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The Integumentary Skeletal Muscular System

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The Integumentary Skeletal Muscular System Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 36
The Integumentary, Skeletal, &
Muscular System


John Hizny
Lexi Coolbaugh
Sarah Schultz
James Avery
Adam Werner
Section 36-1
Skin
 Largest organ in the body
   Part of integumentary system
    Integumentary includes skin, hair, nails, and
 number of important glands in skin.
 Skin has three layers
    1. Outer layer - Epidermis
    2. Inner Layer -Dermis
    3. Lowest Layer - Hypodermis
Supports the Epidermis
 Contains important cells for:
  Nerve endings
  Blood Vessels
  Smooth Muscle
 The body’s Sweat/Oil Glands are
  located here also
 Produces cells that are pushed toward
  the surface. Produces keratin as they
  move upward.
 Keratin – Tough, flexible protein
    ◦ Major protein found in fingernails
    ◦ Forms a tough waterproof layer on top of
      skin
•Hair is produced from columns of cells that
are filled with keratin and then…. DIE.
•Clusters of cells make up Hair Follicles.
•Toenails/fingernails are formed by keratin-
forming cells for a flattened plate.
Section 36-2
Bones
   All vertebrates have an internal skeletal
    system
     Bones store supplies of calcium and
      phosphorous
   Internal Skeletal System
    ◦ Provides support for the upper body
    ◦ Attachment sites for muscles
    ◦ Protects internal organs
Bone Structure
 Periosteum- tough layer surrounding
  bones
 Inside the periosteum is a dense layer of
  compact bone.
 Spongy bone is found inside the compact
  bone.
 Osteocytes- Cells found in C & S bone.
    ◦ Help build and maintain bones
Bone Growth
   Bones are produced by Cartilage.

   Cartilage is produced at growth plates &
    gradually is replaced by bone as the
    skeleton enlarges.
Joints
 A place where two bones meet.
 3 kinds of joints:
    ◦ Fixed
      Little or no movement between bones
        Mostly located in the skull
    ◦ Slightly Moveable
      Small amount of movement
        Mostly located in a Spinal Column or Ribs
    ◦ Freely Moveable
      Wide Range of movement
        Ex: Shoulders and hips
Joints Continued
 Joints are enclosed by a Joint Capsule.
 Inside the capsule is Synovial Fluid
    ◦ Natural lubricant that reduces friction &
      allows the cartilage coated bones slip past
      each other easily
Section 36-3
Muscle Tissue
   There are 3 types of muscle tissue:
    ◦ Skeletal
    ◦ Cardiac
    ◦ Smooth
   Each of these three types muscle, have a
    different cellular structure.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
 Generally attached to the bones of the
  skeleton and is usually under voluntary
  control.
 Skeletal muscle tissue is behind every
  conscious movement you make
    ◦ Ex: Lifting a weight
      This is because most skeletal muscle tissue is
       controlled directly by the nervous system.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
 Cardiac muscle tissue is found in just one
  place : The Heart
 Cardiac muscle tissue is striated, but the
  smaller Cardiac muscle cell have just one
  nucleus, and they are not under the direct
  control of the Central Nervous
  System
Smooth Muscle Tissue
 Smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls
  of many internal organs, except the heart.
 The cells of the smooth muscle tissue are
  spindle shaped, have a single nucleus, and
  are not striated.
 Not always under the conscious control
  of the nervous system.
 Responsible for actions not under
  voluntary control.
Muscle Structure
 Myosin- Thick filaments that are made of
  protein.
 Actin- Thin filaments that are made up of
  another protein.
Sliding Filament Theory
   When hundreds of thousands of actin-
    myosin cross-bridges go through their
    cycle in a fraction of a second, the muscle
    cell contracts with siderable force.
Muscle Contraction
   To make well-coordinated movement,
    muscle contractions must be carefully
    controlled.
   A single motor neuron may form synapse to
    one or several muscle cells. An impulse in
    the motor neuron causes the release of a
    neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
    ◦ This causes a new action potential. In turn causes
      the release of calcium ions into the cytoplasm of
      muscle cells.
      When calcium flows into the cytoplasm, cross-bridges
       form, and the muscle contracts.
Muscles and Movements
 Muscles produce force by contracting.
 Attached to bones by tendons, a muscle
  can pull two bones together, using the
  joint between them as a lever.
 An individual muscle can pull by
  contracting, but cannot push.
    ◦ If that’s true, then how can you push a door
      open or do a pushup?
      The answer is that skeletal muscles are arranged in
       pairs. These pairs oppose each other and produce
       forceful movements in either direction.
Section 36-4
Specialized Skeletal Muscle Fibers
   Skeletal muscles contain two main types
    of muscle fibers
    ◦ Red
    ◦ White
      Whose properties make them specialists at
       different kids of exercise.
Red Muscle Fibers
 Contain large amounts of reddish oxygen-
  storing protein myoglobin.
 Red fibers have rich blood supplies and
  plenty of mitochondria to produce ATP.
White Muscle Fibers
 Called fast- twitch muscle fibers and can
  generate powerful contractions.
 The contain few mitochondria , these
  fibers contain greater densities of
  contractile proteins than red fibers do.
    ◦ The powerful fibers fatigue easily, however,
      which means that they can produce maximum
      contractions for only a few seconds at a time.
Exercise Muscle Cells
   Aerobic exercises, such as running,
    swimming, and bicycling cause your body
    system to become more efficient.
    ◦ Resistance exercise, such as weight lifting,
      increase muscle size.

				
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posted:8/6/2011
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