Walking_ Working Surfaces by jizhen1947


									   Walking, Working Surfaces
• Quiz: Name three walking, working
•   Floors
•   Ladders
•   Stairways
•   Platforms
•   Walkways
•   Scaffolding


    Which of the following will you
    not find on an extension ladder?
•   STEP
•   RUNG
•   FEET
• Floor Hole- opening measuring less than 12
  inches and more than 1 inch.
• Floor Opening- opening measuring more
  than 12 inches.
• Handrail- a pipe or single bar supported on
  brackets, as on a stairway or ramp, to
  furnish persons a handhold.
Platform- an elevated working surface above the
surrounding floor or ground.

Toeboard- a verticle barrier constructed at the
edge of a runway, floor opening, platform or
ramp to prevent falls of materials. (4 inches)

Riser- The upright member of a step situated at
the back of the lower tread and at the leading
edge of the next higher tread.

Tread- the horizontal member
of a step.
Ladders: an appliance consisting of two side
rails joined at regular intervals by cross pieces
called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person
may step either descending or ascending.

Types: Stepladder
       Single Ladder
       Extension Ladder
       Sectional Ladder
       Trestle Ladder
       Trolley Ladder
       Side Rolling Ladder
Railings- a barrier constructed along the edges of
a floor opening, ramp, platform or runway to
prevent falls of persons.
      Top Rail- 39- 42 inches high
      Mid Rail- midway between floor and top rail
      Vertical Member- every 8 feet.
      Must be able to withstand 200 pounds of

Pitch- the angle between the horizontal and the
ladder, measured on the opposite side of the
ladder from the climbing side.
Rungs- ladder cross pieces of circular or oval
cross-section on which a person steps ascending
or descending.

Cleats- ladder cross pieces of rectangular cross-
section placed on edge on which a person steps
ascending or descending.

Steps- flat cross pieces of a ladder on which a
person may step ascending or descending.

Cage- a guard or basket guard fastened to a fixed
ladder to encircle the climber to prevent falls- 7’.
Guardrail- a rail secured to uprights and erected
along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.

Scaffold- any temporary elevated platform and its
supporting structure used to support workmen or
materials or both.
        General Requirements
• Housekeeping:
  – All places of employment, passageways,
    storerooms, and service rooms shall be kept
    clean, orderly and sanitary.
  – Floors must be kept clean and dry. Where wet
    processes are used drains shall be maintained
    and false floors, mats or other dry standing
    places should be provided.
  – Working surfaces shall be kept clear of
    protruding nails, splinters, holes or loose boards
       Aisles and Passageways
• Sufficient, safe clearances must be
  maintained for aisles, at loading docks,
  through doorways and wherever turns or
  passage must be made.
• Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear
  and in good repairs, with no obstructions
  across or in aisles that could create hazards.
• Permanent aisles and passageways must be
       Covers and Guardrails
• Covers and/or guardrails must be provided
  to protect personnel from the hazards of
  open pits, tanks, vats, ditches, etc.
     Guarding Floor and Wall
• Any floor opening must be protected as
  – Stairway openings by guardrails.
  – Ladderway or platform openings by guardrails.
  – Hatches or chutes by one of the following:
     •   Hinged floor opening cover.
     •   Removable guard rail with toeboard.
     •   Skylights by skylight screen or railing.
     •   Pits, manholes, temporary openings, etc. by
         covers or railings.
Fixed Stairs
      • Fixed stairs shall be
        provided for access
        from one level to
        another where regular
        travel between levels
        is anticipated.
      • Stairs must:
         – Be able to carry a
           load five times
           expected load.
•Have a minimum width of 22 inches.

•Be installed at angles to the horizontal of between 30 and 50
   degrees. For example:

   Angle to Horizontal       Rise ( inches) Tread Run (inches)

       30 degrees               6½                11
       40 degrees                8                 9½
       49 degrees               9½                 8

•Treads and nosings shall be slip resistant.

•Stairway platforms shall be no less the width of the stairs and
at least 30 inches in length.
•Railings shall be applied on the open side.

•Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of a closed
 stairway, preferably the right side-descending. Sorry all
you left handers.

•Vertical overhead clearance shall be at least seven feet.
     Portable Wood Ladders
• Stepladders more than 20 feet shall not
  be supplied.
• Step spacing cannot be more than 12
• Minimum width between side rails at the
  top shall not be less than 11 ½ inches.
  From top to bottom side rails shall
  spread at least 1 inch for every foot of
  length of the stepladder.
•Single ladders longer than 30 feet shall not
     be used.
•Two section extension ladders shall not be
     longer than 60 feet.
•Ladders must be maintained in good shape
     at all times, joints must be tight, all
     hardware must be securely attached
     and moveable parts operate freely
     without binding.
•Safety feet shall be used and kept in good
•Never paint wood ladders.

•Question: When using a portable extension
     extension ladder, how does one figure
     the pitch-or angle the ladder must be
     placed on the wall?
ANSWER- The horizontal distance from the
top support to the foot of the ladder must be
one quarter of the working length of the
ladder or 1 foot from the wall for every 4 feet
of height.
•Tops of stepladders shall not be used as steps.
•No ladder can be used to access to a roof unless
       the ladder extends at least 3 feet above the
       roof or surface.
•Portable stepladders fall into the following
•Type I- Industrial Stepladder, 3 to 20 feet,
for heavy duty use such as contractors or
industrial use.
Type II- Commercial Stepladder, 3 to 12 feet,
medium duty use such as painters or offices.
Type III- Household stepladder, 3 to 6 feet,
for light duty, such as light household use.
   • In one way or
     another, walking,
     working surfaces
     figure into many
     workplace injuries.
   • A good knowledge
     and understanding of
     these working
     surfaces will prevent

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