Walking, Working Surfaces
• Quiz: Name three walking, working
• NAME THREE
Which of the following will you
not find on an extension ladder?
• Floor Hole- opening measuring less than 12
inches and more than 1 inch.
• Floor Opening- opening measuring more
than 12 inches.
• Handrail- a pipe or single bar supported on
brackets, as on a stairway or ramp, to
furnish persons a handhold.
Platform- an elevated working surface above the
surrounding floor or ground.
Toeboard- a verticle barrier constructed at the
edge of a runway, floor opening, platform or
ramp to prevent falls of materials. (4 inches)
Riser- The upright member of a step situated at
the back of the lower tread and at the leading
edge of the next higher tread.
Tread- the horizontal member
of a step.
Ladders: an appliance consisting of two side
rails joined at regular intervals by cross pieces
called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person
may step either descending or ascending.
Side Rolling Ladder
Railings- a barrier constructed along the edges of
a floor opening, ramp, platform or runway to
prevent falls of persons.
Top Rail- 39- 42 inches high
Mid Rail- midway between floor and top rail
Vertical Member- every 8 feet.
Must be able to withstand 200 pounds of
Pitch- the angle between the horizontal and the
ladder, measured on the opposite side of the
ladder from the climbing side.
Rungs- ladder cross pieces of circular or oval
cross-section on which a person steps ascending
Cleats- ladder cross pieces of rectangular cross-
section placed on edge on which a person steps
ascending or descending.
Steps- flat cross pieces of a ladder on which a
person may step ascending or descending.
Cage- a guard or basket guard fastened to a fixed
ladder to encircle the climber to prevent falls- 7’.
Guardrail- a rail secured to uprights and erected
along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.
Scaffold- any temporary elevated platform and its
supporting structure used to support workmen or
materials or both.
– All places of employment, passageways,
storerooms, and service rooms shall be kept
clean, orderly and sanitary.
– Floors must be kept clean and dry. Where wet
processes are used drains shall be maintained
and false floors, mats or other dry standing
places should be provided.
– Working surfaces shall be kept clear of
protruding nails, splinters, holes or loose boards
Aisles and Passageways
• Sufficient, safe clearances must be
maintained for aisles, at loading docks,
through doorways and wherever turns or
passage must be made.
• Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear
and in good repairs, with no obstructions
across or in aisles that could create hazards.
• Permanent aisles and passageways must be
Covers and Guardrails
• Covers and/or guardrails must be provided
to protect personnel from the hazards of
open pits, tanks, vats, ditches, etc.
Guarding Floor and Wall
• Any floor opening must be protected as
– Stairway openings by guardrails.
– Ladderway or platform openings by guardrails.
– Hatches or chutes by one of the following:
• Hinged floor opening cover.
• Removable guard rail with toeboard.
• Skylights by skylight screen or railing.
• Pits, manholes, temporary openings, etc. by
covers or railings.
• Fixed stairs shall be
provided for access
from one level to
another where regular
travel between levels
• Stairs must:
– Be able to carry a
load five times
•Have a minimum width of 22 inches.
•Be installed at angles to the horizontal of between 30 and 50
degrees. For example:
Angle to Horizontal Rise ( inches) Tread Run (inches)
30 degrees 6½ 11
40 degrees 8 9½
49 degrees 9½ 8
•Treads and nosings shall be slip resistant.
•Stairway platforms shall be no less the width of the stairs and
at least 30 inches in length.
•Railings shall be applied on the open side.
•Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of a closed
stairway, preferably the right side-descending. Sorry all
you left handers.
•Vertical overhead clearance shall be at least seven feet.
Portable Wood Ladders
• Stepladders more than 20 feet shall not
• Step spacing cannot be more than 12
• Minimum width between side rails at the
top shall not be less than 11 ½ inches.
From top to bottom side rails shall
spread at least 1 inch for every foot of
length of the stepladder.
•Single ladders longer than 30 feet shall not
•Two section extension ladders shall not be
longer than 60 feet.
•Ladders must be maintained in good shape
at all times, joints must be tight, all
hardware must be securely attached
and moveable parts operate freely
•Safety feet shall be used and kept in good
•Never paint wood ladders.
•Question: When using a portable extension
extension ladder, how does one figure
the pitch-or angle the ladder must be
placed on the wall?
ANSWER- The horizontal distance from the
top support to the foot of the ladder must be
one quarter of the working length of the
ladder or 1 foot from the wall for every 4 feet
•Tops of stepladders shall not be used as steps.
•No ladder can be used to access to a roof unless
the ladder extends at least 3 feet above the
roof or surface.
•Portable stepladders fall into the following
•Type I- Industrial Stepladder, 3 to 20 feet,
for heavy duty use such as contractors or
Type II- Commercial Stepladder, 3 to 12 feet,
medium duty use such as painters or offices.
Type III- Household stepladder, 3 to 6 feet,
for light duty, such as light household use.
• In one way or
figure into many
• A good knowledge
and understanding of
surfaces will prevent