The Integumentary Skeletal Muscular System

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					Chapter 36
The Integumentary, Skeletal, &
Muscular System

John Hizny
Lexi Coolbaugh
Sarah Schultz
James Avery
Adam Werner
Section 36-1
 Largest organ in the body
   Part of integumentary system
    Integumentary includes skin, hair, nails, and
 number of important glands in skin.
 Skin has three layers
    1. Outer layer - Epidermis
    2. Inner Layer -Dermis
    3. Lowest Layer - Hypodermis
Supports the Epidermis
 Contains important cells for:
  Nerve endings
  Blood Vessels
  Smooth Muscle
 The body’s Sweat/Oil Glands are
  located here also
 Produces cells that are pushed toward
  the surface. Produces keratin as they
  move upward.
 Keratin – Tough, flexible protein
    ◦ Major protein found in fingernails
    ◦ Forms a tough waterproof layer on top of
•Hair is produced from columns of cells that
are filled with keratin and then…. DIE.
•Clusters of cells make up Hair Follicles.
•Toenails/fingernails are formed by keratin-
forming cells for a flattened plate.
Section 36-2
   All vertebrates have an internal skeletal
     Bones store supplies of calcium and
   Internal Skeletal System
    ◦ Provides support for the upper body
    ◦ Attachment sites for muscles
    ◦ Protects internal organs
Bone Structure
 Periosteum- tough layer surrounding
 Inside the periosteum is a dense layer of
  compact bone.
 Spongy bone is found inside the compact
 Osteocytes- Cells found in C & S bone.
    ◦ Help build and maintain bones
Bone Growth
   Bones are produced by Cartilage.

   Cartilage is produced at growth plates &
    gradually is replaced by bone as the
    skeleton enlarges.
 A place where two bones meet.
 3 kinds of joints:
    ◦ Fixed
      Little or no movement between bones
        Mostly located in the skull
    ◦ Slightly Moveable
      Small amount of movement
        Mostly located in a Spinal Column or Ribs
    ◦ Freely Moveable
      Wide Range of movement
        Ex: Shoulders and hips
Joints Continued
 Joints are enclosed by a Joint Capsule.
 Inside the capsule is Synovial Fluid
    ◦ Natural lubricant that reduces friction &
      allows the cartilage coated bones slip past
      each other easily
Section 36-3
Muscle Tissue
   There are 3 types of muscle tissue:
    ◦ Skeletal
    ◦ Cardiac
    ◦ Smooth
   Each of these three types muscle, have a
    different cellular structure.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
 Generally attached to the bones of the
  skeleton and is usually under voluntary
 Skeletal muscle tissue is behind every
  conscious movement you make
    ◦ Ex: Lifting a weight
      This is because most skeletal muscle tissue is
       controlled directly by the nervous system.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
 Cardiac muscle tissue is found in just one
  place : The Heart
 Cardiac muscle tissue is striated, but the
  smaller Cardiac muscle cell have just one
  nucleus, and they are not under the direct
  control of the Central Nervous
Smooth Muscle Tissue
 Smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls
  of many internal organs, except the heart.
 The cells of the smooth muscle tissue are
  spindle shaped, have a single nucleus, and
  are not striated.
 Not always under the conscious control
  of the nervous system.
 Responsible for actions not under
  voluntary control.
Muscle Structure
 Myosin- Thick filaments that are made of
 Actin- Thin filaments that are made up of
  another protein.
Sliding Filament Theory
   When hundreds of thousands of actin-
    myosin cross-bridges go through their
    cycle in a fraction of a second, the muscle
    cell contracts with siderable force.
Muscle Contraction
   To make well-coordinated movement,
    muscle contractions must be carefully
   A single motor neuron may form synapse to
    one or several muscle cells. An impulse in
    the motor neuron causes the release of a
    neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
    ◦ This causes a new action potential. In turn causes
      the release of calcium ions into the cytoplasm of
      muscle cells.
      When calcium flows into the cytoplasm, cross-bridges
       form, and the muscle contracts.
Muscles and Movements
 Muscles produce force by contracting.
 Attached to bones by tendons, a muscle
  can pull two bones together, using the
  joint between them as a lever.
 An individual muscle can pull by
  contracting, but cannot push.
    ◦ If that’s true, then how can you push a door
      open or do a pushup?
      The answer is that skeletal muscles are arranged in
       pairs. These pairs oppose each other and produce
       forceful movements in either direction.
Section 36-4
Specialized Skeletal Muscle Fibers
   Skeletal muscles contain two main types
    of muscle fibers
    ◦ Red
    ◦ White
      Whose properties make them specialists at
       different kids of exercise.
Red Muscle Fibers
 Contain large amounts of reddish oxygen-
  storing protein myoglobin.
 Red fibers have rich blood supplies and
  plenty of mitochondria to produce ATP.
White Muscle Fibers
 Called fast- twitch muscle fibers and can
  generate powerful contractions.
 The contain few mitochondria , these
  fibers contain greater densities of
  contractile proteins than red fibers do.
    ◦ The powerful fibers fatigue easily, however,
      which means that they can produce maximum
      contractions for only a few seconds at a time.
Exercise Muscle Cells
   Aerobic exercises, such as running,
    swimming, and bicycling cause your body
    system to become more efficient.
    ◦ Resistance exercise, such as weight lifting,
      increase muscle size.

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