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					      Cairo University
     Faculty Of Science
            2007




Department Of Chemistry




            -1-
                                     Cairo University
                                    Faculty Of Science
                                           2007
                                      Title of Thesis:
      The Value of Biochemical Reactions of DNA and Molecular Techniques in
                  Application to Some Human Reproductive Disorders
Name :Nermeen Salah El-Dien Soliman El-Safory
Date of Birth: 2/4/1997
Nationality: Egyptian
Previous Degrees: B.Sc Chemistry
Registration Date: 16/6/2003
Supervisors
    Prof. Dr. M Waheed A. Badawy
    Prof. Dr. Kamal Z. Shaeer
    Dr. Ahmed I. Amin
Examiners:
    1. Prof. Dr. Yen, Pauline H
    2. Prof. Dr. Abd-Allah Ateaa
    3. Prof. Dr. M Waheed A. Badawy
   Key Words:
   Y chromosome, Polymerase chain reaction, male infertility, nonobstructive
   azoospermia.
   Summary
This work has been carried out to investigate the Application of molecular biology
techniques, such as PCR, in the work up of patients suffering from azoospermia, to
define the genetic etiology and to give advice concerning TESE outcomes and risk of
transmitting the genetic abnormalities to the future offspring. To screen Y
chromosome deletions in azoospermic males opting for ICSI, and to compare the
frequency of Y deletions in Egyptian patients with idiopathic/nonidiopathic
azoospermia.
Method: A total of 132 consecutive patients with nonobstructive azoospermia were
screened. History, physical examination, semen, karyotype, FSH, LH, testosterone
and polymerase chain reaction assay to evaluate the Y chromosome microdeletion
were performed. Histopatholgical examination was performed for patients referred for
TESE-ICSI. Results: the incidence of Y chromosome microdeletions was 10.6%
(14/132). It was 4.5% in nonidiopathic azoospermia patients and 11.8% in patients
with idiopathic azoospermia. However, there was no significant difference in the
frequency of Y chromosome microdeletions (AZF) between patients with idiopathic
and nonidiopathic patients.
   In conclusion: this study emphasizes the need for PCR analysis for determining
   genetic etiology in patients with severe infertility. Furthermore, a more extended
   screening for Y chromosome microdeletions in idiopathic and nonidiopathic men,
   particularly candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection, is recommended.




                                        -2-
                                   Cairo University
                                  Faculty Of Science
                                         2007
Title of Thesis
           "Studies on Hydrogels Based on Chitosan and its Applications in Drug
                                  Delivery Systems".
Name: Ahmed Saad Ali Montasir
Date of Birth: 28/11/1982
Nationality: Egyptian
Previous Degrees: B. Sc.
Registration Date: June-2005
Awarding Date: September 2007
Supervisors
1- Prof. Dr. Ahmad M. Farag
2- Prof. Dr. Ali A. Hebeish
Examiners
1- Prof.Dr. Samuel Hudson
2- Prof. Dr. Eid Mitwaly khalil
Summary
    Chitosan/PVA, as well as, chitosan citrate / PVA blends were used to form a semi
interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) hydrogel for medical application. The
crosslinking agent free preparation method was developed using freezing-thaw
process. The swelling behavior was observed to be dependent on pH, temperature and
on the time and number of freezing thawing cycles. The hydrogels were characterized
by thermal gravimetery analysis (TGA) and surface morphology. The semi-IPN
hydrogel was conformed by IR spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of the
blend, such as swelling percent, gel destroy, gel fraction and mechanical properties
were examined. The antimicrobial activity of the hydrogel with different composition
was evaluated for both gram positive and gram negative microorganism. The release
of antibiotic from the hydrogel prepared by freeze - thawed process was studied. It
was found that the swelling percents of the hydrogels is pH- dependent and increases
with increasing the chitosan percent and decreases with increasing the time and
number of freezing cycle. The examination of the antimicrobial activity has a positive
effect for both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Freeze-thawed hydrogels
could serve as potential applications for drug delivery systems to release antibiotics in
acidic medium.




                                          -3-
                                   Cairo University
                                  Faculty Of Science
                                         2007
Title of Thesis:
                Studies of some metal chelates of chromone azo dyes.
Name : Amal Mohammed Asran Hasanene
Date of Birh: 20 / 2 / 1978
Nationality: Egyptian
Previous Degrees: B.Sc.
Registration Date: 1999
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. A. L. El-Ansary
    2. Dr. Waheed. F. El-Hawary
    3. Dr. Tarik Twfik
Examiners:
    1. Prof. Dr. Maria Filomena Camoes
    2. Prof. Dr. A. L. El-Ansary
    3. Prof. Dr. A. B. Farag
Key Words:
chromone, azo dyes, copper, zinc, magnesium, iron, vanadium, cobalt, derivative
spectrophotometry
Summary:
        This work has been carried out to investigate new spectrophotometric methods
for the quantitative determination of some metal ions such as copper, zinc, magnesium,
iron, vanadium and cobalt by chelation with chromone azo dyes. The optimal
characteristics for the color formation and the stoichiometry of the reaction leading to
chelation have been studied spectrophotometrically. A spectrophotometric method for
determination of the above mentioned cations is presented. The values of molar
absorptivity ε (L mol-1cm-1), specific absorptivity а (L g-1cm-1) and Sandell sensitivity S
(µg/cm2) are determined. A first derivative spectroph-otometric method for
simultaneous determination of binary mixtures containing a pair of the cations: cobalt,
copper, vanadium and iron using chromone azo dyes is presented. The proposed
method is applied for colorimetric determination of these metal ions in waste water
samples




                                           -4-
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of Thesis:
    "The association between polymorphic N-acetyltrasnsferase2 (NAT2) with
                      bladder cancer incidence in Egyptians"
Name : Hossam El-Sayed Abdel-Fattah Aboutaleb
 Supervisors:
    1. Prof.Dr. / Fawzy Ali Attaby Agwa
    2. Dr. Mohammad Ali Mohammad
    3. Dr. Mervat El-Sayed Mohamed
Key words:
Bladder cancer, N-acetyltransferase2, Polymorphism, Egyptians.
Summary:
        N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2, play important roles
in the bio-activation and detoxification of carcinogens. They exist in extra hepatic
tissues such as bladder, skin, and others. Cigarette smoking is the predominant risk
factor for bladder cancer (BC). Major carcinogens present in tobacco smoke include a
number of aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Gene encoding NAT2 are highly
polymorphic among human populations, and these polymorphisms result in rapid or
slow acetylator phenotypes. The presence of 1 or 2 wild type alleles resulting in rapid
acetylator and 2 mutant alleles resulting in slow acetylators.

