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Presentation at defence - IT in Civil Engineering

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					IT-CODE
      IT in Collaborative Design


                           PhD Defence

                          Yoke-Chin Lai
           Aalborg University (Denmark)
                         May 22nd 2006
The Road Map
   Introduction

   Background

   Research Hypothesis

   The Research
      Research Questions
      Case Studies and Important Findings
      Demonstrator – IT-CODE


   Conclusion
      Contributions
      Future Research Lines




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                               Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
   From Memex to IT-CODE
                            Itcode:requires                                                                          Itcode:produces
          Collaborative
                                                      Design   Itcode:technique Document-                                              Conventional
            Design                                                                  centric                         Itcode:improving
                                                     Knowledge                                                                           Meeting
                                                                                 Information
                                                      Transfer                                                                           Minutes
                 Itcode:field                                                   Management
                                                                  Design                                                                             Total
                            Itcode:requires                                                               Innovative Itcode:experimenting          Knowledge
                                                                  Meeting                                  Meeting
           Knowledge                                                            Itcode:study                                                      Management
          Management                                                                                       Minutes                Itcode:applying           Itcode:focuses
                                     Itcode:field


                                                         Literature                 Case                                     Demonstrator                          Future
Concept
                Itcode:inspires                            Study Itcode:proceeding Studies              Itcode:stimulating    (IT-CODE)                           Research
                                                                                                                                             Itcode:proposing


                                      Itcode:field

            Ontology
                                                                  RDF(S)                                 Itcode:inspires
                                DC:language


     Itcode:powered_by

                                          Itcode:field

                                                                                                            DC:contributor
           Semantic
             Web
                                           DC:contributor
                                                                                                                                            Itcode:inspires
                                                            Pioneer_04                     Pioneer_03                          Pioneer_02                     Pioneer_01
                                                                                                          Itcode:inspires
                                                                         Itcode:inspires
                                                                                                                       Itcode:idea
                                              Itcode:idea                                          CARD:name                                                          CARD:name
                                    Itcode:idea               CARD:name             Itcode:idea                                  CARD:name          Itcode:idea

                                                                T. Berners-
                          Semantic Web               WWW                             NLS        D. Engelbart           Hypertext T. Nelson            Memex         V. Bush
                                                                    Lee
   22/5/2006                                                                                                                                                                  3
                                                                  Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
 Background
                                            Common
                                                                               Data
 Multidisciplinar                         Understanding
                                                                          interoperability
     y team                                 reaching
                                                               Problems
              has_difficulty             Knowledge (Tacit &                    Information
                                          explicit) transfer                    integration
conducts

                                                                   inadequate
  Collaborativ
                                                                        ICT                         to_improve
   e Design

creates                                      Acquisition
 uses                                                                         Retrieval
                                                                                              Semanti
shares         handles                                                        Search           c Web
                               Representation      KM     Dissemination                        Tech.
                                                                              Indexing
  Knowledge
                                                                                                    applies

                                                Storage                                       IT-CODE??
  22/5/2006                                                                                               4
                                             Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
The Research Hypothesis
   The Semantic Web technology is applicable to support
    collaboration in the building industry.

   On top of the Semantic Web technology, an innovative
    meeting minutes taking approach can be developed, to
    facilitate tacit design knowledge transfer
      by making explicit the meta-knowledge used to formalise
       reasoning.




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                         Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Research Questions

     How do the multidisciplinary project stakeholders collaborate at the
      early project stage, the design stage?

     How do project stakeholders monitor the design information flow?
        What technique do they use?
        What technology do they use?


     How will the contemporary ICT help to improve the current
      practices?




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                             Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
The 3 Case studies                                              [case study]



           Objectives
               To study how the project stakeholders collaborate at
                the design stage.
               To study the design information flow in real-life.
               To identify the weakness the practising project
                information management strategy, if any.


