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					   1754 JuNE 17, 1961                               BIRTHDAY HONOURS                                                 BRITISH
                                                                                                                 MEDICAL JOURNAL

                                                                      MARIE HILDA STEVENSON-DFLHOMME, L.R.C.P.&S.Ed. For
               BIRTHDAY HONOURS                                     public services in Seychelles.
                                                                      GEORGE WILLIAM HUGHES TOWNSEND, M.B., B.Ch., D.P.H.,
The following names        were included       in the Birthday      D.P.A. County Medical Officer and Chief Welfare Officer,
Honours List published     on June 10.                              Buckinghamshire County Council. Honorary Physician to the
                             K.C.M.G.                                 CLIVE WENTWORTH UHR, M.B., Ch.M., of Clayfield, Queens-
  JOHN CECIL RANKIN BUCHANAN, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.C.P.Ed.,            land, Australia. For services to charitable organizations.
F.R.A.C.P., D.T.M.&H. Medical Adviser to the Secretary of             ROBERT SHARPE VENTERS, M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S.Ed. Chair-
State for the Colonies.                                             man, Special Area Committee, Newcastle Regional Hospital
  HAmY GUY DAIN, Hon.M.D., Hon.LL.D., F.R.C.S. For
services to the British Medical Association and the General           WILLIAM D'AUVERGNE MAYCOCK, M.B.E., M.D.
Medical Council.                                                       LEONARD RooDYN, M.D.
  AUSTIN BRADFORD HILL, C.B.E., Ph.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. Profes-
sor of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical                    O.B.E. (Military Division)
Medicine, University of London.                                       EDWARD SIDNEY ELLIOTT, B.M., B.Ch. Surgeon Commander.
Ch.M., F.R.C.S.Ed., F.R.F.P.S., Hon.F.R.C.S., Hon.F.A.C.S.            DAVID IVOR FRYER, M.B., B.S. Squadron Leader, R.A.F.
Regius Professor of Surgery    in   the University of Glasgow.
Honorary Surgeon to the Queen in Scotland.                                                 O.B.E. (Civil Division)
Medical Officer, Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance.          OLADELE ADEBAYO AJOSE, M.D., D.P.H. Professor of Preven-
  REGiNALD FRANCIS MATMRS, V.R.D., M.D., M.S., F.R.C.S.Ed.,         tive and Social Medicine, University College, Ibadan, Western
F.RA.C.S., F.R.C.O.G.      Honorary Consulting Obstetrician,        Region, Nigeria.
Queen Victoria Maternity Hospital and Queen Elizabeth Hospital,        BARTHOLOMEW OSCAR BARRY, F.R.C.S.Ed., D.T.M.&H. Con-
Adelaide, and Honorary Consulting Gynaecologist, Royal              sultant Surgeon to Princess Tsahai Memorial Hospital, Addis
Adelaide Hospital, South Australia.                                 Ababa, Ethiopia.
  IAN DOUGLAS MILLER, M.B., F.R.C.S., F.R.A.C.S.           Past-       RALPH MARSHALL BATES, F.R.C.S., D.P.M. Medical Super-
President of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. Honor-     intendent, Royal Eastern Counties Hospital, Colchester.
ary Surgeon, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales.
                                                                       MARGARET STorT GLEN Borr, M.B., B.S., F.R.C.O.G., J.P.
                                                                    For public services in Nottingham.
                       C.B. (Civil Division)                           MARC ANToINE EMILE DUVIvIER, M.B., B.S. For public
  NEVILLE MARIuOTT GOODMAN, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.P., D.P.H.           services in Mauritius.
Deputy Chief Medical Officer, Ministry of Health.                      KATHARINE ANNIS CALDER GILLIE, M.B., B.S., M.R.C.P.
                                                                    General Practitioner, Paddington, London.
                           C.M.G.                                      NICHOLAS GREWAL, M.Ch.Orth., F.R.C.S.Ed. Senior Surgeon.
  JOHN ORDE POYNTON, M.D. Director of the Institute of Medi-        Medical Department, British Guiana.
                                                                       DAVID LoWRY HARBINSON, M.B., B.Ch., D.P.H.           Medical
cal and Veteriipary Science, South Australia.                       Officer, Ministry of Health.
                    C.B.E. (Military Division)                         NORMAN DAVIDSON LAIRD, M.B., B.Ch., D.P.H., J.P. For
  GEORGE HENRY MORLEY, O.B.E., F.R.C.S. Air Commodore,               political services in Belfast.
RA.P. Honorary Surgeon to the Queen.                                   WILLIAM ANDERSON MURRAY, M.D., F.R.C.P.Ed., D.P.H.
  WILLIAM JAMES MEREDITH SADLER, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.                 Consultant Chest Physician, East Lothian and Borders Area.
