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					                      PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES BOOKLET
Name:                                                             Date:


This is an in class assignment, you must complete all worksheet pages during the class work periods
provided. This assignment mark is based on the project you complete, the completion of this booklet, the
unit test, and the ideas you present in class.


The quality of your will determine the quality of your mark. You must use full sentences for all sections
with the exception of definitions and diagrams where point-form is acceptable.


Damaged, torn, or illegible booklets will not be accepted. Replacements will not be given for lost or
damaged booklets; students will be responsible for replacing their booklet.
PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: VOCABULARY (2.4)

            Analyse                                      Osmosis
            Chemical Change                      Particle
            Chemical Energy                      Particle Theory of Matter
            Concentration                        Physical Change
            Crystal                              Pollution
            Dissolve                             Potential Energy
            Experiment                           Principle
            Filtration                           Pure Substance
            Gas                                  Smog
            Hazardous Waste                      Solid
            Heterogeneous Mixture                Solubility
            Homogeneous Mixture                  Solute
            Hypothesis                           Solution
            Impermeable                          Solvent
            Investigation                        Substance
            Liquid                               Volume
            Mass
            Material
            Mineral
            Mixture
            Molecules
     PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: THE PARTICLE THEORY OF MATTER (3.1, 3.2)

            A theory is a scientific idea that is widely believed because it explains a lot of what we see around us.
     In the study of Pure Substances and Mixtures one theory explains everything we see around us. This theory
     is the Particle Theory of Matter.
            The Particle Theory of Matter states that:
                    -   All matter is made up of particles
                    -   All particles of one substance are identical
                    -   All particles are in constant motion
                    -   Temperature affects the speed at which particles move
                    -   Gases have spaces between their particles
                    -   Liquids and solids have no spaces between their particles and their particles are attracted
                        to each other
            These particles are usually represented as balls that look a lot like marbles. Individual particles are
     called atoms and particles are made up of two or more atoms bonded (stuck) together are called molecules.




                                          Atom
                                                                        Molecule
/3
     A Pure Substance is made up of identical particles (atoms or molecules). Some examples of objects
     made up of pure substances are salt, distilled water, and a copper pipe. List three (3) more objects
     that are pure substances.




/3
     A Mixture is made up of different particles (atoms or molecules). Some examples of mixtures are salad
     dressing, chocolate chip cookies, and a glass of Kool Aide. List three (3) more examples of mixtures.




/4
     Which do you think there are more of on the earth, pure substances or mixtures? Justify your answer.
     PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES (3.3)

            Review the previous lesson. Use the graphic organizer below to compare Pure Substances and
     Mixtures. How are they the same? How are they different?
/3
                            Same                                                   Different




/2
     Summarize the facts you have identified in the graphic organizer about Pure Substances and Mixtures
     into one or two sentences.




     PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: SOLUTIONS AND MECHANICAL MIXTURES (3.4)

            Most of the substances on our planet are mixtures. These mixtures are either Solutions or
     Mechanical Mixtures. Complete the following Concept Attainment activity with your class.

/4                                Solution                       Mechanical Mixture

                                    Tea                           Strawberry jam

                                    gas                                    gas

                                   liquid                                 liquid

                                   solid                                  solid

            Sort:   chocolate chip cookies               salad dressing            air
                    vanilla ice cream                    black coffee              chalk dust and air mixed
     Using the classroom sample set of solutions and mechanical mixtures:
/3
     Define the term solution and identify the characteristics of a solution.




/3
     Define the term mechanical mixture and identify the characteristics of a mechanical mixture.
      PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: SOLVENTS AND SOLUTES AND CONCENTRATION (3.6, 3.7)

             Every solution forms because one substance has been dissolved into another substance. The
      substance that does the dissolving is called the solvent and the substance being dissolved is the solute.

/10
      Identify the solvent and solute in each of the following solutions. In the last space create your own
      solution and identify the solvent and solute.
         Salt and water                      Solvent:                               Solute:
         Tea leaves and water                Solvent:                               Solute:
         Food colouring and vinegar          Solvent:                               Solute:
                                             Solvent:                               Solute:




      PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: CONCENTRATION (3.8)

             The concentration of a solution refers to how much solute is in the solvent. We say that a solution
      is concentrated when there is a lot of solute in the solvent and dilute when there is a little solute in the
      solvent. This is something we do everyday. Consider the diagram of the coffee mugs and the number of
      teaspoons of sugar in each one; then fill in the Cloze Activity below.