           Data collection methods
               Observations
               Semi-structured interviews


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                               Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
The 3 Case studies                                              [case study]




       Project phase of study
          The conceptual design phase



       Data analysis methodology
               The contextual design formalisms (five types of work
                models)
                    Sequence Model
                    Flow Model
                    Culture model
                    Artefact model
                    Physical Model.

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                                   Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
The Information Flow in Design Meeting                                    [case study]



                                                             Dialog
                                 Brings




                                                                              Discuss
                Communication
                                Agenda


                                           Meeting minutes
                                                                 Issues
   Stimulates




                Action                          Decide

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                                 Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Summary of Findings                                                  [case study]



     The implemented ICT supported codified knowledge management
     Codified knowledge
        Well structured data, e.g., database, spreadsheet
        Semi-structured information, e.g., html/xml files
        Weakly structured information, e.g., texts/graphics/multimedia files
     Tacit design knowledge was found incorporated implicitly in the
      weakly structured information.
     Face-to-face meetings were favoured in the design phase.
     Meeting minutes were produced to summarise the discussion
      contents in the meetings.
     Meeting minutes contained design rationale and reasoning
      behind decisions.



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                              Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Constraints of Knowledge Management                                           [case study]


    Weaknesses identified from the case studies:

            Difficulty to manage weakly structured information (natural language
             plain texts).
            Difficulty to connect knowledge containers of various forms (e.g.,
             books, digital databases, human minds).
            Difficulty to formalise tacit design knowledge (e.g., design rationale,
             reasoning behind decisions).
            Difficulty to make tacit design knowledge adequately explicit for both
             human and machine.
            Difficulty to represent knowledge comprehensible to all targeted
             knowledge receivers.




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                                    Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
The Demonstrator Objectives                                                [demonstrator]




   To be a knowledge management system that has the following
    functional requirements:
           To integrate information distributed in different logic & physical
            containers.
           To capture and store decision rationale.
           To contextualise discussion contents.
           To generate dynamic and semantically structured meeting minutes.




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                                   Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Semantic Web: The New Opportunity                                                       [demonstrator]




The Semantic Web
      Itis an extension of the
      current web (Bernes-Lee, 2001)
        is to provide rich descriptive
      It
      means for the current web
      Informationbecomes both
      human and machine
      understandable
      Ontologiesare the core of
      semantic web



                                         Source: Berners-Lee, T (2000), XML and the Web,
                                         http://www.w3.org/2000/Talks/0906-xmlweb-tbl/slide9-0.html


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                                Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Definition of Ontology                                                               [demonstrator]


  A    formal explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation (Gruber, 93).
  One      of the main components in knowledge representation.
  It   can capture consensus knowledge
  Its   representation is both machine and human readable.
  RDF      Schema (RDFS) is an example of ontology language
  Ontologies     are sets of tuples.

                                                                  Person
                                                                             Concept


              Concept       Actor


                                                               Project

                                                                           Concept


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                                    Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
RDFS: The Lightweight Ontology
                                          Property Definitions

                                          Class Definitions




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               Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
The Concept Behind IT-CODE                                               [demonstrator]


Represent          information chunk as object
Represent          document as the container of the information objects
                          Issue 1                                     correlate
              Xxxxxxx
Issue 2       Xxxxxx
                           Implicit relation
              xxxxxxx

                     Issue 3




          object2



      Explicit relation              object1

                          Object3

22/5/2006                                                                           16
                                           Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Annotate the Information                                                            [demonstrator]

                                                                             ”Following
                                                                              his initial
                                                                           review.....Jack
                                                                             advised...”


      An example of discussion issue in meeting dated 12/08/03:             12/08/03

      ”Following his initial review of the option 3 layout drawings, Jack advised that the
      deletion of one floor would reduce total vertical loads and the structural vertical
      member sizes are expected to be reduced.”




