Computers Everywhere

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					“Computers Everywhere”
                 Experts in Team 2007
                                  Product report, April 18, 2007

TEAM: [Selfish]
Supplementing
Electric
Lighting
For
Improving
Sustainable
Housing Design




                                           Glenn Bakke
                                           Ryan Bright
                                           Michael Byaruhang
                                           Anna Rongen
Preface................................................................................................................................. 5
1. Background to the problem............................................................................................. 6
2. Our Solution................................................................................................................... 6
3. Purpose and Product ...................................................................................................... 9
   The study of the hybrid lighting system has 3 parts ....................................................... 9
   Why “black box” concept? ........................................................................................... 10
   Possible System Applications:...................................................................................... 10
     Office spaces:............................................................................................................ 11
     Housing:.................................................................................................................... 11
     Larger buildings:....................................................................................................... 12
   Tools for lighting design............................................................................................... 12
4. The Smart Building and Computers ............................................................................ 13
   Black Box Prototype ..................................................................................................... 14
     The model ................................................................................................................. 15
     Components .............................................................................................................. 15
5. Application Scenario................................................................................................... 19
   Methodology of Environmental and Economic Analyses ............................................ 19
     Determining Location ............................................................................................... 19
     Data Collection ......................................................................................................... 20
     Functional Unit (F.U.)............................................................................................... 20
6. Implications.................................................................................................................. 23
7. System Implementation ................................................................................................ 24
   X10................................................................................................................................ 24
   ZigBee........................................................................................................................... 25
   Sunlight ......................................................................................................................... 26
8. Drawbacks and Shortcomings...................................................................................... 26
9. Recommendations........................................................................................................ 27
   Current Hybrid Lighting Systems in Architecture........................................................ 28
10. Norway?..................................................................................................................... 30
11. Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 31
References......................................................................................................................... 32




                                                                                                                                        2
“Enough light strikes the roof on a sunny day to light every room
in the building. The problem is collecting the light, then getting it
where you want it to go.”
                                              Michael R. Cates




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Acknowledgements


This report is a product created under the course title “Experts in Teams” at the
Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway.                   It is
collaboration amongst four master-level students of different disciplines and educational
backgrounds. The authors would like to extend their gratitude and appreciation for the
much-needed guidance and assistance provided by the course facilitators along the way.
Special thanks to Letizia Jaccheri for all of her ongoing critical support and feedback that
encouraged the group to work more effectively in the production of this report.




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Preface
It is becoming increasingly important that developed and developing societies continue to
develop in a way that is more sustainable with regards to resource and energy
consumption to provide for future generations, especially in-light of recent global
warming trends and global dwindling fossil energy supplies.            The challenges of
sustainable development are vast, as the production-consumption system that drives
economic development is not a system that can be easily modified or quickly changed. It
involves careful planning, innovative technologies, and long-term cooperation amongst
all players on all levels and spatial scales. Sustainable development not only involves a
reshaping of the industrial complex producing commodities fueling growth, but also a
reshaping of consumption patterns. Consumption patterns are often shaped by attitudes
and values developed over time since the beginning of the industrial era, and changing
these in the urgency that they are needed is no easy task.


Reducing emissions by reducing energy/resource consumption in a way that doesn’t
drastically interfere with societies’ habitual energy use patterns will always be a great
challenge, and we aim to introduce a concept and product that may have the potential to
provide environmental benefits without significantly altering consumption patterns. One
answer lies in the conservation of electricity use for which this group tries to bring into
perspective. The group’s primary goal is to produce an informative product that will help
“shed light” on a new way of building design in which the conservation of electricity can
be achieved by incorporating alternative lighting technologies and systems into buildings.
We have strived to produce a report to potentially be used by industry professionals and
politicians that shows how energy usage can be conserved without altering use patterns--
through the use of a novel lighting technology and computer regulated system.
Subsequent environmental impacts can be reduced in this way and we intend to show the
links by specifically highlighting the global warming benefits that can be achieved by
utilizing the new lighting technology which conserves electricity usage. We will also
present a prototype of this technology and how it is integrated with our own system
modifications to more efficiently reduce electricity consumption. The nature and topic of
this report arose out of our group’s mutual interest and awareness of societies’ need to



                                                                                         5
reduce resource/energy consumption for developing in a more sustainably-responsible
manner.


1. Background to the problem
The need to reduce greenhouse effects has of recent been a top political agenda for many
of the world’s developed nations. Greenhouse gas emission reductions, particularly of
carbon dioxide, has been the major focus of world players for averting the negative
effects of climate change, the phenomenon commonly referred to as global warming,
which has great effects on the environment, biodiversity, and survival of human kind.
The Kyoto protocol signed in Kyoto, Japan, in 1998 brought to the attention of the world
of the need to cut down on global greenhouse emissions for stabilizing the climate and
committed the signatory states to cut down on greenhouse gas emissions--especially
those of the highly industrialized states which use fossil fuels to power their economies.
(Wikipedia-a)


The use of fossil fuels like petroleum products, natural gas, and coal for the generation of
electricity for driving economic growth is one of the main sources of carbon dioxide
emissions, the largest greenhouse gas emission, for which the United States alone
produced 2.5 billion metric tons in 2005. (USDOE, 2006c) One of the main areas where
this energy is consumed is the production of electricity, and changing how people use
electricity will play an increasingly important role in lowering harmful emissions
associated with its production alongside the expansion of a renewable power base. Less
electricity usage, or conservation, is less electricity generated which can not only reduce
carbon dioxide emissions and contribute to sustainable development but can also lead to
lower costs to the consumer. This report specifically targets electricity conservation and
will illustrate new concepts/products in indoor lighting as one specific way to do so.