         Genetic variability in acetylation capacity is important, because drugs
metabolism studies have demonstrated that genetically determined acetylator status
may predispose individuals to drug-induced toxicities, and various forms of cancers .
Also the ethnic differences exist in NAT2 genotype frequencies, which may be a
factor in cancer incidence. Recent studies have suggested that variant alleles leading
to slow acetylation by the NAT2 enzyme constitute possible risk factors for bladder
cancer. In this study, we determine whether NAT2 polymorphism is associated with
bladder cancer risk among Egyptian population with and without bilharzial
involvement in the largest sample size to date. Also, to study possible association of
tobacco usage with NAT2 genotype of these patients. Polymerase chain reaction-
restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was used to determine
the presence of NAT2 polymorphism in 200 Egyptian BC patients and 220 age-,
gender-, and ethnicity- matched healthy controls. Overall we found that (84%) of
healthy group were rapid acetylators and (16%) were slow acetylators, and among
mutant NAT2 alleles frequency, the most common alleles among healthy group were
NAT2*5/*5 > NAT2*4/*4 > NAT2*4/*5 > NAT2*5/*7 > NAT2*4/*7. Where in
bladder cancer cases the most common NAT2 alleles frequency were NAT2*5/*5 >
NAT2*4/*4 and NAT2*4/*7 > NAT2*5/*7 > NAT2*4/*5 > NAT2*4/*14. On the
other hand, there was no association between NAT2 polymorphism and susceptibility
to bladder cancer in Egyptian patients (OR = 0.804, 95%CI = 0.344-1.877), p-value =
0.613 or in combination with tobacco smokers (OR = 1.2, 95%CI = 0.291-4.949), p-
value = 0.801 when compared with controls.

        Also, we have investigated some pathological parameters such as: age, gender,
histological tumor type, grade, stage, lymph node involvement, metastasis status,
bilharziasis and its relation with NAT2 polymorphism, we found no association
between NAT2 polymorphism age, gender, tumor type, grade, stage and metastasis
status. But there is significant association between lymph node involvement in
bladder cancer cases and their NAT2 genotype (p-value= 0.044). The risk of lymph
node involvement in bladder cancer patient was 2.6 fold in NAT2 slow acetylators


                                         -5-
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
than rapid acetylators (OR= 2.6). and statistically border-line significant relation
between bilharziasis and NAT2 genotype in bladder cancer cases with malignant
tumor especially squamous cell carcinoma but increasing the number of cases
generally and the well-distributed ones specially may clarify this suggestion
(OR=0.451, 95%CI= 0.194-1.051), p-value= 0.061. Finally, we found there is
relationship of cigarette smoking with bladder cancer incidence with a risk (OR=
2.075, 95%CI= 1.027-4.192), p-value = 0.039. Also we recommended for focusing on
the relation between bilharziasis and NAT2 genotype in bladder cancer cases with
malignant tumor especially squamous cell carcinoma, in the future studies.




                                       -6-
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of Thesis:
 Cloning, Overexpression and Molecular Study on human lung mast
                     cell, Carboxypeptidase A
Name : Howayada Mahany Mustafa
 Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Sayed Kamel Goda
    2. Prof. Dr. Andrew Walls
    3. Prof. Dr. El-Sayed Ahmed Hegazy
Key words:
cloning in E.coli, human lung mast cell carboxypeptidase A.
Summary:
The mast cell is a tissue-based inflammatory cell of bone marrow origin that responds
to danger signals of innate and acquired immunity with immediate and delayed
release of inflammatory mediators.
In this study we concentrate on the characterization of one of these mediators,
carboxypeptidase A. The gene was cloned from a cDNA library. Then the gene was
subcloned into the E. coli overexpression vector pET-28a.
The SDS PAGE analysis showed that the gene was overexpressed in E. coli but as
inclusion bodies. Solubilisation and refolding of the recombinant protein were
achieved using 6M guanidine hydrochloride. The recombinant protein was validated
by Western blot analysis using six different antibodies. Mass Spectra and amino acid
sequence analysis was also carried out which confirmed the identity of the
recombinant protein.




                                        -7-
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of Thesis:
   "Effect of beta-Carotene, Tocopherol and Some Trace Elements on Benzene
                                       Toxicity".
Name : Eman Essam Abd El-Aziz Shaban.
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Hamdy Ali Abd El-Hamid Hammouda
    2. Prof. Dr. Khadiga Salah El-Din Ibrahim Mahmoud.
Key words:
Benzene – rats- MDA – vitamin A and E – antioxidant enzymes – carrot – WGO.
Summary:
         This work has been carried out to investigate the toxic effect of benzene
exposure on rats. It also aimed at determining the efficiency of carrot, wheat germ oil,
selenium plus zinc and a mixture of all to improve the antioxidant status and to
combat the benzene toxicity. Our results showed inflammatory changes and cellular
infiltration in liver sections of benzene treated rats. They also showed that food
intake, gain in body weight, food efficiency ratio, weights of (spleen and kidney),
plasma (vitamin A, vitamin E, iron and ferritin), blood (hemoglobin, haematocrite,
and reduced glutathione) and catalase and superoxide dismutase activity were
significantly decreased in benzene treated group compared to the control one.
Significant increase was observed in liver weights and plasma (total iron binding
capacity and malondialdehyde) while glutathione peroxidase activity showed no
significant difference. Our results revealed the highest improvement among rats given
mixture of supplements.




                                         -8-
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of Thesis:
“Synthesis and Reactions of Some Heterocyclic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
                        with Expected Antimicrobial Activity”
Name : Hany Fathy Hussein Ali Nour
Degree: M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Abd El-samee M. Abd El-fattah
    2. Prof. Dr. Nabil Mahmoud Yousif
Key Words:
Vilsmeier-Haack reagent, β-chlorovinylaldehydes, chromeno[4,3-b]quinolines,
chromeno[3,4-c]quinolines, X-ray, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic.
Summary:
        4-Chlorochromene derivatives 2a-c along with 4-chlorochromene-3-
carboxaldehyde derivatives 3a-c were prepared from the corresponding ketones 1a-c
with Vilsmeier-Haack reagent. Some new hydrazino 6, oximo 8, and
thiosemicarbazono 10 chromene derivatives were prepared via the reactions of the
corresponding      β-chlorovinyl-aldehydes 3a-c with aromatic hydrazines,
hydroxylamine,and        thiosemicarbazide,respectively.The    reactions     of     β-
chlorovinylaldehydes 3a-c with aniline and p-fluoroaniline afforded chromeno[4,3-
b]quinolines 13a-f. Surprisingly, when β-chlorovinylaldehydes 3a-c reacted with 2-
aminothiophenol in acetic acid, chromeno[3,4-c]quinolines 14a-c were obtained,
rather than the expected thiazepine derivatives A. The Reactions of β-
chlorovinylaldehydes 3a-c with 2-aminophenol afforded chromeno[4,3-b]quinoline
derivatives 17a-c. Single crystal X-ray studies for compounds 13f and 14c supported
well the established structures. Some of the new products were selected and tested for
anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and ulcerogenic score activities comparable with
Indomethacin drug. Also, some compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity.




                                        -9-
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of Thesis:
           Chemistry and reatment of Groundwater in El Kharga Oasis.
Name: Rabab Ahmed Nasr El Sheikh
Degree of (MSc) thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University.
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Kamal A. Barsoum
    2. Prof. Dr. Khairia A. Guindy
Summary :
        The objective of this thesis is to study the chemistry of groundwater in El
Kharga oasis oasis, on the basis of the measurements of the physical and chemical
properties to determine the main characteristics of the groundwater. Treatment of the
groundwater containing high concentration of iron and manganese by using
functionalized reactive chelating hydrogels. Radiation grafting technique by γ-ray of
K- Carrageenan and acrylic acid or acrylamide will be used as a preparation technique
of the reactive polymers. The characterization and sorption properties of these
prepared chelating hydrogels will be investigated to elucidate the possibility of their
practical use in the treatment of groundwater collected from El Kharga oasis. The
concentration of iron in groundwater of the oasis ranged from 0.7 to 32.1 mg/L;
meanwhile, manganese concentration varied from 0.07 to 8.1 mg/L. The treatment
process of such groundwater using the prepared Car/AAc hydrogel showed a removal
of 97 to 99 % of iron, and 83 to 99% of manganese. Meanwhile, Car/AAm hydrogel
was able to remove from 94 to 99 % of iron, and from 72 to 99 % of manganese,
resulting in an improvement of the groundwater quality.