Surgeon Captain, R.N. Honorary Surgeon to the Queen.                    JOSEPH GUY OLLERENSHAW, M.B., Ch.B. General Practitioner,
                                                                     Skipton, Yorkshire.
                     C.B.E. (Civil Division)                           ROBERT PAUL, M.B.E., M.D., F.R.F.P.S. Lately Director,
  PAUL WILSON BRAND, M.B., B.S., F.R.C.S.        Principal of the    Pneumoconiosis Medical and Research Bureau, Northern
Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, South India.        Rhodesia.
  RICHARD DESMOND CURRAN, M.B., F.R.C.P., D.P.M. Senior                 ERNEST ScoTr, D.S.O., T.D., D.M. General Practitioner,
Psychiatrist, St. George's Hospital, London, and Professor-          Ashford, Kent.
designate of Psychiatry at St. George's Hospital.                       FRANCIS EDGAR STOCK, M.B., B.S., F.R.C.S., F.A.C.S.,
  ANDREW RAn GILCHRIST, M.D., F.R.C.P., Hon.F.RA.C.P.                D.T.M.&H. Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong
Immediate Past-President of the Royal College of Physicians of       University.
Edinburgh. Physician and Consultant in Cardiology, Edinburgh            ALFRED VAUGHAN WELLS, M.B., Ch.B., D.P.H., D.T.M.&H.
Royal Infirmary.                                                     Senior Medical Officer, St. Lucia.
  JOHN CHASSAR MOIR, M.D., Hon.LL.D., F.R.C.S.Ed.,                                   M.B.E. (Military Division)
F.R.C.O.G. Nuffield Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in
the University of Oxford.                                              ALBERT Ross BOWTELL, T.D., B.M., B.Ch. Major, R.A.M.C.,
  JOHN JOSEPH POWER, D.S.O., M.B., Ch.M., F.R.C.S.Ed.,               TA.
F.R.A.C.S. A prominent surgeon of Brisbane, Queensland,                GRAEME KERR MArrHEW, M.B., B.Chir. Captain, R.A.M.C.
Australia.                                                             ALAN SWAINSON TOWNSEND, M.B., B.S., D.Obst.R.C.O.G.
   CHARLES HERBERT ST. JOHN, M.B., B.S., D.O.M.S. For public         Flight Lieutenant, Royal Air Force Reserve of Officers (N.S.
 services in Barbados.                                               List).

    Dr. H. Guy Dain.         Prof. A. Bradford Hill.   Prof. C. F. W. Illingwforth.   Dr. C. G. Magee.       Dr. J. C. R. Buchanan.
  JUNE 17, 1961                                    IJ
                                                   BRTHDAY HQNOURS                                           BJoN         1755

                     M.B.E. (Civil Division)                        even after remaining latent for long periods, organisms might
                                                                    still retain a strong potential virulence. Premunition con-
  ERIC VERE CORRY, M.B,, B.S. A medical practitioner of             ferred resistance to superinfection by a parasite of the same
Binnaway, New South Wales, Australia.                               species. Such resistance might be complete or only partial,
  EILEEN SPENCER MORRIS, M.D. Formerly Medical Superinten-
dent, St. Stephen's Hospital, Delhi, India.                         but clinical attacks during it were nearly always less
  MARGARET ANGUS PArrERSON, M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S.Ed. In             virulent than the primary invasion. Premunition kept
charge of the Planters' Hospital, Darjeeling, India.                the body defences permanently on the alert, but, if latent
  FANNY READING, M.B., B.S. For social welfare services in the      infection ceased, the host became defenceless against
State of New South Wales, Australia.                                reinfection. Therefore, in areas where diseases such as
  LEONARD ERNEST STEIGENBERGER SHARP, M.B., B.Chir. For             malaria were endemic care should be taken in treatment
public services in Uganda.                                          not to disinfect the host completely and thus destroy his
                                                                    relative immunity.
  The photograph of Professor A. Bradford Hill is reproduced           Professor A. CORRADETrI (Istituto Superiore di Sanita,
by courtesy of the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum. The          Rome) defined " sterile immunity" as immunity persisting
photograph of Dr. C. G. Magee was supplied by Bassano, and          in the host's body after the complete destruction in it of
that of Dr. H. Guy Dain by H J. Whitlock, Birmingham.               the infectious agent. It occurred in Plasmodium berghei
                                                                    and Trypanosoma lewisi infections in the albino rat. The
                                                                    destruction of P. berghei in the body of the host took place
                                                                    within 65 days of the primary attack, as revealed by daily
             MIMUNITY TO PROTOZOA                                   sub-inoculations of blood into non-infected animals and by
                                                                    splenectomy. Resistance to reinfection lasted the rest of the
             L'FROM A SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT]                        rat's life. The maximum survival time of P. berghei when
                                                                    reintroduced into such a host was eight days. As reinocula-
A symposium on " Immunity to Protozoa " was held                    tion after splenectomy was constantly followed by rapid
during the spring meeting of the British Society                    multiplication of the parasites, the " sterile " nature of the
for Immunology at the Middlesex Hospital Medical                    immunity was evident. Similar immunity developed in
School on June 1 and 2. At the first session, speakers              T. lewisi infection.