2. Our Solution
With the increasing pressures shared amongst global societies to combat climate change
and reduce dependency on petroleum energy resources, local societies should and will
become the starting point for implementing various measures like improving energy



                                                                                          6
efficiency, developing renewables, and changing energy use patterns. This last measure
can be equated with conservation and is particularly challenging as it involves a wide-
scale change in people’s attitudes, values, and beliefs—those virtues which are socially
rooted and often are molded by the inherent human thirst for comfort and convenience.
Perhaps one of the easiest ways to lower fossil energy consumption is to reduce, or
conserve, electricity usage. Yet because it is intertwined with the difficulties of changing
individual action, it has to be conserved in a way that use patterns are not significantly
altered, and a monetary incentive is vital to the success. We propose a concept that is
both technically and economically feasible and which may facilitate a society’s
conservation of electricity usage because it provides a large economic incentive and
appeal. Although the economic benefits of our concept are later shown to be substantial
in addition to the environmental ones, they are not the primary motivator for support but
are important to mention as often times it is in a consumer’s own nature and best interest
to support a product or make a decision that benefits his/her own pocketbook or bank
account.


What if a homeowner or business owner could save up to half of the money spent for
lighting on their electricity bill in any given month? One would be surprised at how
much monetary savings this amounts to when expanded over an entire year. Without
even realizing, one would also be helping the environment and contributing to a more
sustainable planet. This may sound too good to be true but in fact, the technology is there
and the benefits are waiting to be exploited—just after good communication is
demonstrated and sound policy support is acquired. Our intent with this report is to
facilitate this process and create awareness through communication. Our product is
intended to be an informative report with a scaled-down prototype of a room using our
own light modulators in conjunction with a replica of a novel lighting system known as
Hybrid Solar Lighting that can demonstrate how to, through good planning and with the
assistance of computers, significantly reduce electricity consumption needed for today’s
traditional lighting systems used throughout the commercial, industrial, and residential
sectors.




                                                                                          7
What is Hybrid Lighting?
Hybrid lighting is a general term referring in the past to the use of natural sunlight in
combination with artificial light (i.e. incandescent, flourecent) in buildings. Traditional
hybrid lighting designs in use today have incorporated the use of large windows
strategically placed in areas where natural sunlight can enter a room to offset the amount
of artificial light needed in that room. Sensors are used to increase or decrease the
amount of artificial lighting in a room depending on the intensity of natural light
transmitted through the windows.


A recent system developed by Sunlight Direct termed the Hybrid Solar Lighting System
uses a solar concentrating device to collect natural sunlight and channel visible light into
buildings through a bundle of plastic optical fibers. These fibers hook into special
luminaires that distribute the light indoors (see picture on next page). This system could
enable a building designed with little or no windows, such as a warehouse or office, to
allow for efficient use of natural sunlight. As daylight wanes, a sensor would kick on
conventional electric bulbs to maintain a constant level of illumination. This particular
hybrid lighting system is what is expanded upon in this report.


Smart Buildings
Statistics show that up to 35% of electricity use in industrial/commercial buildings and as
much as 20% in residential buildings in the U.S.--by far the largest contributor to global
warming—goes towards lighting (USDOE, 2005c). What if this amount can be reduced
by half (in some cases even more)? The bulk of this report is to demonstrate how this is
possible by exploring the benefits of the hybrid solar lighting technology developed by
Sunlight Direct which allows for efficient and virtually no-cost lighting by capturing
natural sunlight, a free resource, and redirecting it through to the inside of a built
structure by transmittance through fiber optics cables.




                                                                                          8
Source: Courtesy, Sunlight-Direct, Inc. 2006



Notably, by incorporating the use of light sensors linked to computers (what is also
referred to as light modulators and micro-controllers), the autonomy of such as lighting
system is made possible. The hybrid solar lighting system together with its computer
components is what is referred to as the “Smart Building,” and how they function will be
described in greater detail throughout the next two sections and also in Section 7 of this
report. We will also provide quantitative statistics and display results of an economic and
environmental analysis in Section 5. In Section 6, we forecast the implications of such a
system if implemented on a large scale. In section 7, we will explain in more specific
detail about how computers are incorporated into the hybrid solar lighting concept and
about how a lighting system such as this can be integrated in various structural designs
and in a multitude of geographical locations around the world. Furthermore, we will
examine the drawbacks and shortcomings of such a system and suggest recommendations
for improvement. We will lastly explore the potential benefits of this system in Norway,
followed up by concluding remarks on how to improve the solar hybrid lighting system
and expand upon the “Smart Building” concept by looking at a computer’s role in
conserving electricity in other types of building systems.



3. Purpose and Product
The study of the hybrid lighting system has 3 parts:
1: The study of benefits to the environment of using the hybrid lighting system in
buildings



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2: The hybrid lighting system itself and how it works, with dimmers with scale model
3: Discussions on Possible implications for design of Smart Buildings and real situations.