                                        - 10 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of thesis:
   Synthesis of New Polyfunctionally Substituted Arylazo Heteroaromatics for
          Utilization in Printing via Conventional and Microwave Heating
Name: Tawfek Abdelhamid Tawfek Mohamed Khattab
Degree (M.Sc.) thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007.
Supervisors:
1- Prof. Dr. Mohamed Hilmy Elnagdi
2- Prof. Dr. Karima Mohamed Mounir Haggag
Keywords:
3-Piperidinoacrylonitrile, arylhydrazonals, aminopyrazols, pyrazolopyrimidines,
disperse dyes, Printing, polyester.
Summary:
This work has been carried out to investigate the synthetic approaches of different six
series of new heterocyclic azo-dyes via conventional refluxing and microwave
heating. As from a sequence of reactions starting from cyanoacetic acid, 4-arylazo-
2H-pyrazol-3-ylamines are obtained. The produced pyrazoles give on cyclization with
3-piperidinoacrylonitrile, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl arylhydrazono-acetoacetates and
arylhydrazono-propanals, different derivatives of arylazo-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines
and pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ones. Structures of the obtained compounds were
established with certainty via inspection of spectroscopic and analytical data.
Evaluation of fastness properties and spectral data of these different series of new
disperse dyes in printing polyester fabrics were investigated.




                                        - 11 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of thesis:
   Environmental studies for the removal of some toxic heavy metals and some
                          anions from industrial wastewater.
Name: Ghadir Aly Fouad El-Chaghaby.
Degree: Master of Science, Cairo University 2006.
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Nour El-Din T. Abdel-Ghani
Professor of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Faculty of Science, Cairo University
    2. Dr.Rasha M. El-Nashar
Lecturer of Analytical Chemistry Faculty of Science, Cairo University
    3. Prof. Dr. Said A. Hassan
Central Laboratory for Food and Feed Agriculture Research Center
Keywords:
Removal; Wastewater; Cations; Anions; Adsorption; Batch experiment; Rice husk;
Maize cobs; Sawdust; Casuarina and Eucalyptus tree leaves; Nile rose plant; Bone
              powder; Kaolin ;Temkin isotherm.
Summary:
Presence of heavy metals and anions in the environment is becoming a concern
especially with rapid industrialization. The acute toxicity of some metal ions to
aquatic life and humans and the stringent effluent standard to be met by industries as
specified by regulatory organizations has necessitated the development of innovative,
effective and economical methods for treating metal bearing wastewater.
In this study the removal of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd, and Pb as well as NO3-
and SO42 - from simulated wastewater by different adsorbents was investigated. Batch
kinetic and isothermal studies were carried out on a Laboratory scale to evaluate the
adsorption efficiency of rice husk, maize cobs, sawdust, Nile rose plant, Casuarina
and Eucalyptus tree leaves, kaolin and bone powder as adsorbents. Effects of pH,
contact time, initial concentration and dosage of adsorbent on cations and anions
removal were studied. The equilibrium time was found to be 120 min and optimum
pH range was also found to be 4.5- 6.5.The experimental data were best fitted by the
Temkin adsorption isotherm model. To apply the findings of the study, real
wastewater sample was obtained and different adsorbents were used for its treatment
as a case study. The investigated adsorbents showed a good efficiency in removing
toxic metal ions such as chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, cadmium
and lead from their aqueous solutions. While the efficiency of these adsorbents
towards the removal of anions such as nitrates and sulfates was not very satisfactory
to be applied for this purpose.




                                        - 12 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of thesis:
                                Studies on Enamines
Name: Noha Fouad Ahmed Abdelhafeez
Degree (M.Sc.) thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007
Supervisors:
1-Prof.Dr.Mohamed Hilmy Elnagdi
2-Dr.Mamoud Mohamed Mahfouz
Keywords:
arylhydrazonals, arylhydrazone ketones, pyridazines, 1, 2, 3-triazoles.
Summary:
This work has been carried out to investigate the reactivity of arylhydrazone ketones
and arylhydrazonals toward electrophilic reagents as well as their potential utility as
precursors of pyridazines and 1,2,3-triazoles. Quite a number of new heterocyclic
compounds could be synthesized and their structure was established via inspection of
spectroscopic and analytical data.




                                         - 13 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of thesis:
          Synthesis and Characterization of Pure and Substituted Zirconium
                             Phosphates as Ion Exchanger.
Name: Alaa Eldin Abd Eltwab Mohamed Gad
Degree: M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007.
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Barsom Nashed Barsom
    2. Prof. Dr. Adli Abdlla Hanna
Key Words:
     Ion–exchange, zirconium phosphate, phosphoric acid, sol–gel, reflux,
    crystallinity.
Summary:
        The essential aim of this work is the preparation and characterization of α-
    zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) by different methods to be used as ion-exchanger.
    The rapid precipitation-reflux method, the direct precipitation method and three
    sol-gel processes are used. XRD, FT-IR, thermal analysis, MAS-NMR, surface
    area measurements, and SEM are used for the identification and characterization
    of the products. The results of characterization show that crystallinity and the
    structure of the products are greatly depend on the method of preparation. The
    exchange of Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, and NH4+ ions on α-ZrP was investigated. On
    other hand, the interlayer distance of α-ZrP is increased by intercalation with n-
    butylamine.




                                        - 14 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of thesis:
      Reactivity of Azaenamines Towards Electrophilic Reagents: Novel routs to
                                       Arylazoazoles.
Name : Naglaa Fathy Radwan
Degree.(M .Sc) thesis in organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University.2006
Supervisors:
    1. Prof .Dr. Hamdi M. Hassaneen
    2. Dr. Taysser A. Abdallah.
    3. Dr.Abdellatif M. Salaheldin
Keywards:
2-Arylhydrazononitriles,aminopyrazoles, -haloketones, Arylhydrazonal, 1,2,3-triazole, 4-
aminopyrazoles.
Summary:
This work has been carried out to investigate
 novel routs to 4-aminopyrazoles and amino pyrazolo[4,3-b] pyridines3-Oxo-2-
arylhydrazononitriles 6 are readily converted into 4-aminopyrazles 1 via reaction with -
haloketones, chloroacetonitrile and ethyl chloroacetate. The aminopyrazolesare readily
converted into aminopyrazolo[4,3-b] pyridines upon treatment with malononitrile.
Compounds are readily diazotized to yield unstable diazonium salts that readily cyclized
into pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridazine.and studies with enamines;sythsis and reactivity of 4-
nitrophenyl-1-piperidinostyrrene:. 4-nitrophenyl-1- piperidinostyrrene reacts with aromatic
diazonium salt to afford ary;hydrazonal. The latter condensed with active methylene to
yield pyridazine derivatives and with hydroxylamine hydrochloride to produce oxadiazole
and 1,2,3-triazole derivatives.




