continuing competence. (2001, March/April). Alberta RN, 57(2), 35.
Continuing competence. (2001, July/August). Alberta RN, 57(4), 27.
Continuing competence: A constant challenge. (1996). Nursing BC, March/April, 17-
Continuing competence: A new part of RN registration. (2001, January/February).
Alberta RN, 57(1), 15.
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 3
Continuing competence and confidentiality. (2002, May). Alberta RN, 58(5), 9
Continuing competence is here. (2000). Alberta RN, 56(6), 22.
Continuing competence, make it your program. (2000). Alberta RN, 56(5), 14-15.
Continuing competence: Members’ comments and suggestions. (2001). Alberta RN,
Continuing competence: Moving toward implementation. (2000). Alberta RN, 56(4),
Continuing competence: Moving toward implementation. (2000). Alberta RN, 56(4),
Continuing competence update: Another milestone achieved. (2002). Alberta RN,
Continuing competence update: RNs urged to track professional development events
only. (2002). Alberta RN, 58(2), 11.
Continuing Competence Program Applications and Benefits, (1-3).
Cook, C. (1999, September 30). Initial and continuing competence in education and
practice: Overview and summary. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing [On-line
serial]. Available http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/topic10/tpc10ntr.htm
Corning, S. P. (2002). Profiling and developing nursing leaders. Journal of
Administrative Nursing, 32(7/8). 373-375.
Cotton, A. H. (2001). Private thoughts in public spheres: Issues in reflection and
reflective practices in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(4), 512-519.
Deering, C. G., & Eichelberger, L. (2002). Mirror, mirror on the wall: Using online
discussion groups to improve interpersonal skills. Computers, Informatics, Nursing,
Del Bueno, D. J. (1993). Competence, criteria, and credentialing. Journal of Nursing
Administration, 23(5), 7-8.
De Vries, C. (1999). Continued competence: Assuring quality health care. American
Journal of Nursing, 99(10), 60-61.
Diermert, C. (2002). Why professional standards and regulation? [Electronic
version]. Minnesota Nursing Accent, 74(6), 12. Retrieved May 13, 2003, from the
Dixon, R. A., Hazlitt, J. E., & Cohen, A. (1999). Review of the book: Improving
competence across the lifespan: Building interventions based on theory and research.
Canadian Journal on Aging, 18(1), 110-112.
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 4
Domino, E. (2005). Nurses are What Nurses Do-Are you where you want to be?
AORN JOURNAL, 81(1), 187-201.
Duffield, C. (1991). Maintaining competence for first-line nurse managers: An
evaluation of the use of literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16, 55-62.
Fitzpatrick, J. M., While, A. E., & Roberts, J. D. (1992). The role of the nurse in high-
quality patient care: A review of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17,
Flannery, D. & Ward, K. (1999). Service learning: A vehicle for developing cultural
competence in health education. American Journal of Health Behavior, 23(5), 323-
Fooks, C., Rachlis, M., & Kushner, C. (1989, November 8-10). Assessing Concepts of
Quality of Care: Results of a National Survey of Five Self-Regulating Health
Professions. Presentation at the International Conference on Quality Assurance and
Effectiveness in Health Care, Toronto, Ontario.
Fulton, J. S. (2003). It’s About Practice Competencies. Clinical Nurse Specialist,
George, V., Farrell, M., & Brukwitzki, G. (2002). Performance competencies of the
chief nurse executive in an organized delivery system. Nursing Administration
Quarterly, 26(3), 34-43.
Gilbert, T. (2001). Reflective practice and clinical supervision: Meticulous rituals of
the confessional. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(2), 199-205.
Gillis, A., Lellan, M. M., & Perry, A. (1998). Competencies of liberal education in
post-RN baccalaureate students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Nursing Education,
Glasgow College of Nursing and Midwifery (1995). Professional Development and
Training. Glasgow: Author.
Golightly, G. (2000). Changes in Attitudes. Nursing BC, October, 26-27.
Goonan, K. J. & Jordan, H.S. (1992, November). Is QA antiquated, or was it at the
right place at the wrong time? Quality Review Bulletin, 8(11), 372-379.
Gould, D., Kelly, D., Goldstone, L., & Maidwell, A. (2001). The changing training of
clinical nurse managers: Exploring issues for continuing professional development.
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 34(1), 7-17.
Gurvis, J. P., & Grey, M.T. (1995). The anatomy of a competency. Journal of Nursing
Staff Development, 11(5), 247-252.
Gustin, T. J., Semler, J. E., Holcomb, M. W., Gmeiner, J. L., Brumberg, A. E., Martin,
P. A., & Lupo, T. C. (1998). A clinical advancement program: Creating an
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 5
environment for professional growth. Journal of Nursing Administration, 28(10), 33-
Hall, D. (2000). Continuing competence. Info Nursing, Sept/Oct, 12-13.