Why “black box” concept?
To be able to study the benefits of this product and its applications on different uses, we
have chosen to look at the hybrid lighting in the setting of a “black box”. By choosing to
look at a black box environment, when necessary we can avoid to look at the
specifications of a room's window orientation, location at a latitude, elevation and
shading/reflections from other buildings. These conditions should be taken into account
in the design of each building, but here we want to study general benefits of the system of
hybrid lighting and specifications. The hybrid lighting solution is studied as the only
“natural” light source of the room and in our product will be the device to regulate the
needed artificial lighting, with the study of the hybrid lighting product's benefits to the
system of study.


       1. The study of benefits to the environment uses location and solar values for New
       York as input, but still avoids looking at natural light from windows as a part of
       the lighting input.
       2. The product system controls the combinational use of hybrid lighting – the
       fiber optic system for energy efficiency, and the dimming of additional artificial
       lighting. As part of the product is a scaled model of the “black box”, featuring the
       lighting already existing lighting technology and our own computer system
       integrated with this technology.
       3. Regarding design and possible implications or this system to buildings, a
       general study of the benefits of the system is of better use than a specific analysis.

Possible System Applications:
The hybrid building solution with regulating mechanisms, studied at a “black box” level,
gives us the basis for drawing the results of this study to a number of possible situations
of use. We have here looked at office spaces, housing and other large-scale public and
private building types.




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Office spaces:
The benefits of this lighting solution in offices will be having stable light conditions, and
a smart regulating system that saves lighting costs in large buildings with coordinated
systems. Benefits of the use of such systems in a large scale are both economical and
environmental. An office building is also easy to model or simulate further, due to
uniform lighting- and shading requirements. Large scale office buildings can also with
the use of fiber-optic lighting gain a higher daylight-factor also deep into the building.
This would give increased quality to spaces, and also give the freedom to design
buildings more compact without compromising daylight requirements.

Office spaces: typical example of past hybrid lighting using window walls and shading
systems: the upper part reflects light to the ceiling and deeper into the room, while the
lower part gives shade and prevents over-heating.




source: ECOTECT Manual



Housing:
The amount of floorspace for housing makes up a very large quantity of the total amount
of floorspace in Norway. 172 mill m2 area in detached houses and 28 mill m2 in
apartment buildings. (Matusiak, 2005) As our proposed system is a large scale system, it
would be easier to apply in apartment buildings. A smaller-scaled and more affordable
hybrid lighting solution, such as light pipes (shown on next page) which do not use fiber
optics but reflective piping/ducting to lead sunlight into the building, would be useful for
the “typical Norwegian” small house dwelling which in Norway makes up 54.2% of all
dwellings. (Statistics Norway, 2006)




                                                                                            11
Light pipes: for smaller scale use in housing




Source: Tore Kolas, SINTEF (lecture)



Larger buildings:
These include large-scale working spaces, schools, workshops, factories sports halls etc.
These are all deep, large-scale building types that need to be adequately lit during
daytime. That means preferably without the inconvenience of too much direct sunlight.
Large buildings with a complex room program will have a large variety of lighting
requirements and natural light conditions, depending on purpose of use. As for office
spaces, shading and controlled natural lighting design is important for the environment of
the building, and the hybrid lighting system will therefore be important for increasing the
use of natural lighting in buildings that are deep and needs a lot of shading on the outside
avoiding over heating. Through hybrid lighting and other natural lighting systems, natural
light can be distributed deeper into larger scale buildings, handling the climatic
challenges of large buildings.

Tools for lighting design
We also make use of the designing programs ECOTECT and RELUX, which are
simulation programs for architects to build models and test studies in the design of low
energy buildings. This type of modeling can be used in a design process in order to make



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optimized design of window placements for optimal lighting conditions and energy
savings. ECOTECT also gives calculations on thermal energy balances and solar
simulations. The additional artificial lighting and interior lighting design would be the
work of RELUX. We are dealing with a new product on the market that has not yet been
implemented into these simulation programs. Both programs give simulations of how the
lighting would be distributed within the room, from windows, and with artificial lighting
at a workspace-plane elevated 70 cm above floor level.



4. The Smart Building and Computers




             Source: Courtesy Sunlight Direct, 2006



The Smart Building would utilize the solar concentrating technology to transmit natural
sunlight via fiber optics into a room. Unlike skylights, light pipes, and windows, a
“Smart Building” incorporating a hybrid lighting system similar to Sunlight Direct’s
allows the user to control where and how sunlight is used within a building and provides
supplemental electric lighting to automatically maintain a constant level of illumination.
To conserve electricity, our own computer components would monitor the amount of
available natural sunlight and communicate this to an inside component adjusting the
amount of artificial light needed according to time of day, variations in weather, and
specific user requirements. The user would have the ability to set a light intensity for the
sensors to modulate the required light needed in a room, office, or warehouse. The idea


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is that one can cut back using electricity for lighting an interior room where little to no
natural sunlight is available by supplementing artificial lighting with natural sunlight.


In general, the system is designed for buildings with a non-sloped roof and good visibility
of the sun throughout the day. Because of length limitations of the optical fibers, only
single story buildings or spaces on the top floor of a multi-story building are would be
feasible.