                                        - 15 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of thesis:
    “Study of Physico-Chemical Factors Governing Emanation of Radon from
                          Some Glazes and Ceramic Bodies”.
 Name: Heba El-Sayed Hussien Sadek.
Degree: M. Sc. thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007.
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Afaf Abdel-Razek Osman.
Chemist Dept., Faculty of Science, Cairo University.
    2. Prof. Souraya Abdel-Maksoud El-defrawi.
Refractories and Ceramics Dept., NRC.
Key words:
radiation, exhalation, radon, glazes, ceramic tiles,zircon, sintering, crystallization,
characterization, microstructure, thermal parameters.
Summary:
The object of the present work is to study the factors affecting the exhalation of radon
from the ceramic tiles coated with glaze containing different percent of zircon as
opacifier, which are the melting temperature, the sintering process, the density and the
zircon contents.
Two original frits containing different percent of zircon were prepared in the 1265° -
1460 °C temperature range, then four mixtures were prepared by mixing both frits
with different ratios and sintered at 800°, 900° and 950 °C. DTA studies indicated that
increasing of both B2O3/ZrO2, B2O3/SiO2 ratios and the alkali content decreased the
softening temperature but increased the crystallization temperature. XRD studies
showed that, the peaks of zircon appeared after sintering in the 900° - 950 °C range,
however, at 800 °C partial crystallization occurred. The SEM showed that the
microstructures of zircon changed with composition and with the increase of boron
content, from ultrafine granular to clear euhedral tetragonal and finally into
accumulated leaf-like crystals.
Survey on the Egyptian raw materials estimated that, the exhalation rates from these
materials were lower than the recommended environmental radon exhalation rate. The
sintered samples at 900 °C exhibited lower exhalation rates, than the original frits,
with good physical properties. The samples sintered at 900 °C which contain high
percent of zircon were more dens and had high exhalation rate of radon, but lower
than the recommended environmental radon exhalation rate, so they can be used as a
safe tiles for human utilization.




                                         - 16 -
                                Cairo University
                               Faculty Of Science
                                      2007
Title Of Thesis:
 Studies On Chemistry Of Enamines: Synthesis And Study Of Reactivity Of New
                                 Azinylenamines
Name: Mahmoud Ahmed Abd El-Rahman Khalifa
Degree: (M.Sc.) In Organic Chemistry, Faculty Of Science, Cairo University, 2006.
Supervisors:
1- Ass. Prof. Dr. Abd Elatif Mohamed Salah Eldin
2- Dr. Elham Sayed Darwish
Keywords:
(1) Enamines,(2)AmideAcetals, (3) Alkylpyridazinonecarbonitriles,
(4)Alkylcyanopyridazinonecarboxamide, (5) Microwave.
Summary :
In This Work, We Developed A Novel Route For Synthesis Of Enamines Via An
Alternate Mixture For The Highly Expensive And Potentially Toxic Reagent
Dmfdma. The New Approach Is By Condensing (Triethylorthoformate And
Piperidine) With Compounds Containing Active Methyl Or Methylene Group In Dmf.
We Successfully Tested Our New Route With Some Alkylpyridazinone Carbonitrile
Derivatives, And Some Other Compounds Containing Active Methylene Groups.
Then, We Used The Synthesised Azinylenamines For Synthesis Of Condensed
Pyridazines.




                                     - 17 -
                                   Cairo University
                                  Faculty Of Science
                                         2007
Title of thesis:
    (Preparation of Some Organophosphorus Additives Used to Improve Fire
                            Retardancy of Textile Coatings)
Name: Nour Fathy Shehata Attia
Degree. (M.Sc.) thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007
Supervisors:
1- Prof.Dr.Hamdy Ali Abdel-Hamid Hammouda
2 –Assistant. Prof.Dr. Mohamed Aly Hassan
3- Assistant. Prof.Dr.Ayman Mohamed Salah
Key word:
Back coating, flame retardants, textile, thermogravimeteric, Differential scanning
calorimetery, optical density of smoke
Summary :
This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of back coating formulations
containing new flame retardant compounds on the flammability and thermal stability
of four kinds of textile fabrics (cotton, polyester, polyacrylic and blends of polyester
and polyacrylic). The flammability and smoke production properties have been
evaluated by LOI, flame spread & smoke box tests. The thermal stability of the back
coated textile samples have been measured by TGA & DSC techniques. The new
flame retardant back coating formulations showed a good effect on reducing the fire
hazard to textile samples in some cases the smoke parameters increased and that a full
evaluation of the hazard e.g. the HRR of the material was not studied and would be
part of further work to be conducted.




                                         - 18 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of Thesis :
  Preparation and Characterization of Nano Metal Clusters in Zeolite Prepared
                              from Egyptian Kaolin Ore
Name : Haiam Helmy Ibraheem
Degree : ( M.Sc.) Thesis, faculty of science , Cairo University ,2007
Supervisors:
(1) Prof. Said Abd El-Rhman Saleh
(2) Prof. Mohamed M. Selim
Keywords :
        Ag, Co, Ni, Cu, ,nanometals , hydrazine hydrate, XRD, ESR,IR, TEM, AAS,
dehydration, dehydrogenation
Summary :
        This work has been carried out for preparation of silver, cobalt, nickel and
copper nanometals in zeolite A catalysts. The nanometals were prepared by reduction
of their salts with hydrazine hydrate as reducing agent in non-aqueous medium.
                Different techniques were used to characterize the prepared catalysts
such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), electron spin resonance (ESR) and Infra
Red Spectroscopy (IR).
                The catalytic activities of the prepared catalysts were tested in model
organic reaction at different temperature. The effect of precursors and concentration
of hydrazine hydrate on the particle size and catalytic activity was studied.
                These studies showed that the prepared catalysts are existed in
nanoscale, moreover, the catalytic activity of the prepared nanometals in zeolite A
catalysts was found to be dependent on, the concentration of the metal in zeolite,
concentration of hydrazine and particle size.




                                        - 19 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of thesis:
          [Preparation of alumina membrane by sol-gel polymeric route]
Name: Amany Abd El-Azem Gaber
Nationality: Egyptian
Date and place of birth: 15-12-1975
Degree: Master
Specialization: Inorganic Chemistry
Supervisors:
1-Pr.Afaf El-Saed Mahgoub
2-Pr.Doreya Mahmoud Ibrahim
Summary:
        An attempt is made in this study to utilize three polymers namely; polyvinyl
alcohol, polyacrylic acid, polyacrylic acrylamide copolymer as templates to prepare
alumina membrane for ultrafiltration.
        The preparation conditions comprising; polymer: Al salt, ratio, time,
temperature of the reaction were optimized. The incorporation of Al3+ on the polymer
structure was verified by IR, Thermal behavior in terms of DTA&TG was determined
for the prepared polymer with and without hosting Al3+. The alumina powder
obtained after the combustion of the organic template was tested by XRD, TEM and
the respective specific surface area was determined by BET. The microstructure of the
supported alumina membranes as examined by SEM. Gas permeability tests were
applied to characterize the integrity of the membrane by using CO2 as a permeant gas
through the three different alumina membranes applied on alumina support covered
by an intermediate layer.