                    Object 1        Relation             Object 2

                                                                             Ytutut hgfhd
                                                                            Hgjghgjh xxds
      e.g: causes, improves, solves,
     agrees_with, is_consistent_with,
              has_alternative                                                 05/08/03
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                                    Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
What is                                                                [demonstrator]




Tag   of metadata, e.g. <author>, <URI>, <type_of>
Metadata     is ”data about data”
Useful     to make information machine readable
Domain      specific metadata can be defined and expressed in ontologies models.




22/5/2006                                                                         18
                                 Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Examples of Metadata Elements                                                            [demonstrator]



  DCMI                            Wordnet                      ISO/IEC 82045-5
  Title                           LexicalConcept               Document ID Global
  Creator                         Verb                         Owner document ID
  Subject                         Noun                         Version ID
  Description                     Adjective                    Title
  Publisher                       AdjectiveSatellite           Summary
  Contributor                     Adverb                       Creator
  Date                            glossaryEntry                Creator organisation
  Type (resource type)            similarTo                    Responsible organisation
  Relation                        antonymOf                    Project name

Sources:
•Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI), http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/
•Wordnet, http://www.semanticweb.org/library/wordnet/wordnet-20000620.rdfs
•International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), http://www.iso.org/iso/en/ISOOnline.frontpage

22/5/2006                                                                                              19
                                         Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Information Integration                                                                                        [demonstrator]

                                                                                    B
                                                       A
                                                                                    B-M1: hkjh ssss
                                                       A-M1: ghj uyt
                                                                                    hkjhwy
                                                       hgjh lko ssda
                                                                                    B-M2: kjkjlkj
                                                       A-M2: hjkhs
 Differently strucrured                                hjwe fdsd nkjjh
                                                                                    B-M3: asere jkjd
 information
                              Documenting
                                                                         The web
                                                                                                    B
                                                 A      A-M2


                                                A-M1                                                    B-M1


  Accessing                                                                    B-
                                                                               M2




                                Extracting
                                                                                    IT-CODE
                                                               WWW


                          Interpreting

                                                Intranet

22/5/2006                                                                                                                 20
                                             Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Contextualise the Discussion Contents                                                          [demonstrator]



                                                               Who      raises the issue?

                                                               What     is the issue type?
              Brings                                                 Problem?
                                                                     Propostion/Alternative?
                                                                     Solution/Agreement?
Communication                      Dialog
                         Discuss




                                                                Are     there any precedent cases?
  Stimulate




                                                                What     is the status of the issue?
  s




                Decide
                                                                Why     does the issue occur?
Action                                      Issues
                                                                What     is the consequence?

                                                                How     to solve the issue?

 22/5/2006                                                                                                21
                                              Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Ontology Model Excerpt – Class Definitions




 22/5/2006                                   22
                 Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Ontology Model Excerpt – Property Definitions




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                  Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
 The Data Model (Instance)                                                                         [demonstrator]



                                                                 <Container>                       <Actor>
                      <Location>
                     URL:http://xxx.xx                             meeting                         Inst_003
                                                                 minutes_001
                                                   Rose
                                    has_location
       Harry                                                                             <Action
                                                                                           >

                             <Actor>                                                                <Project
                           Instance_001                                                              stage>
       <Role>
                                                          <Decision>
                                                             Deletion of 1
                                                          floor...expect to be
                                                                reduced.




                               <Proposition>
Stan

  has_name
                             proposes
                                                                                 <Problem>
                <Actor>                                                           Bla bla bla
                Inst_002

                                                                                                               24
RDF Excerpts




22/5/2006                              25
            Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Tools for IT-CODE                                                                   [demonstrator]



                                           Tomcat 5.0
            RDF
            data
            file
                                                                            MySQL


      Protege 3.0                                             Sesame 1.1


     Ontology editor                     RDF(S) based repository
     Single   user applet
                                         RDF(S)    based precise query
     Front-end    data input
                                         Multi-user   server environment support
     RDF   data file generated
                                         Easily   extensible knowledge base
     Simple   but precise query
                                               Compatible      with different type of database




22/5/2006                                                                                       26
                                   Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
The Components of IT-CODE                 [demonstrator]




22/5/2006                                             27
               Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Applet - Project & Meeting Attributes




                                                How to solve the issue?