Black Box Prototype




In our efforts to convey how the Solar Hybrid Lighting System would be integrated on a
circuit with light sensors and computer components, we have developed a simplified
scaled-down model utilizing our own light modulating prototype. The purpose of the
model is only to show how the computer and sensing components function in conjunction
with the existing hybrid lighting technology for modulating the two light sources. The
model is a 0.5 m3 box replicating a 100m2 room with no windows. The bulbs used in the
prototype are incandescent, whereas in the subsequent application scenario we analyze
the hybrid lighting system used with fluorescents, as it is more applicable to model
current lighting applications used in today’s commercial and industrial facilities.




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The devices in the prototype use a chip similar to a small computer, called a
microcontroller.    A microcontroller is a single-chip microcomputer with on-board
program ROM and input/output that can be programmed for various control functions.
We use the microcontrollers from the Norwegian manufacturer Atmel. The reason we
use these small integrated computers, is because they are simple, powerful, and low
powered.

The Model




As you can see in the picture above, we have our black box prototype with some circuits
placed into it. Also, we have mounted a generic replica of the sunlight collecting dish.
This is only for illustrating the already existing product on the market that collect the sun
and transport it into the room we want to illuminate with sunlight. Because we don’t
have this real product, we replace this by putting in a lamp that lit brightly.

Components
We have three different devices in our prototype. These are:
   1. Light sensor: This device is measuring the amount of light exposed to the sensor.
       In our prototype, this is measuring how much light the room has. This is sending
       its value as a hex (4-bit) value to the controller device (see picture below).




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2. Controller: This is the brain of our model. Based on the value passed from the
   light sensor, it processes this number deciding which value to pass to the dimmer
   device.   The value passed to the dimmer is between 0x0 and 0xA (0-10 in
   decimal). The device is expandable to accommodate an additional light sensor
   and dimmer. There is room for additional connectors for this in the circuit.




3. Dimmer: This device gets a value from the controller to dim the light. There are
   implemented 11 dimming states on this device. If the value is above 0xA, the
   bulb in the circuit will be turned off. Also, it is possible to see which value is


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    passed to the dimmer by reading the display. For the reader with a little electrical
    engineering background, we will explain why there is eight parallel coupled
    transistors instead of one. The reason is the lack of components available. A
    transistor that was able to lead the 800 mA used by the bulb was a little hard to
    find, so the solution became eight transistors leading 100 mA each (see picture
    below).




The above dimming schematic shows the concept of an alternating current dimmer.
By changing the value of the variable resistor, we will change the time it takes to
build up a potential that exceeds the threshold value of the diac. When this threshold
is reached, the diac will start leading current and trigger the triac to lead current. By
using these concepts for modulating light, one can get the benefit of saving power in
addition to controlling light levels.


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The following illustration shows the communication between the circuits when detecting
brightness followed by dimming a lamp, based on the values from the light sensor.




The following steps on the picture shows:
   1. The brightness is detected by the light dependant resistor (LDP), passed as a
       voltage value to the microcontroller of the light sensor device. By converting this
       to a digital value, we can generate a hex value indicating which brightness
       interval the measured value is between. The hex value generated is between 0-F.
   2. The hex value of the brightness detected is sent over the bus connected to the
       controller device.
   3. The controller has a preset threshold value that tells which brightness value we
       will try to keep in the room (in our case it is set to 5). The controller device reads
       the value sent from the light sensor, and then subtracts the value by 5.
   4. If this result of the subtraction in the controller is above 0, we will send this value
       in hex to the dimmer device. If below or at 0, it sends the hex value 0 on the
       dimmer device. In other words, by having a threshold value 5, we can get 16 - 5
       = 11 different dimming states in addition to the default 0.



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The dimmer circuit reads the value on the bus connected to the controller device. Based
on this, there are two intervals set up for how long it shall light the bulb, and how long it
shall turn the bulb off. By changing these two intervals, the light would be brighter if the
lighting times increase and the dark times decrease. Similarly, the light would get less
bright if we increase the dark interval, and decrease the interval of lighting time. (Note:
For a full description of the algorithms used, one can find the full source code for all
three devices at: http://kodos.de/EiT/devices_src.tar.gz.      This is all written in the
programming language C.)


5. Application Scenario
In order to evaluate the environmental and economic benefits of the “Smart Building”
concept, we chose to analyze such a system in a hypothetical setting, modeling real
energy use patterns and sunlight patterns of a given location as accurately and precisely
as possible through the collection of good data and appropriate quantitative measures. It
is important to note that in most cases where using hybrid solar lighting technology is
practical--i.e. office rooms or warehouses--fluorescent lighting is most common.
Traditional fluorescent bulbs can not be dimmed unless they have been “seasoned”, or
been running for 10 hours. However, for fluorescent applications, Sunlight Direct has
designed their Hybrid Solar Lighting Technology to work with T8 fluorescents
incorporating electronic ballasts. (Sunlight-Direct, 2006) Energy-efficient T8 fluorescent
lamps with electronic ballasts are now standard for new fixtures and retrofits in
commercial buildings, schools, and many industrial facilities. (Alliant Energy, 2005)

Methodology of Environmental and Economic Analyses

Determining Location
The location of New York City in the U.S.A. of latitude 41 N was chosen for several
reasons, the primary reason being that this latitude is a good average latitude of some of
the most densely populated metropolitan areas in the Northern Hemisphere.               This
provides a good indicator of the amount of sunlight that would be represented in many of
the world’s most heavily populated geographic areas. The United States also appealed to
us due to the fact that the manufacturer of the lighting technology, Sunlight Direct, is



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located there and that because of this, we felt the data would be easier to obtain. Also,
the United States right now stands as the world’s largest contributor to global warming
and we felt it interesting to see just how much the environment would benefit from wide-
scale implementation of this system.