Hall, L. A Palette of Desired Leadership Competencies: Painting the Picture for
Successful Regionalization. Health Management Forum, 18-22.
Hardingham, L. B. (2001). Reflective practice. Alberta RN, 57(3), 28-29.
Harper, J. P. (2002). Preceptors’ perceptions of a competency-based orientation.
Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 18(4), 198-202.
Hatler, C., Milton, D. & Clark, C. (1999). Methodological issues in performance
improvement in integrated systems. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 13(3), 47-58.
Hebert, M. (2000). A national education strategy to develop nursing informatics
competencies. Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership, 13(2), 11-14.
Hegge, M., Powers, P., Hendirckx, L., & Vinson, J. (2002). Competence, continuing
education and computers. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 33(1), 24-
Helping you meet the Continuing competence Requirements for 2000 Registration
Renewal. (1999). Nursing BC, 32.
Hill, K. S. (2003). Development of Leadership Competencies as a Team. . Journal of
Advanced Nursing, 33(12), 689-642.
Inions, N. J. (1990). Should privilege be extended to quality assurance activities?
Privilege and Quality Assurance: The Issues for Canadian Hospitals, 185-194.
Jacobs, L. A., DiMattio, M. K., Bishop, T. L., & Fields, S. D. (1998). The
Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing As an Entry-Level Requirement for Professional
Nursing Practice. Journal of professional Nursing, 14(4), 225-233.
Johnson, S. H. (1991). Practice standards: Are they standards or goals? Dimensions
of Critical Care Nursing, 10(2), 51-52.
Keely, B.R. (1991). Applying standards to practice: The critical step. Dimensions of
Critical Care Nursing, 1(5), 251-252.
Kleineman, C. S. (2003). Leadership Roles, Competencies, and Education: How
prepared are our Nurse Managers? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(9), 451-455.
Knapp, B. (2004). Competency: An Essential Component of Caring in Nursing.
Nursing Administration Quarterly, 28(4), 285-287.
Koch, T. (1992) A review of nursing quality assurance. Journal of Advanced Nursing,
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 6
Kreichelt, G., & Spann, K. Brief: Medical Nursing Grand. Rounds: Learning, Sharing,
Caring. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing. 22(1), 35.
Kuehn, L., & Jackson, K. (1997). Using nursing standards to evaluate competency.
Nursing Management, 28(8), 32K, 32N, 32P.
LaDuke, S. (2000). Hospital develops “paperless” competence system [Electronic
version]. The NIC/NOC Letter, 8(1), 3.
LaDuke, S. (2000). The effects of professional discipline on nurses. American
Journal of Nursing, 100(6), 26-33.
Lanctôt, A. (1999, May 27). CLEAR national summit on state regulation of health
professionals, May 11-12 [Personal Communication].
Lee-Hsieh, J., Kuo, C., & Tseng, H. (2003). Clinical Nursing Competence of RN-to-
BSN Students in a Nursing Concept-Based Curriculum in Taiwan. Journal of Nursing
Education, 42(12), 536-545.
Lenburg, C. B. (1999, Sept. 30). The framework, concepts and methods of the
competency outcomes and performance assessment (COPA) model. Online Journal of
Issues in Nursing. Retrieved July 20, 2004, from
Lenburg, C. B. (1999, Sept. 30). Redesigning expectations for initial and continuing
competence for contemporary nursing practice. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing
[On-line serial]. Available http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/topic10/tpc10_1.htm
Lewis, C., & Marini, A. (1998). Lessons Learned in Developing a Continuing
Competence Program. Clear Conference, Denver Colorado.
Lundgren, B. S., & Houseman, C. A. (2002). Continuing competence in selected
health care professions. Journal of Allied Health, 31(4), 232-240.
Luquire, R., & Houston, S. (1998). The link between outcomes management and
JCAHO functions. Outcomes Management for Nursing Practice, 2(4), 143-146.
Lyon, B. L., & Boland, D. L. (2002). Demonstration of continued competence: A
complex challenge. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 16(3), 155-156.
Maintaining competence important to nurses, study finds. (1999). Nursing BC, 31(5),
11-12. Mate, D. W. (1999) Continuing Competence: Continuing competence
programs. Nurscene, October.
Malkin, K. F. (1994). As standard for professional development: the use of self and
peer review; learning contracts and reflection in clinical practice. Journal of Nursing
Management, 2, 143-148.
Meretoja, R., & Leino-Kilpi, H. (2001). Instruments for evaluation nurse competence.
Journal of Nursing Administration, 31(7/8), 346-352.
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 7
Meretoja, R., Leino-Kilpi, H., & Isoaho, M. (2004). Nurse Competence Scale:
development and psychometric testing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(2), 124-
Minarik, A. P. (2005). Issue: Competence Assessment and Competency Assurance of
Healthcare Professionals. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 19(4), 180-183.