discussed the general principles of immunity to pro-
tozoa: subsequently papers were presented illustrating                     Cellular Damage in Amoebiasis and Malaria
these principles by reference to specific protozoal infec-             Speaking with special reference to amoebiasis and malaria,
tions of the blood, internal organs, skin, and mucous               Professor B. G. MAEGRArrH (Liverpool School of Tropical
membranes. The proceedings are to be published in                   Medicine) stressed the importance of the constantly shifting
book form.                                                          balance between the invasiveness of the parasite and the
                                                                    resistance of the host in determining pathogenicity. Studies
                    Natural Immunity                                with five strains of Entamoeba histolytica, all known to be
  Professor P. C. C. GARNHAM (London School of Hygiene              active in animals or man, had shown them to possess a
and Tropical Medicine), who opened the symposium,                   variety of proteolytic enzymes, the principal one falling
confined himself to a few aspects of natural immunity, a            within the trypsin group, as well as fibrinolytic enzymes
subject which he considered offered greater prospects for           and in two strains powerful hyaluronidase. In guinea-pigs
research than any other at the moment. He referred parti-           with acute intestinal amoebiasis injection of trophozoites
cularly to the varying degrees of innate immunity found             into the portal vein did not cause liver abscesses: the
in connexion with the different stages of the life cycle of         latter occurred only in animals with a long-standing bowel
the malarial parasite. In the natural host all stages occurred      infection. It appeared that some preparation was necessary
normally. In less susceptible hosts parasites would develop         before metastatic amoebiasis could occur.
in the liver but only invade the blood with low parasitaemia           Research into the mechanisms by which malarial infection
(Plasmodium bastianelli in man). If the host was still less         produced illness in the host had revealed impairment of
susceptible the liver would support normal forms, but the           respiratory activity in liver mitochondria. In the plasma or
parasite occurred in the blood only as an occult infection          serum of malaria-infected patients and animals a soluble
(P. vivax in chimpanzees); P. ovale and P. falciparum               agent was found which produced similar effects, reducing
developed in the liver of the chimpanzee but not in the             the respiratory activity of body cells.       This discovery
blood. Finally, rhesus monkeys were completely insuscept-           prompted reconsideration of the older concept of the libera-
ible in both the liver and the blood to P. vivax infection.         tion of a toxic substance in malaria. Referring to these
The most delicate indication of susceptibility was the              studies in his final remarks, Professor W. H. TALIAFERRO
development in the host of gametocytes. Professor Garnham           (Argonne National Laboratory, US.A.) stated that patho-
gave examples of how in immune hosts these sexual stages            genicity was central to the theme of immunity to protozoa:
were completely inhibited.                                          it varied inversely with immunity and might be defined as
                                                                    a combination of invasiveness and toxogenicity.
                    Acquired Immunity
   Professor EDMOND SERGENT (Institut Pasteur d'Algerie,                         Genetic and Congenital Immunity
Algiers) summarized the concepts of latent infection and              Dr. A. C. ALLISON (National Institute for Medical
premunition. He proposed the term " innate immunity "               Research, London) reviewed evidence that inherited factors
in preference to " natural immunity" to indicate congenital         in blood conferred resistance to malaria. Young children
absence of susceptibility to an infective disease; inasmuch         with the sickle-cell trait or with sex-linked deficiency of
as an immunity conferred by any disease was natural, the            erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were pro-
latter term was too restrictive. Acquired immunity might            tected against falciparum malaria. Thalassaemia and
take two forms. The first was a true sterilizing immunity           haemoglobin E probably also gave some protection. Because
which succeeded the acute infection and continued long              of this advantage the corresponding genes could become
after clinical and microbiological cure. The second was             common in malarious regions. Acquired immunity in older
a non-sterilizing relative immunity, called premunition,            children reinforced this natural immunity and in adults over-
which accompanied the infection and disappeared with it.            shadowed it.
Where both host and parasites survived the acute infection,            Surveying the subject of congenital immunity in malaria,
the host resumed the appearance of good health and the              Dr. L. J. BRUCE-CHWATT (W.H.O., Geneva) said there was
parasites, now very rare, lived in a latent state in the tissues,   much indirect parasitological and epidemiological evidence
blood, and body fluids. Such latent infection might persist for     that in areas of high endemicity, where the population
a lifetime, as in malaria of animals and piroplasmosis; but.        showed an enhianced tolerance to malaria, passive transfer

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