Data Collection
The most current data available was collected for use in our analyses. Most of the energy
use statistics were collected from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), a
division of the U.S. Department of Energy, providing us with a broad scope and detailed
level of domestic energy-related use patterns and statistics. We first wanted to determine
energy use patterns in our location and therefore data on energy production, carrier types,
and end-use consumption patterns were collected. We specifically focused on electricity
as an energy carrier and focused on the end-use sectors, specifically commerce and
industry, and on the amount used for lighting within these two sectors. At the same time,
statistics on electricity costs (1 kWh electricity produced) per sector type were collected
for our location.        This data enabled us to calculate yearly costs associated with
consumption of electricity for lighting purposes and gave us a baseline figure for
comparison with our proposed lighting system. Data on electricity production mixes for
our location was collected for purposes of evaluating environmental burdens associated
with the combustion of fossil fuels and the associated emissions--specifically the
greenhouse gas CO2 which is by far the largest anthropogenic contributor to the global
warming effect.

Functional Unit (F.U.)
In order to compare results of our different analyses, a reference unit, often called a
functional unit, needed to be established. A functional unit can be defined as: A
quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit in a life cycle
assessment study. (Wikipedia-b) In our case, we wanted to know the economic costs
associated with providing a 100m2 room in New York City with 50,000 lumens1 of light
in terms of U.S. $/kWh. We chose 100m2 as the dimension for our “black box” room (no


1
          According to statistics from Sunlight-Direct, 50,000 lumens is the amount of artificial light
displaced by natural sunlight provided by one HSL-3010 system.



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windows) as this is the area that one HSL-3010 system can sufficiently illuminate
according to its manufacturer. 50,000 lumens is the equivalent to 17 fluorescent lamp
assemblies (130W/assembly), or 45 PAR38 60W halogen/incandescent bulbs. (Sunlight
Direct, 2006)     Therefore, the functional unit is the amount of electricity needed to
provide 50,000 lumens of light to a 100m2 “black box” room for one hour (kWh). We
chose to model our calculations based on the yearly costs attached to our functional unit,
so we first had to specify the following parameters based upon our own assumptions of
use patterns in business and industry at our location:


         -1 business operating day = 8 hours (100% lit)
         -6 business days/week = 48 hours
         -50 operating weeks/year = 2,400 hours


The following table displays the results, in terms of costs per functional unit over a one
year period, for the two end-use sectors using electricity cost data (USDOE, 2006a) from
the calendar year 2005:


Sector                         Commercial                    Industry
Costs/KwH (US $)               $0.14                         $0.10
Yearly Costs/F.U.              $742.56                       $530.40


According to its manufacturer, the retail price of the HSL3010 hybrid lighting system
used in our scenario is around USD $12,000. (Sunlight Direct, 2006)         At this price,
savings from the reduction of electricity bills alone would not be met for 16 years within
the industrial sector and 22 years in the commercial sector. There may be ways to offset
the high initial capital costs of such a system through creative financing, government tax
crediting/subsidizing, and CO2-emissions trading. This will be explored and discussed
further in Section 9: Recommendations.


The next step in our analysis was to quantify the amount of environmental impact in
terms of CO2-emissions associated with fulfilling the functional unit over a one year



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 period. State-wide data on electricity production was the only available data to us, and
 therefore, it was assumed that the ratio of electricity from fossils consumed at our New
 York City location would be about the same as the New York State data. The following
 table displays the results:

New York State Electricity Production Mix from Fossils, 2006 (EIA)


                       kWh             % of Total            Yearly CO2-Emissions* (kg)/F.U.
Petroleum              3,02E+08        2,7                   139,87
Natural Gas            3,86E+09        34                    1021,15
Coal                   1,50E+09        13                    570,67




 Next, we wanted to show the benefits of our system in terms of energy savings
 ($/F.U./year) and emission reductions (tons CO2/F.U./year), but in order to do so, data
 regarding the amount of solar insolation at our location first had to be collected. This
 was done by determining the average solar insolation in kilowatt-hours per square meter
 per day at our location. For simplicity, we call this figure "Sun Hours / Day." (Advanced
 Energy Group, 2004) Yearly solar insolation averages from two different sources was
 determined to be 3.89 Sun Hours/Day. In other words, one HSL-3010 system at our
 location can effectively substitute artificial lighting for lighting purposes for an average
 of almost four hours each day. The economic and environmental benefits are displayed
 below:
 Benefits


                                                    Commercial           Industry


 Electricity Savings ($/year/F.U.)                  381,49               272,49
 Emission Reductions (kg CO2/year/F.U.)             889,66               889,66




