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					Irish Immigration to the USA
          Jewish Immigrants

• Came from severe oppression
• To a Nation that really did not
  welcome them
• How did they become so
  successful?
 Highest Income
 Highest Level of
    Education
Most Occupational
    Prestige
The Irish Catholics came from
   a much more Primitive
  Environment and are now
   a close second in each
          category
•   How?

• Why?
• Strategies?
• By Chance?
• Luck?
The First Major Minority Group:

   All of the urban pathologies
  we now associate with the
           urban poor
Subsistence to Market
   Rural to Urban
Non English--English
     Speakers
  Roman Catholic
        8 Ulster Irish
         * 1715, 1730, 1745
8 Irish Catholics from Ulster
  8 Captured Indentures
      * Cromwell sent over 100,000
            Barbados
   To Hell or Connaught (or Barbados)
      8 Quaker Servants
Where the British Empire
Goes
  So go the Irish:
   as Soldiers, Servants,
  Missionaries, Settlers, etc.
U
l   Ulster Presbyterians become
s
t     American Frontiersmen
e
r

P     Irish Catholics from Ulster
r
e   become Protestant in America
s
b
y
t
      Irish Catholic Indentures
e
r
          (also Anglo-Irish)
i
33% to 40% of Washington’s
      Army was Irish

Many British thought it was
     an Irish rebellion,
or a Presbyterian rebellion
    By 1789
United Irishmen

Alien-Sedition Act
1. Colonial Period:
  Irish as Alien Servants and
  Frontiersmen
2. Revolutionary Period:
  Irish gained claim to patriotism
3. Early Republican Period:
  Irish convergence of talented,
  educated men
4. Jacksonian Period:
  Emphasis returns to mass
  immigration of unskilled labor
  Period of intense Anti-Irish activity
             Philadelphia
1850    72,312 Irish born
        18% of city’s population
1860    95,458 Irish born
        17% of city’s population

In NYC & Boston 23% of the population
Poor Irish
 2/3 of those in Alms House
  were Irish

Alms Houses lent poor out as laborers
COLERA
EPIDEMIC
 Philadelphia
vs. New York &
    Boston
Housing -- 1851
New York 515,000
  37,730 houses
Philadelphia 490,000
  61,200 houses
HOUSES

Building and Loans
      UNSKILLED
      WORKERS

Canals:
       Erie, Delaware & Chesapeake,
       New Orleans
Railroads
  COMPETITION WITH
    BLACK LABORS
 IRISH MOVE INTO CITIES ENMASS
 $3 paid forwarding agents for
  fictitious RR jobs
 They could work 12 hours for 87.5
  cents a day
     Much lower than African Americans
     See Want-ads in Boston & Philly papers
        NINA
ENTREPRENEURS

 Entrepreneurs Raise the Irish to New
  Levels
     1850 48% of Irish were unskilled laborers
            has NO parallel with any other immigrant
        This
        group
 But only 33% of Philly’s Irish were
  unskilled laborers
       1850
Only 1% of Boston
Irish were grocers
                 1857
  20% of Philly’s grocers were Irish
12% of Philly’s Dry Goods Merchants
              were Irish
  SEVEN YEARS
CANNOT MAKE THAT
    MUCH OF A
   DIFFERENCE!
CATHOLIC SCHOOLS
Protestant Bibles
Proselytize Catholics
Harass Children
Prior to 1860
Boston has only 4
Catholic schools


PHILLY HAD 19
Irish Construction
Companies Build
Catholic Churches &
Schools
Irish Catholic Workers

Workers can afford homes
NATIVISTS RIOTS
BIBLE
 CONTROVERSARY
HARASSMENT OF
 CATHOLIC CHLDREN
ST AUGUSTINE’S
 FR. PATRICK E.
  MORIARTY

				
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posted:8/5/2011
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