                                       - 20 -
                               Cairo University
                              Faculty Of Science
                                     2007
Title Of Thesis:
Construction And Performance Characterisics Of New Ion-Selective Electrodes
                   For Some Pharmacutical Compounds
Name: Alaa Elsayed Mohamad Nasr Eldin
Degree: M. Sc., Faculty Of Science, Cairo University, 2007.
Supervisor:
   1. Prof. Dr. A. L. El-Ansary
Key Words:
Pharmaceutical    Compounds,       Amprolium Hydrochloride,     Metoclopramide
Hydrochloride, FIA, Potentiometry, Ion-Selective Electrodes.
Summary:
        The Present Work Comprises The Determination Of The Pharmaceutical
Compounds Amprolium And Metoclopramide In Both The Pure Form And In The
Formulated Pharmaceutical Preparations Using The Standard Additions,
Potentiometric Titration Methods And Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) Conditions.
Construction And Performance Of Ion-Selective Electrodes Of       C-Paste Types
Based On Ion-Associates Of Amprolium With Phosphotungstate And
Metoclopramide With Tetraphenylbarate Ions Have Been Investigated .The Effect Of
Ph Of The Test Solutions, Temperature And Time On The Electrodes Performance
Are Studied. The Electrodes Are Highly Selective For The Drugs With Respect To
Several Inorganic Cations, Sugars And Some Amino Acids.




                                     - 21 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of the Thesis:
    Chemical and Biochemical Effects of Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) on
                             Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats.
Name: Rania Gomaa Mohamed
Degree: M. Sc. in Science
Faculty of Science, Cairo University
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Bahia Yehia Riyad
    2. Prof. Dr. Moustafa Mohamed Said
    3. Dr. Amr Saad Mohamed El Sayed
Key words:
Green tea, Prophylactic, Curative, HPLC, Male albino rats, Hepatotoxicity, Silymarin,
Polyphenolic compounds.
Summary :
This work has been carried out in order to investigate the chemical
composition of green tea as well as the prophylactic and curative effect of green
tea against hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in male albino rats.
The percentage of green tea components was determined. Caffeine and
polyphenolic compounds were identified using HPLC method. The prophylactic
effect of green tea against hepatotoxicity was expressed during the experiment
by reducing the harmful effect of CCl4 on hepato – renal function. The curative
effect of green tea on different parameters was studied and compared with
silymarin as a reference standard agent. The results revealed that green tea
causes a significant improvement in hepatotoxic rats during 15 days of
treatment. However, the effect was somewhat less than those of silymarin.
The histopathological changes assessed and seemed to run parallel with
the results obtained from the biochemical studies.




                                       - 22 -
                                    Cairo University
                                   Faculty Of Science
                                          2007
 Title of thesis :
“Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction of Terminal Alkynes with
                           Aqueous Activators”
 Name             : Mohamed Abdel Moety Mohamed
 Degree          :(M. Sc.) thesis
 Supervisors:
     1. Prof. Dr. Hamdi M. Hassaneen
     2. Dr. Hyam A. Abdelhadi
     3. Dr. Mohamed S. Mohamed
 Summary :
         The present thesis describes a powerful synthetic methodology for the
 preparation of internal alkynes.
         Part 1 describes the cross-coupling reaction of terminal alkynes with aryl
 halides and the related compounds catalyzed by a palladium complexes which takes
 place efficiently with aqueous triethylamine, and also studies the applicability of the
 reaction conditions over various solvents.
         Part 2 demonstrates the reaction of terminal alkynes with hetroaryl bromides
 such as 2-bromothiazole, 2-bromothiophene, and 2-bromopyridine. The reaction was
 found to be available for the introduction of an alkyne moiety into heteroaromatic
 molecules, which is potentially applicable to specialty materials involving
 photoluminescent dyes, supramolecular compounds, and conductive molecules.
         In part 3, the author focused on the coupling reaction of terminal alkynes
 with di- and polyhalogentaed arenes.




                                          - 23 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007

Title of thesis:
  Spectrophotometric applications involving the use of tetrazolium salts in drugs
                                       analysis
Name: Mona Ali Mohamed
Degree: M. Sc., Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. A. L. El-Ansary
    2. Prof. Dr. H. Ibrahim.
Key words:
Thiamine hydrochloride, hydralazine hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium, propyl
gallate, butylated hydroxytoluene, tetrazolium red, tetrazolium blue, oxidation-
reduction, spectrophotometry, kinetic parameters, pharmaceutical analysis.
Summary:
The present work presents new spectrophotometric methods for the quantitative
determination of thiamine hydrochloride, hydralazine hydrochloride, cefotaxime
sodium, propyl gallate, butylated hydroxytoluene using tetrazolium red and
tetrazolium blue. The procedure depends on the oxidation of the pharmaceutical
compounds using tetrazolium salts, whereby corresponding formazan derivative is
formed. The optimal characteristics for the color formation and the stoichiometry of
the reaction leading to formazan formation have been studied spectrophotometrically.
The interferences of excipients and additives were also investigated. The suggested
methods were proved to be suitable for quantitative determination of the drugs under
investigation.




                                       - 24 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of thesis:
                    "Phytochemical studies on Albizia procera."
Name : Marian Nabil Fekri
Degree: M. Sc. thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007.
Supervisors:
 1. Prof. Dr. Ezzat Mohammed Zayed.
 2. Prof. Dr. Farouk Rasmy Melek.
Key words:
Albizia procera; Leguminosae; Triterpenoid saponin; Echinocystic acid; Acacic acid
lactone.
Summary :
Three new (1, 2, 4) and one known (3) triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the
bark of Albizia procera. The new saponins were characterized as 3-O-[β-D-
xylopyranosyl-(1→2)–α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)–2–acetamido–2–deoxy–β–D-
glucopyranosyl] echinocystic acid (1), 3–O-[α–L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-
fucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopy-ranosyl] echinocystic acid
(2) and 3-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)–2–acetamido–
2–deoxy–β–D-glucopyranosyl] acacic acid lactone (4). Their structures were
elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, FABMS as well as chemical means.
Saponins 1 and 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against HEPG2 cell line with IC50 9.13 µg/ml
and 10 µg/ml, respectively.




                                       - 25 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of thesis :
    "Evaluation of hepatocyte growth factor as a diagnostic indicator in acute
                                 myeloid leukemia"
Name              : Amira Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed
Degree: : M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2006.
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Sayed Kamel Goda
    2. Assis. Prof. Dr. Nahed Abdel Wahab
    3. Dr. Basma Mustafa El Gamal
Key Words:
Acute myeloid leukemia, Angiogenesis and angiogenic factors, Hepatocyte growth
factor, RT-PCR.
Summary:
The present study evaluated the serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor and
analyzed their prognostic significance in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to quantify the
hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in stored samples obtained from patients with acute
myeloid leukemia (40 patients) at diagnoses and reanalyzed after achieving complete
remission (CR). We aimed to study the potential of s-HGF in diagnosis and severity
of AML. We investigated thoroughly the other currently available methods for AML
diagnosis including bone marrow morphology, cytochemistry, immunophenotyping
and cytogenetics. Our data showed that the levels of HGF were significantly higher in
patients with AML than in healthy individuals (p<0.001) and a significant diminution
of HGF levels by ELISA after eradication of leukemic blast cells by successful
treatment, with a p value <0.001.Our work also indicates that there was a significant
correlation between HGF level and White Blood cell count (p=0.001), Bone marrow
blasts (p=0.02) and time to complete remission (p=0.03). We compare the last study
with another study showing correlations between TLC and BMB% with time to
complete remission and we found that there was no correlation between TLC and time
to complete remission with(p=0.32)(r=-0.17) There was a poor correlation between
BMB% and time to complete remission with(p=0.17)(r=0.24) Real-time PCR study
was carried out on some selected samples which showed the lowest levels of HGF by
ELISA technique to validate the findings of the ELISA. The RT-PCR data confirmed
the down regulation of the HGF gene expression.