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6. Implications
Based upon the above quantitative analyses, one can easily see the benefits of such as
system in terms of both the bottom line electricity savings and in terms of contributing to
greenhouse gas stabilization. The benefits are even greater if such efficient lighting
systems can be integrated on a wide-scale basis. For our next analyses, we attempt to
present the potential benefits by forecasting various use scenarios. To do this, it was
necessary to come up with figures for approximating just how much electricity is used for
lighting purposes amongst industrial and commercial settings at our location. We found
the household average fraction of electricity used for lighting purposes in the state of
New York to be around 16%. Unfortunately, sufficient data regarding this fraction used
in commerce and industry was lacking for our location and therefore we were forced to
make our own assumptions regarding use patterns across these sectors. We assumed that
this figure was a little higher in commerce and industry since a large part of household
electricity consumption, approximately 32%, (USDOE, 2006c) goes to energy-intensive
kitchen appliances such as refrigerators, range/oven, etc. We therefore chose 20% as an
arbitrary figure for purposes of demonstration. It should also be noted that due to the
limiting factors surrounding the structural design requirements of our system (top floor
only, single story warehouse, etc.), we assumed another arbitrary figure here.          For
purposes of evaluation, we assume that 5% of industrial buildings and commercial
buildings could potentially substitute artificial lighting with our proposed hybrid lighting
system. These results from these calculations are displayed below:

Benefits if 5% of All Commercial/Industrial Buildings in New York State
Become 'Smart' Buildings


              Electricity Savings        Monetary Savings (US          CO2 Reductions
             (kWh/year)                 $/year)                        (metric tons/year)
Industry     1,99E+008                  19931000                       65072,37
Commercial 7,44E+008                    104206200                      243014,117
Total
Benefits     9,43E+008                  124137200                      308086,49




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Given that the New York State fossil energy mix percentage used for electricity
generation is nearly identical to the U.S. national average, the following approximations
were calculated to give a demonstration of the national potential environmental benefits:


United States CO2 Reductions: 15,404,324.5 metric tons/year (15.4 Mtons/year)


In 1998, total CO2-emissions in the U.S. from all sources of fossil fueled electricity
generation were approximated at 2,245 Mtons. (USDOE, 2000b) An estimate of savings
potential of approximately 0.7-1% percent could be realized if such systems were in place
across just 5% of the commercial and industrial sectors. Of course, given the fact a large
majority of the U.S. population resides at latitudes lower than the one in our scenario,
even greater savings can be realized because many of these locations would receive more
annual solar insolation, meaning that the hybrid lighting system would be substituting
artificial lighting and hence electricity demand for even more hours in a given year.


7. System Implementation
There is a need for the devices to communicate to each other and to perform operations
on demand. There is also a need for making the communication as short and power
saving as possible. As noticed, our black box model takes use of wires to send data
between the different microcontrollers. Imagine 100 of such devices in a room for
different usages, and you will figure out the amount of wires to put between all these.
Fortunately, there have already been developed some standards to make this kind of
implementation into a building today.        We will present two protocols (rules for
communication), one hardwired and one wireless, which can be suitable for our black
box prototype in the real world.

X10
There is one international and open industry standard for communication in home
automation systems. This is called X10. (Wikipedia-c) Normally it takes use of the
already existing power lines in a house. But there has also been defined a radio base
version of the protocol.    By sending digital messages on the power lines, devices
connected to it can communicate with each other.


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The protocol takes use of the alternating power (50 or 60 Hz), by sending a bit on the
wires when the sending devices detect a zero-cross on the line. A zero cross is when the
wave in the power line goes to zero. By bursting a signal in a higher frequency (120Hz)
than the power line uses, it can send messages to the other devices.


X10 defines how to send the messages onto the power line. When sending a message out
on the line, the first 4 bits defines a house I.D., the next 4 bits defines the device in the
selected house, and the 4 following bits defines the command for the device.             By
addressing the devices such way one finds a limitation of 16*16 = 256 devices if you use
all the house addresses. When you want to install a system using X10 you have to go
manually defining the house I.D. and the device I.D. of all the devices you want to
connect. This also implies that if you use all the house codes in your system, the
neighbor, also wanting to put up a system using X10, will be frustrated when finding out
they are connected to the same power network. There is, however, a solution for this
problem by adding a scramble device. We will not get into detail of this in this report.
For a small set of devices this protocol is very cheap and is easy to implement.

ZigBee
There also exist wireless protocols developed for home automation systems. One of
these is called ZigBee. (Wikipedia-d) This is a pretty new protocol, first ratified in
December 2004, compared to the old X10 from 1975. The protocol is made for having
small power consumption. This is done party by having small amounts of program code
on the processing unit on the device, and also by making the device sleep when it’s not
intended to send or receive messages.


With this protocol you can set up a WPAN (wireless private area network) for home
automation use. You can therefore make local Zigbee networks that are protected from
intrusion or interference from other networks.


It is organizing its nodes into a mesh network in order to make the nodes in the network
communicate to each other. For example: A device wants to send a message to another



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device in another room, but the distance is too great for making the receiving device read
the signal. It then sends its message through other devices, to finally transfer it to the
destination. There exist different Zigbee devices: Zigbee coordinator, Zigbee routers,
and Zigbee end-device. The two first ones are made to make the routing possible. By
routing, we mean how to send messages from one device to another. When sending or
forwarding a message, each device is controlled by a router or a controller to select the
route to send the message.