Nelson, S., & Purkis, E. M. (2004). Mandatory reflection: the Canadian reconstitution
of the competent nurse. Nursing Inquiry, 11(4), 247-257.
Olthuis, G., & Dekkers, W. (2003). Professional Competence and Palliative Care: an
Ethical Perspective. Journal of Palliative Care, 19(3), 192-
Pew Commission calls for tougher standards, competency exams to protect
consumers. (1998). Front & Center, 3(2), 7.
Pew Commission Taskforce on Health Care Workforce Regulation. Recreating health
professional practice for a new century. Author.
Pew Commission Taskforce on Health Care Workforce Regulation. Strengthening
consumer protection: Priorities for health care workforce regulation. Author.
Poster, E., & Adams, P., Clay, C., Garcia, B.R., Hallman, A., Jackson, B., Klotz, L.,
Lumpkins, R., Reid, H., Sanford, P. G., Slatton, K., & Yuill, N. (2006). The Texas
Model of Differentiated Entry-Level Competencies of Graduates of Nursing Programs.
Nursing Education Perspectives, 26(1), 18-23.
Proehl, J. A. (2002). Assessing emergency nurse competence. Emergency Nursing,
Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organisation. (2004) Public Health Nursing
Competencies. Public Health Nursing, 21(5), 443-452.
Registered Nurses Association of British Columbia. (2000). Continuing competence:
Next steps. Nursing BC, February, 37.
Rusche, J. D., Besuner, P., Partusch, S. K., & Berning, P. A. (2001). Competency
program development across a merged healthcare network. Journal for Nurses in
Staff Development, 17(5), 234-242.
Ryan-Nicholls, K. D. (2003). Educational needs of psychiatric nurses for continuing
competency. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 34(5), 218-225.
Seifert, P. C. (2002). Ethics in perioperative practice: Duty to foster an ethical
environment. AORN Journal, 76(3), 490-497.
Self Assessment of Competencies, (1-3).
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 8
Shanks, J. (2002). Continuing competence – what is it all about? Continuing
competence program for registered nurses in Saskatchewan [Electronic version].
SRNA Newsbulletin, 4(3), 16. Retrieved May 13, 2003, from the CINAHL database.
Sinclair, B. P. (2000). Putting cultural competence into practice. AWHONN Lifelines,
Skill and lifelong learning: The link for quality nursing. Saskatchewan Registered
Nurses’ Association, 28(3), 14-15.
Tabari Khomeiran, R., Yekta, P. Z., Kiger, M. A., & Alhmadi, F. (2006). Professional
Competence: factors described by nurses as influencing their development.
International Nursing Reviews 53, 66-72.
Taylor, K. (2000). Tackling the issue of nurse competency. Nursing Management,
Tzeng, H. (2003). International Perspective. Demand and Supply for Nursing
Competencies in Taiwan’s Hospital Industry. Nursing Economics, 21(3), 130-139.
Van Cleave, C., & Scherffius, J. A. (2002). Filling the void created by reductions in
nurse staffing. AORN Journal, 75(4), 829-831.
Waddell, D. L. (2001). Measurement issues in promoting continued competence. The
Journal of Continuing Nursing Education, 32(3), 102-106.
Ward, K. (2002). A vision for tomorrow: Transformational nursing leaders. Nursing
Warner, J. R. (2002). Cultural competence immersion experiences: Public health
among the Navajo. Nurse Educator, 27(4), 187-190.
Welton, R., Nieves-Khouw, F., Schreiber, D. A., & McElreath, M. P. (2000).
Developing computer-based training for age-related competencies. Journal for
Nurses in Staff Development, 16(5), 195-201.
Whittaker, S., Carson, W., & Smolenski, M. C. (2000, June 30). Assuring continued
competence – policy questions and approaches: How should the profession respond?
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing [On-line serial]. Available:
Whittaker, S., Carson, W., & Smolenski, M. C. (2000, June 30). Letters to the Editor:
Response by Barbara Dunn. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing [On-line serial].
Available: http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/letters/ t10e5.htm
Whittaker, S., Carson, W., & Smolenski, M. C. (2001, August 10). Letters to the
Editor: Response by Barbara Dunn. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing [On-line
serial]. Available: http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/letters/ t10e6.htm
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 9
Winters, J., Hauck, B., Riggs, J., Clawson, J., & Collins, J. (2003). Use of Videotaping
to Assess Competencies and Course Outcomes. Journal of Nursing Education, 42(10),
Yee, C. C. (2002). Identifying information technology competencies needed in
Singapore nursing education. Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 20(5), 209-214.
Continuing Competence Bibliography: Continuing Competence 10