                                              DILUTE AND CONCENTRATED




                                      A                     B                   C
      Cloze Activity
/4 The                        is sugar and the                       is coffee. Each mug holds the same volume
      (amount) of coffee. Coffee Mug B is the most                   and Coffee Mug C is the most                 .


                                             Word Bank for Cloze Activity
                                             dilute                  solvent
                                             solute                  concentrated
     PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: CONCENTRATION (3.8)

            Previously we looked at dilute and concentrated as a qualitative way to explain the amount of solute
     in a solution. Qualitative means that we are determining which solution is more concentrated without
     measuring, this is something we do everyday. This section will explore how to quantitatively determine the
     concentration of a solution by using measurements.

     PROBLEM
            Sodium Chloride is a white crystalline substance that we usually refer to as salt. It is used flavour food,
     found in sea water, and is part of several commercial processes. You cannot taste the Sodium Chloride
     solutions to determine which one is the most concentrated. You have been asked to create three (3) solutions
     of Sodium Cyanide and label them A, B, and C.
            Solution A: 6 grams of Sodium Chloride in 300mL of water
            Solution B: 10 grams of Sodium Chloride in 500mL of water
            Solution C: 13 grams of Sodium Chloride in 750mL of water

     CALCULATION
            To determine the concentration of a solution quantitatively (with measurements) we divide the
     quantity of solute by the quantity of solvent. We do this using the following equation:
                               Concentration = amount of solute
                                               amount of solvent

     SOLUTION
            Using the Concentration Equation determine which solution of Sodium Chloride is the most salty.
            Example:     Concentration = 6 g of Sodium Chloride
                                               300mL of water
                                        = 0.02g/mL
/5          Complete the following table and identify the most concentrated sodium chloride solution.
             Solution              Sodium Chloride (g)               Water (mL)              Concentration( g/mL)
                 A                           6g                         300mL                       0.02g/mL
                 B
                 C


     Identify which of the three solutions has the highest concentration of Sodium Chloride. Explain
     how you used the concentration to help you.
      PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: SATURATED AND UNSATURATED SOLUTIONS (2.4, 2.5, 3.9)

             How many of you have added sugar to a cup of tea? If we
      add sugar to the tea in little amounts we see that the tea will dissolve
      the sugar up to a certain quantity (amount) of sugar. After this amount
      the tea cannot dissolve any more sugar and the extra sugar settles to
      the bottom of the cup.
             The point when the tea has dissolved all of the sugar it can is
      called the saturation point. A solution is saturated when the
      solvent holds the maximum amount of solute possible. Any
      solute added after this point will come out of solution and settle on the bottom creating a mechanical mixture.

/1
      Define the term saturated in your own words.




/1 Define the term unsaturated in your own words.




      Identify which of the classroom samples have not reached their saturation point, and which have
      reached their saturation point.
/10            Mixture         Unsaturated or at Saturation         Beyond Saturation Point        Not Applicable
                                            Point
                  A
                  B
                  C
                  D
                  E
                  F
                  G
                  H
                   I
                  J

/2
      Justify why Mixture E belongs in the column you have placed it.
     PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: SOLUBILITY AND ITS FACTORS (2.2)

             Which solute dissolves more easily in water, sugar or steel? Every solute dissolves differently into
     a solvent. The ability of a solute to dissolve into a solvent is called solubility. Sugar has greater solubility
     in water than steel. That is one reason why ships are made of steel and not sugar. Solutes with lower solubility
     reach their saturation points more quickly.
             We can increase the solubility of a solute by applying these factors:
             1) Temperature
             2) Type of solute or solvent
             3) Particle Size
             4) Stirring
             You will complete four experiments that test the factors that affect how quickly a solute will dissolve
     into a solvent. After the experiments you will use your observations to explain how each of these factors
     affects the solubility of a solute.

/3
     Explain how temperature affects solubility; use the Particle Theory of Matter in your explanation.




/3 Explain how the type of solute or solvent affects solubility; use the Particle Theory of Matter in your
     explanation.




/3 Explain how particle size affects the solubility; use the Particle Theory of Matter in your explanation.




/3 Explain how stirring affects the solubility; use the Particle Theory of Matter in your explanation.