Sunlight
By putting a sunlight collecting dish on the roof, you will be able to redirect the sunlight
into rooms not containing windows and substitute artificial light with solar light. Our
prototype model is an example of how the small microcontrollers can be used to dim the
light depending on the amount of light in the room. The dish is the source of the light,
and will track the sun the whole day. If you do not want the solar light into the room, it is
excluded by directing the dish a few degrees away from the sun.


Also, the automation of the substitution of light in a room must be able to be overridden.
This could be done by having a switch on the wall which turns on the manual mode.


8. Drawbacks and Shortcomings
Perhaps one of the biggest drawbacks and difficulties for implementation of the proposed
hybrid solar lighting system on a large scale is its high cost. Project managers and
developers will undoubtedly support design decisions based on minimizing the bottom
line, and such a large deviation in cost from traditional lighting design is certain to have
an influence on the bottom line. The need for relevant policy supporting energy-efficient
building design is absolutely vital.      The high costs of the novel technology will
eventually become lower over time due to the learning curve effect, but only if measures
are first taken by those actors in society that have the power to enforce the policies and
subsidies needed to stimulate a demand---hence increasing the supply and lowering the
barriers to market entry. Such systems are unlikely to be used in new building design if
the powers of traditional market forces are left unregulated.




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Other drawbacks include the limitations on system placement. In general, the system is
designed for buildings with a non-sloped roof and good visibility of the sun throughout
the day. Because of limitations with the optical fibers (maximum 13 meters from solar
collector), only single story buildings or spaces on the top floor of a multi-story building
are currently accessible. This would greatly reduce the potential to integrate into existing
current building superstructure.


9. Recommendations
These recommendations build on the shortcomings that are pointed out earlier in the
report and try to suggest ways of improving the product for betterment of future
generations. Since the product components are expensive to produce and buy by the
customers, there is likelihood that the wishes and aspirations of the product developers
might not be realized in the near future. This is so in that consumers always buy goods
that have a high value, that are cheap, and which satisfy their own needs but on top of all
one that has the least opportunity cost over the other products. Therefore, there is need
for both parties to have concerted efforts to make sure that the product is affordable and
cheap in the short and long run since the benefits are for the sustainability of humanity.
This can be done in the following ways:


Governments should try and help the producers of the product by investing money in
research and development to find ways in which it can be improved and reduce its cost.
For example, when the cost reduces it will lead to massive purchase that will enable new
consumer behavior, most especially helping to save the environment, for which the
destruction has reached a point that might not be easy to reverse least such ideas are
helped to grow and influence the way people behave and use things at their disposal.


The other alternative relates to taxation where a big chunk of the money goes to cover the
costs of taxes on both inputs and final product. If government reduces or gives tax
waivers to the product developers for a certain period of time until a certain point that
they are able to produce and sell in large quantities, then it would be possible for the
realization of a dream that man can help build on to save the earth from the fossils that
are harming the ozone and grave consequences to man himself.


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Private researchers should also be funded by the both governments and private business
interests to make people research further for better products that appeal to the customers.

Current Hybrid Lighting Systems in Architecture

In recent years the focus on sustainable building design has been brought more to the
focus amongst architects and civil engineers that encompasses a lifetime perspective on
resource consumption and low-energy building design--with an increasing focus on good
design. Energy and environmental issues in the building sector has been a field of at
NTNU for a long time. Through research on low energy renewed standards for buildings.
There are many concerns that need to be taken into account in the designing of a
building. A designing process is a complex negotiation process between many interests,
like the users, logistics, location conditions, environmental conditions, economics,
flexibility etc. In Low Energy building design there are also a lot of different measures
that have to be considered and chosen for each building project in order to optimize their
cooperative effects. For designing Low-Energy architects use consultants and experts on
environmental fields and tools such as the already mentioned ECOTECT, for energy
simulations and understanding optimization of measures to implement into a building.




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Example Below: University Library of Utrecht, Netherlands, by Wiel Arets architects
http://www.wielaretsarchitects.nl/ 1997-2004




In the Library of Utrecht Campus is built as a black concrete box, with window screens that absorb 50% of
light to the interior through a photo-patterned film on the outside. Some screens have an opening function
controlled by a light sensor. The interior is black concrete, to give the interior working spaces and book
storage ideal and stable lighting conditions. Only a light floor reflects the natural light further into the
building, and the natural, screened lighting is supplemented with artificial fluorescent lighting.

The design of the building has focused on shaping both the acoustic and lighting conditions for the interior:
“Based on the idea that silent communication is important in a building where there is hardly any talking,
the atmosphere is determined with an emphasis on creating a sense of security. This was essential for the
choice of a black interior. A light, shiny floor provides enough reflection of natural or artificial light to
illuminate some of the 42 million books that are on open shelves, while the long white tables make it
possible to read a book or consult electronic information without too much effort.”
(http://www.wielaretsarchitects.nl/)




                                                                                                          29
The University Library of Utrecht is a good example of how to use lighting in design of
stable lighting conditions in a building. This building already uses a system of screening
natural light through window-screens, and light-sensor controlled opening and shutting.
If also implemented with hybrid lighting in the place of the artificial lighting elsewhere in
the building, this would have reduced the cost of lighting when the choice of design is to
have black, light-absorbing walls.