                                       - 26 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of thesis:
 Construction and Performance Characteristics of New Ion-Selective Electrodes
              for Dodecyl Sulphate and Their Analytical Applications
Name: Rabaa Ramadan Abd El-Latief Hassan
Degree: M.Sc., in Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2006.
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Sayed S. Badawy,
    2. Dr. Waheed F. El-Hawary
    3. Prof. Dr. Rifaat H. Hilal
Key words:
Sodium dodecyl sulphate, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide,
cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, sulphate ion, ion-selective electrode, flow
injection analysis, potentiometry and conductimetry.
Summary:
This work has been carried out to present and characterize new plastic membrane ion-
selective electrodes based on ion-exchangers with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and
cetyldimethylethyl ammonium bromide or cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. The
electrodes were used in the determination of SDS in pure state and in some household
products such as toothpastes and a sterilizing pharmaceutical powder (femigin B
powder), in batch and in flow injection analysis conditions. The electrodes were also
applied in the conductimetric determination of the studied materials.




                                       - 27 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of thesis:
    "Synthesis and Chemical Reactivity of Functionally Substituted Enamines:
          ARoute to Synthesize Different Bioactive Azines, Chemically and
                                     Photochemically."
Name : Yasser Mahmoud Ali Mohamed
Degree: M. Sc. thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007.
 Supervisors:
 1. Prof. Dr. Ebtisam A. Hafez
 2. Prof. Dr. Nadia R. Mohamed
Keywords:
6-amino-2-thiouracil, 2-azadiene, enamines, pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin, antimicrobial,
antitumor, photoreaction, microwave, pyridazine, fungi.
Summary :
This work has been carried out to investigate the synthesis of different bioactive
azines via the utility of different techniques, e.g. thermal, photochemical and
microwave heating. Condensation of 6-amino-2-thiouracil with aromatic aldehydes
afforded the synthesized diene system. The formed 2-azadiene underwent [4+2]
cycloaddition with enamines and acetylenes as dienophile to furnish pyrido[2,3-
d]pyrimidine derivatives. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of some of the newly
synthesized compounds was examined. Also the in vivo antitumor activity was
studied. The photoreaction of a dioxane solution of pyrimidine-2-thione with alkynes
or alkenes was studied to produce the thiol and sulpide derivatives. Condensation of
Wittig reagents with simply prepared arylhydrazones in refluxing toluene and by
microwave heating technique produced pyridazinone and iminopyridazine derivatives
respectively. The reactivity of methyl functions in pyridazinone derivatives towards
DMFDMA was investigated. The in vitro biological activity of some newly prepared
compounds against fungi was studied.




                                       - 28 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of Thesis:
     Improvement of electrochemical determination of some drugs at surface
                                modfified electrodes.
Name: Sayed Eid Sayed Khalil
Degree M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007
Supervisors:
1. Prof. Dr. Soher Amin Darwish
2. Ass.Prof. Dr. Nada Farouk Ahmed
3. Prof.Dr.Fekria Mossad Abou-Attia
Keywords:
Surfactant, Modified electrodes, Voltammetry, Uv-vis, NMR, drug interaction,
 Terazosin, Dopamine, Ascorbic acid, SEM, FTIR, Thermal analysis.
Summary :
The electrochemical determination of a hypertensive drug and other biologically
important molecules was enhanced at surfactant modified and conducting polymer
modified electrodes. The modification of the surface of the electrodes used in the
determination of these molecules was achieved by either direct modification of glassy
carbon surfaces or by altering the hydrophobic characteristics of a conducting
polymer films, poly(ethylene dioxy-thiophene).           The enhancement of the
electrochemical current signal in the first case depended on the charge/hydrophobic
interaction of accumulated analyte species at the surfactant molecules specifically
adsorbed at the electrode surface. Surfactants carrying opposite charges to that of the
drug allowed electrostatic interactions with the drug that led to signal improvement.
On the other hand, the separation and signal improvement for the oxidation of a
mixture of dopamine/ascorbic acid was achieved at the conducting polymer surface
prepared in organic, aqueous and micellar solutions. The selective and improved
signal was ascertained from spectrophotometric measurements in the UV-vis region
and NMR analyses. Surface, structural and thermal characteristics of the polymeric
films were analyzed using FTIR, SEM and TGA measurements.




                                        - 29 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of Thesis:
  Analytical Studies For Clobutinol And Papaverine Hydrochlorides Using New
    Plastic Membrane Ion- Selective Electrodes In Batch And Fia Conditions.
Name: Safaa Mohamed Hamed Osman
Degree: M.Sc., Faculty of Science, Cairo University
  Keywords:
 Ion-selective electrodes, colbutinol hydrochloride, papaverine hydrochloride,
phosphotungstic acid, phosphomolybdic acid, plastic membrane, flow injection
analysis (FIA), potentiometry and conductimetry.
Summary:
  New Clobutinol (Cb) and papaverine (Pap) ion selective plastic membrane
electrodes of conventional type, based on the ion exchangers of clobutinol and
papaverine phosphotungstate, phosphomolybdate or a mixture of both are prepared,
the electrodes were fully characterized in terms of membrane composition, life span,
pH and temperature. These electrodes were applied to potentiometric determination of
clobutinol and papaverine in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations under
batch and flow injection conditions. Also, conductimetric titrations for the assay of
both drugs in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations were performed. The
selectivity of the electrodes towards a large number of inorganic cations, amino acids
and sugars was tested. The solubility product of ion exchangers and formation
constant of the precipitation reaction leading to the ion exchangers formation were
determined conductimetrically.




                                        - 30 -
                                   Cairo University
                                  Faculty Of Science
                                         2007
   Title of Thesis :
   Preparation and Characterization of Nanocatalysts Including Co, Ni and Cu
                              Metals and their Oxides
Name : Mohamed Ramadan Abd El-Salam Rezk
Degree : ( M.Sc.) Thesis, faculty of science , Cairo University ,2007
Supervisors:
(1) Prof. Said Abd El-Rhman Salih
(2) Prof. Mohamed M. Selim
Keywords :
Co, Ni, Cu, Co3O4, NiO, CuO ,nanometals , nanocatalysts, hydrazine hydrate, XRD,
          ESR, TEM, decomposition of H2O2 and catalytic activity.
Summary:
        This work has been carried out for preparation of cobalt, nickel and copper
nanometals and their nanooxides catalysts. The nanocatalysts were prepared by
reduction of their salts with hydrazine hydrate as reducing agent in non-aqueous
medium. Also, supported catalysts were prepared by the same manner of reduction
methods.

        The effects of precursors and concentration of hydrazine hydrate on the
particle size and catalytic activity were studied. The catalytic activities of the prepared
catalysts were tested in decomposition of hydrogen peroxide reaction at different
temperature degrees 30oC, 40oC and 50oC.

        Different techniques were used to characterize the prepared catalysts such as
X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), electron spin resonance (ESR) and transmission
electron microscope (TEM). These studies showed that the prepared catalysts are
existed in nanoscale, moreover, the catalytic behavior of the prepared nanocatalysts
depend on starting materials, concentration of hydrazine and particle size.