/3 Explain two ways that you could make the sugar on the bottom of a mug of tea more soluble.
      PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: SEPARATING SOLUTIONS AND MIXTURES (2.3, 3.5)

             Much of this strand has focused on creating mixtures, determining the concentration of mixtures, and
      applying different factors of solubility to create more saturated mixtures. However just as much effort is spent
      separating the substances we want from the substances we don’t want.
             There are many ways to separate a mixture. In this strand we will focus on: evaporation, sifting,
      filtration, distillation, settling, and magnetism. You will observe six (6) demonstrations and then develop a
      solution to the situations presented below based on the demonstrations. Your solution will include a diagram
      and a brief explanation of the process you’ve selected.


             How could each person separate the substance they need from the substance they don’t?
/10
             a) An engineer in Dubai must separate sand, gravel, and salt from sea water so people can drink it;




             b) A person at the recycling plant must separate a tank full of water, staples, and wet shredded paper;
PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: REVIEW

This review is meant to verify how well you understood the concepts of this strand. Complete each section.

T/F The Particle Theory of Matter states that solids have large spaces between their particles.


T/F Mixtures are made up of identical particles.


T/F Distilled water is a pure substance.


T/F The characteristics of a solution are that it is clear, uniform in colour, and all matter is dissolved.


T/F The characteristics of a mechanical mixture are that its appearance and properties are not uniform.


T/F In a mixture of salt and water, salt is the solvent.


T/F A cup of tea with three spoons of sugar is more concentrated than a cup of tea with one spoon of sugar.


T/F A concentration of 0.04g/L is more dilute than a concentration of 0.09g/L.


T/F The concentration of a solution with 4 grams of salt in 100mL of water is 0.08g/mL.


T/F A cup of tea with three spoons of sugar is more concentrated than a cup of tea with one spoon of sugar.


T/F A solution is saturated when the solvent cannot dissolve any more solute.


T/F Solubility refers to the ability of the solvent to dissolve into the solute.


T/F Solubility can be increased by increasing temperature, stirring, using smaller particles, and changing the
     type of solute or solvent.


T/F Solubility refers to the ability of the solvent to dissolve into the solute.


T/F The best way to separate a mechanical mixture of water, sand, and paper clips is to use a magnet to
     extract the paper clips and then poor the water through a filter to remove the sand.
     PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES: CASE STUDY

            Explore and explain how a commercial or industrial process creates a mixture or a separation. Lipstick
     is an example of a commercial mixture; lipstick is a mixture of several different substances. Explore and
     explain how lipstick is created. Recycled materials go to a recycling plant for separation; this is an industrial
     separation process. Explore and explain how paper is recycled.
            Use the space provided below to complete the rough draft of your explanation of the commercial or
     industrial process you have selected. Your final project will include: a diagram of the process, written
/10 description of the process, your recreation of the mixed or separated product, and a reflection piece that
     outlines how you would improve this project or product.


                     Process:
                                         SUMMATIVE PROJECT RUBRIC - CASE STUDY

                      0 TO 4 MARKS                 5 MARKS                        6 MARKS                7 TO 8 MARKS                  9 TO 10 MARKS
                                         - rarely demonstrated that     - adequately                - demonstrated that           - demonstrated that
RESEARCH            - requirements not   research had been              demonstrated that           research had been             thorough research had
(SOURCES CITED)     met                  undertaken                     research had been           undertaken                    been undertaken
                                                                        undertaken
                                         - rarely labelled, included    - adequately labelled,      - labelled, included all of   - labelled, included all of
DIAGRAM             - requirements not   few of the processes used      included most of the        the processes used to         the processes used to
(ONE PAGE)          met                  to make the product            processes used to make      make the product              make the product, with a
                                                                        the product                                               short description of each
                                         - the description rarely       - the description           - the description             - the description
DESCRIPTION         - requirements not   described the processes        adequately described the    described the processes       thoroughly described the
(40 TO 100 WORDS)   met                  used to make the product       processes used to make      used to make the product      processes used to make
                                                                        the product                                               the product
                                         - the product made had         - the product made had      - the product made had        - the product made had all
                    - requirements not   few of the properties of       some of the properties of   most of the properties of     of the properties of the
PRODUCT
                    met                  the commercial/industrial      the commercial/industrial   the commercial/industrial     commercial/industrial
                                         product                        product                     product                       product
                                         - rarely identified areas to   - adequately identified     - identified areas to         - identified several areas
REFLECTION          - requirements not
                                         improve the project or         areas to improve the        improve the project and       to improve the project and
(40 TO 100 WORDS)   met
                                         product                        project or product          product                       product

TOTAL                                                                              /50 Marks

				
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posted:8/5/2011
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