Hybrid lighting is a new system of saving energy for lighting. The different prototypes
and systems on the markets need to be evaluated and compared to other types of products
in order for the industry to be known to its potentials and limitations.                Our
recommendations of the product of Direct Sunlight, using fiber optics in bulbs to indoor
lighting with dimming of artificial lighting are that improvement to the radius of reach of
using the fiber optic bulbs must be improved. Information out to the market, its
specifications need to be integrated and made available for programs like RELUX, so that
building designers easily can give estimations for savings on each specific project.


10. Norway?
Hybrid lighting systems in Norway would provide great economic benefits in terms of
substituting artificial lighting with natural light in the summer months, yet these would
obviously be offset in winter months due to the country’s high geographical latitude and
lack of sunlight. However, because Norway derives over 90% of its electricity from


                                                                                          30
fossil free (emission free) resources, the environmental benefits of such a system are
miniscule.


11. Conclusion
The hybrid lighting system we propose has been forecasted to allow for significant
electricity savings in those environments where large amounts of artificial lighting are
required. Specifically, we foresee facilities within the commercial and industrial sectors
benefiting the most from this type of system as these sectors carry a large demand for
facility lighting during normal operating periods throughout the daytime when the
potential to exploit the free benefits of natural sunlight are greatest. We have shown that
the biggest drawbacks of the system include the limited application potential and high
initial capital costs. Currently, however, growing international attention on the need to
curb greenhouse gas emissions and integrate policies of reduced foreign energy
dependency may eventually foster local policies targeting the conservation of
energy/electricity which would support hybrid lighting systems in efforts to work towards
sustainable growth. This may eventually lead to government subsidies or other creative
financing tactics within the building sector that may help to reduce the high initial capital
costs of such as system.


More informational campaigns and further case-specific studies will be needed to gain
additional support for “Smart Buildings” utilizing the proposed solar hybrid lighting
system by those groups—particularly builders, architects, politicians, and the like—that
will need to work collectively in promoting the concept. Additionally, more research on
how micro controllers can be integrated with other types of household systems such as
heating, entertainment, etc., in ways that conserve electricity could be conducted in
addition to fine-tuning hybrid lighting systems themselves. Lighting systems are just one
area of focus. The “Smart Building” concept that takes advantage of computer
components that serve to conserve electricity in other ways will hopefully be further
explored as the need to conserve resources becomes increasingly important.




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References

Advanced Energy Group (2005). “Solar Insolation for U.S. Major Cities.” Retrieved
online, 12 February, 2007, at: www.solar4power.com


Alliant Energy (2006). “Lighting: T8 Fluorescents.” Retrieved online 11 April, 2007 at:
http://www.alliantenergy.com/docs/groups/public/documents/pub/p012398.hcsp

Matusiak, Barbara (2005). “Dagslys, energi og visuell komfort.” Lecture. 10
Novermber, 2005: The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim,
Norway. Retrieved online 16 February, 2007 at:
http://www.arkitektur.no/files/file57981_dagslys_energi_og_visuell_komfort.pdf

Kolås, Tore (2005). “Dagslyssystemer og hybrid belysning” Lecture. 10 November,
2005: SINTEF/The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim,
Norway. Retrieved online 16 February, 2007 at:
http://www.arkitektur.no/files/file57981_dagslyssystemer_og_hybrid_belysning._tore_ko
las._sintef.pdf

Sunlight Direct (2006). “Technology Overview.” Retrieved online 18 January, 2007 at:
http://www.sunlight-direct.com/overview.html


Sunlight Direct (2006).         “Products.”    Retrieved online 18 January, 2007 at:
http://www.sunlight-direct.com/products.html


Sunlight Direct (2006). “Frequently Asked Questions.” Retrieved online January 18,
2007 at:      http://www.sunlight-direct.com/faq.html


U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration-a, (2006). “New York
Electricity      Profile,   2006.”       Retrieved      online   3   March,   2007,   at:
www.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=NY




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U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-b, (2000).
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States.
Joint Report (pdf). July, 2000.


U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration-c (2006).                     “U.S.
Household    Electricity   Report.”     Retrieved    online     24       January,   2007,    at:
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/reps/enduse/er01_us.html


U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Data
2001.” Retrieved online 20 February, 2007 at: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state

Statistics Norway. “Boligstatistikk per 1. Januar 2006 – halvparten av boligene er
eneboliger.”           Retrieved        online     13     April,     2007       at:
http://www.ssb.no/emner/10/09/boligstat/

Wiel Arets Architects: Utrecht Library 1997 – 2004. Notes from guided tour in the
building on March 28th, Anna Rongen.          Retrieved online 2 April, 2007 at:
http://www.wielaretsarchitects.nl/

Wikipedia-a.       Kyoto Protocol.      Retrieved     online        4   February,    2007    at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol

Wikipedia-b.      Functional Unit.        Retrieved online 16 February,              2007    at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Functional_unit&redirect=no

Wikipedia-c.          X10.       Retrieved    online   20               March,      2007     at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X10_%28industry_standard%29

Wikipedia-d.          Zigbee.       Retrieved     online       20       March,      2007     at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zigbee




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