                                          - 31 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of Thesis :
                 Analytical Studies On Some Pharmaceutical Drugs
Name : Mohamed Mostafa Mohamed
Summary:
The present thesis comprises four chapters:
1-Chapter I includes an introduction concerning the important role of analytical
chemistry in the analysis of the pharmaceutical methods used for pharmaceutical
analysis.
2-Chapter II comprises the literature survey on the different methods used for the
determination of tramadol hydrochloride, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride and
ambroxol hydrochloride. These include spectrophotometric, chromatographic,
polarographic and other miscellaneous methods.
3-Chapter III includes the experimental part, the materials, reagents, preparation of
solutions and instruments. Also, this chapter includes the optimum experimental
conditions for spectrophotometric determination of the investigated drugs.
4-Chapter IV includes the results and discussion:
I. The drugs were allowed to react with the ammonium reineckate (Rk), Chlorophyllin
coppered trisodium salt (Clph) , picric acid (Pic) and Alizarin red (Alz). At the
optimum reaction condition for the formation of highly colored ion-associates which
are extracted with organic solvents followed by spectrophotometric measurements at
λmax.
II. Investigations are carried out to give further insight to the stoichiometric
composition of the ion-associates formed.
III. Studies on the influence of pH, effect of the extraction solvents effect of time,
effect of temperature and influence of foreign ions on the formation of ion-associates
are carried out to establish the optimum experimental conditions for the formation of
ion-associates.
IV. The ion-associates are used for analytical determination of the drugs under
investigation in pure solutions and in pharmaceutical preparations. The results
obtained were treated statistically for estimation of the precision and accuracy. The
results are in high agreement with those obtained by the pharmacopeial methods for
determination of the cited drugs, so, the present methods are suitable for the drugs
determination, as they are accurate and precise.
The thesis ends with a list of references which were of great help to the author in this
study.




                                         - 32 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of the thesis :
Developing and testing of some new electroless-deposited coatings for preventing
                    corrosion of steel in phosphoric acid solution.
Name                : Raghid Mohamad Taeib El-Refai.
Degree             : M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007.
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Fakiha El-Taib Heakal.
    2. Prof. Dr. Madiha. Ahmad. Shoeib.
Key Words:
Electroless-deposition, Ni–P, H3PO4, Corrosion resistance, Polyalloy, Surface morphology.
  Summary:
This work was carried out in an attempt to prepare and test some electroless nickel-
phosphorus (EN) polyalloy coatings under optimum conditions on low carbon mild steel
(LCMS) substrate. The selected samples include: one binary Ni–P (I), three ternary
Ni–P–Zn (II), Ni–P–Co (III) and Ni–P–W (IV) and two quaternary Ni–P–W–Zn (V) and
Ni–P–W–Co (VI) deposited coatings. The deposit structure and surface morphology were
characterized by EDX, SEM, optical micrographs and XRD. The electrochemical behavior
of the studied coatings in 6.0 M H3PO4 was also investigated using potentiodynamic
polarization techniqe in order to identify which sample exhibits the highest corrosion
resistance. The results of all measurements reveal that Ni–P–W–Co (VI) alloy coating has
the best surface morphology charactarization and possesses superior corrosion prevention
among the other tested deposited alloy coatings. The protection ability of the various
examined samples was found to be in the order VI > IV > III > I > V > II, which indicates
that zinc doping has a deleterious effect on the behavior of EN coatings.




                                       - 33 -
                                  Cairo University
                                 Faculty Of Science
                                        2007
Title of Thesis:
         “ Electrochemical Studies on The Corrosion of Al and Al Alloys “
Name: Amani Ebaied Fetohi Khalil
Nationality: Egyptian
Date and place of birth: Giza-Egypt- 28/05/1974
Degree: M.Sc. Degree
Specialization: Non organic chemistry (physical chemistry)
Supervisors:
1. Prof. Mohammed Wahid El Din Khalil
2. Ass.Prof. Mamdouh Ahmed Abdel Rahim
3. Dr.Hanaa Barakat Hasan
Summary:
        The aim of the present work is the study of the electrochemical corrosion of
pure aluminum (99.54%) and its alloys AA3004, AA2011, AA2014 and AA7075 in
H2SO4 alone and containing different concentrations of NaCl at different
temperatures. In 0.3M H2SO4 aluminum alloys AA3004 and AA2011 have lower Icorr.
values while aluminum alloys AA2014 and AA7075 have higher Icorr. values in
comparison with Pure Al. The open circuit potential -time measurements for Al and
Al alloys at different temperatures indicate dissolution of the air formed oxide films
and the formation of new ones with lower thickness due to the action of the
electrolyte. Pits can develop in chloride containing solutions. Cl- ions transmission
depends on: concentration, temperature, potential and the size of the defects in the
oxide film. In presence of Cl- ions, aluminum alloy AA3004 has lower corrosion
current densities in comparison with Pure Al while other alloys have higher corrosion
current densities than that of Pure Al due to presence of intermetallics, heterogeneous
structures and potential difference between the particles and the matrix.




                                        - 34 -
                                      Cairo University
                                     Faculty Of Science
                                            2007
    Title of Thesis:
            Sex Hormones And Sexual Function In Male Epileptic Patients
    Name: Maha Ahmed Megahed Ahmed
    Nationality: Egyptian
    Degree: M.Sc. Degree
    Supervisors:
       1. Prof. Dr. Sanaa Osman
       2. Prof. Dr. Tarek Aly Ahmed Hasan
       3. Dr. Amr Saad Mohamed El-Sayed
    Summary:
            Epilepsy in men is associated with reduced levles of sexual function, bioactive
    testosterone and sperm. Various antiepileptic drugs may differ in this regard. Epilepsy
    and antiepileptic drugs can alter sex hormone levels to promote the development of
    reproductive endocrine disorders in both women and men.
            Reproductive endocrine disorders may adversely affect both reproductive
    function and seizure control. Treatment of epilepsy and selection of antiepileptic
    drugs may be important to reproductive health in epileptics. Sex steroids and their
    metabolites may also provide treatment for seizures.
            The purpose of this study was to compare the serum levels of androgens and
    estradiol between male hyposexual and non hyposexual out patients with epilepsy.
            The present study was carried out on three groups of men:
    A. Group I :
            Consisted of 20 consecutive patients with epilepsy of different types and had
    never taken any medical treatment before sampling.
    B. Group II :
            Included 21 consecutive patients with epilepsy of various types and on regular
    antiepileptics at least 6 months before sampling.
    C. Control group :
            Included 10 male, none of them had any clinical evidence of epilepsy or any
    other disease, and all had normal EEGs.
            The diagnosis of epilepsy was made after adequate clinical assessment and
    electroencephalography. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed according to the criteria
    of American psychiatric association (1994).
            The serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone binding
    globulin and estradiol were assayed for each subject.
    The following results were obtained :
•   Serum SHBG levels were lower in groups I & II than in controls, relatively higher
    in group II (on regular antiepileptics) and those of hyposexuality on both groups.
•   Serum testosterone levels were lower in epileptics of both groups I & II than
    controls, and relatively more lower in group I and those of hyposexuality on both
    groups.
•   Serum free testosterone levels were lower in epileptics of both groups than
    controls and in those of hyposexuality in group I (seizure induced) and of non-
    hyposexuality in group II.
•   Serum estradiol levels were lower in epileptics in both groups than controls
    especially of hyposexuality of both.


    Name: Fatma Hadary Abdel Shakour.


                                            - 35 -
                              Cairo University
                             Faculty Of Science
                                    2007
Title of thesis:
      " Studies of Complexes Equilibria Involving Palladium(II), Amine and
                          Biologically Relevant Ligands."
Name: Fatma Hadary Abdel Shakour.
Degree: (M.Sc.) thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 2007
Supervisors:
1. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Shoukry
2. Dr. Mohamed Refaat Shehata
Keywords:
Comlex-formation equilibria, 2-(2-aminoethyl)Pyridine, Pd(II), amino
acid, peptides, DNA units, dibasic acids and amino acid ester
hydrolysis.
Summary:
        [Pd(AEP)Cl 2 ] complex was synthesized and characterized, where
AEP =2-(2-aminoethyl)Pyridine. Stoichiometry and stability constants
of the complexes formed between various biologically relevant ligands
(amino acids, peptides, DNA constituents and dicarboxylic acids) and
[Pd(AEP)(H 2 O) 2 ] 2 + are investigated at 25ºC and at constant 0.1 M ionic
strength. The concentration distribution diagrams of the various
species formed are evaluated. The kinetics of base hydrolysis of free
and coordinated amino acid esters are investigated. The effects of
dielectric constant and temperature on the kinetics of base hydrolysis
of the glycine methyl ester in presence of [Pd(AEP)(H 2 O) 2 ] 2 + complex
are studied. The activation thermodynamic parameters ( H ≠ and S ≠ ) of
the hydrolysis of coordinated glycine methyl ester are also determined.




                                   - 36 -
                                Cairo University
                               Faculty Of Science
                                      2007
  Title of thesis:
    Biotransformation in organic synthesis: Baker’s yeast reduction of
      functionally substituted ketones in aqueous media and organic
                                     solvents.
Name: Miead Adel Nasra
Degree. (M. Sc) thesis, Faculty of science, Cairo University, 2007.
Supervisors:
      1-Prof. Dr. Mohmed Helmy Elnagdi
       2- Prof. Dr. Daisy. H. Fleita
Keywords:
  Baker's yeast, 2-Arylhydrazono-3-hydroxy esters, enaminones
Summary:
  A none fermenting suspension of Baker's yeast in organic solvents
  containing a small amount of water could reduce a variety of 2-
  arylhydrazono-3-oxo esters to the corresponding optically active β-
  hydroxy esters. On the other hand, the reduction of these compounds with
  Sodium borohydride produced racemates.
  In case of reduction of enaminones either by Baker's yeast or Sodium
  borohydride could not be achieved, however using Baker's yeast resulted
  in the formation of the polycondensation products of the starting
  enaminones.




                                      - 37 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of Thesis:
   Synthesis and Reactions of Some new Heterocyclic Compounds Containing N
                       and/or S of Expected Biological Activities
Name: Mahmoud Nasr El-deen Mahmoud Gouda
Degree: M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science Cairo University 2007
Supervisors:
    1. Prof. Dr. Fawzy A. Attaby
    2. Dr. Mohamed A. A. Elneairy
    3. Dr. Azza M. Abdel-Fattah
Key Words:
thioxohydropyridine, 2-alkylthiopyridines, thienopyridines, pyridothienopyrimidines,
pyrazolopyridines, pyridopyrazolotriazines, thioxohydropyridinecarbonitriles.
Summary:
2-Cyanoethanethioamide used as a good synthon for the present study. It reacts with
1-arylprop-2-en-1-one derivatives 2a-c to afford 2-thioxopyridine-3-carbonitrile
derivatives 6a-c. Compounds 6a-c reacted with several active halogen containing
compounds to afford the corresponding 2-alkyl-thiopyridines which in most cases
underwent intramolecular cyclization to give the corresponding thieno[2,3-b]pyridine
derivatives 9a-o. 3-Amino-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives 22a-c obtained via the
reaction of 6a-c with either hydrazine hydrate or with iodomethane followed by
hydrazine hydrate. The 3-aminopyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivative 22a reacted with
both nitrous acid and phenacyl bromide (24) to give the corresponding diazonium salt
30 and 2-(3-amino-4-(4-bromophenyl)-6-phenyl-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-1-
phenylethanone (26). Compound 30 used for the preparation of several triazines 34a-
f. The structures of the newly synthesized heterocyclic compounds were elucidated by
considering the data of elemental analyses, IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectra.




                                       - 38 -
                                 Cairo University
                                Faculty Of Science
                                       2007
Title of Thesis:
       Preparation And Physical Characterization Of Some Novel Polymeric
Surfactants Based On Styrene Maleic Anhydride Copolymer And Applicationsin
                                      Oil Industry
Name: Rania El-Sayed Ali Morsi
Nationality: Egyptian
Degree (Ph.D )thesis, Faculty of Science , Cairo University, 2006 .
Supervision:
        1. Prof. Dr. Maher Zaki El-Sabee
        2. Prof. Dr. Gamal Riyad
        3. Prof. Dr. Ahmed Mohamed El-Sabag
Summary:
        Styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (PSMA) has been prepared in two ways,
homogeneous and heterogeneous methods. The structure of the prepared copolymers
was confirmed using elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies. Viscosity
measurements of the prepared copolymers indicated that the homogeneous method
gives copolymer with higher molecular weight. PSMA was then esterified with long
chain aliphatic alcohols with different chain lengths (C8H17OH, C12H25OH, C16H33OH
and C18H37OH) in molar ratio 1:1.2 PSMA: alcohol. The reactions proceeded
successfully to produce monoesters (PSMA-8C, PSMA-12C, PSMA-16C and PSMA-
18C) and their structures were confirmed via elemental analysis which gave degree of
esterification 93 - 95% and these results were confirmed further by NMR
measurements. The FT-IR spectra of the monoesters showed additional strong
absorption bands at 2923 and 2854 cm-1 assigned to νs(CH2) and νs(CH2) of the alkyl
group of the ester. The intensity of these bands increased as expected with the
increase of the length of the alkyl groups.
        The prepared monoesters were investigated as pour point depressant and it
was found that they are flow improver for waxy crude oil and the effect of these pour
point depressants is related to the branch chain length, as the branch chain length
increased the efficiency increased.
         The free acid group of PSMA-12C was further esterified with block
copolymers of polyethylene oxide- polypropylene oxide (PPO-PEO) with different
molecular weight and different PPO: PEO ratios. The reaction was also confirmed
with NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The appearance of a strong band at 1104 cm-1
assigned to C-O ether bonds in PPO and PEO in the block copolymer is a strong
evidence for the reaction. The last prepared mixed diesters were water soluble and
were investigated as demulsifying agents for petroleum water in oil emulsions. The
surface active and thermodynamic properties of the prepared demulsifiers were
measured at 25, 35 and 45oC.
         From the demulsification data, it was found that the efficiency of the
demulsifiers is related to the molecular weight and the PPO: PEO ratios. The most
efficient sample was that which has the lowest molecular weight and the highest PPO:
PEO ratio.                                                         Blending of this
most efficient sample, with other demulsifiers with different ratios gives positive
synergetic effects i.e. increasing the demulsification efficiency and decreasing the
separation time.
         The kinetics of the demulsification process was photographed by Binocular
Olympus Microscope. The demulsification mechanism was found to occur in three
stages, i.e. adsorption and flocculation, coalescence and channel formation followed
by phase separation.


                                       - 39 -
 Cairo University
Faculty Of Science
       2007




      - 40 -

				
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