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                     Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Applet – Issue Contextualisation


What is the issue type?
                                             What is the issue status?

               Who raise the issue?



                            Categorisation – to facilitate precedent search




            Why does the issue occur?              What is the consequence?

22/5/2006                                                                     29
                                      Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Applet – Discussion Trail Search




            Query:
            To search all issues that were discussed in the
            meeting dated 25 November 2003 and related
            to the schematic design process




22/5/2006                                                            30
                                          Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
The Semantic Web Client
                                                      [demonstrator]

the   gateway to access the Sesame repository



  Archives of
  previous projects




      Search results




 22/5/2006                                                       31
                           Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Conclusion

Contribution 1: The Innovative Meeting Minutes
   Information was structured based on semantic network.
   Information had better interoperability.
   Information was dynamically linked.
   Semantic search was supported.
   Form based user interface was used.




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                       Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
 Conclusion

Contribution 2:
 The concept of total
  knowledge
  management was
  applied in the
  demonstrator (IT-
  CODE).




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                        Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
 Conclusion

Contribution 3: The concept of associative thinking
  was incorporated into the innovative meeting minutes to
  contextualise the discussion contents.
    As a suggestion to make explicit the reasoning behind
     decisions.




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                      Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Conclusion

Contribution 4: The emerging Semantic Web technology
  was suggested having the applicable potential to support
  design knowledge management in the building industry.
    A demonstrator was constructed using the ontological
     representation approach and the corresponding ontology
     language
               to support semantic search,
               to support semantic integration of different information resources,
               to make explicit the meta-knowledge, and
               to facilitate tacit knowledge transfer.




22/5/2006                                                                             35
                                    Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Future Research Lines                                               [conclusion]



   To use pre-defined domain-specific metadata in the
    ontology modelling process.
      E.g., ISO/IEC 82045-5
      To investigate possible linking to IFC based product model
       description.
      More efficient integration of domain knowledge.
   To enable simulation of decision making process
      Need a more expressive ontology language with logic
       support, e.g. OWL.



  OWL (Web Ontology Language), http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/

22/5/2006                                                                     36
                                    Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Future Research Lines                                                      [conclusion]



   To improve usability
      To create an easy-to-use knowledge authoring environment.
      Need a better system coherence.
                Seamless integration of the different knowledge authoring tools
                 (Protégé & Sesame) used.
           Suggestion 1: Integrate with web-based Content
            Management tools, e.g. Wiki, Bloki.
           Suggestion 2: Incorporate speech recognition tools and
            discourse annotation tools (natural language processing).
                Knowledge authoring complications in discourse annotation tools.
                Immature speech recognition technology.



22/5/2006                                                                            37
                                    Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Thank you.




22/5/2006                               38
             Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Data-Information-Knowledge                <Q&A>




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               Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Sequence Model                                      <Q&A>


   To illustrate the
    sequence of activities
    conducted in a design
    progress meeting.
      To study the intent of
       an activity
      To study the action
       taken to achieve the
       intent.
      To study the reasoning
       behind the action.


22/5/2006                                              40
                         Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Flow Model                                              <Q&A>


   To study the
    interaction and
    communication flow of
    the interviewees.
   To study the
    technique/s used to
    organise roles.
   To study what
    technology and/or tool
    the interviewees used
    to complete the tasks.




22/5/2006                                                   41
                             Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
    Culture Model                                      <Q&A>


    To study the working
     culture of a group.
       To study the
        working practices of
        the group.
       To study how the
        different working
        practices influence
        one (person) another.
       To study how the
        authority (power) is
        used to achieve the
        defined work
        objective.
    22/5/2006                                              42
                            Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Artefact Model                                        <Q&A>


   To study the variety
    of artefact models
    used.
   To study how does
    the model help to
    achieve more
    efficient
    communication and
    understanding
    sharing.
   In the case studies,
    meeting minutes
    were chosen.

22/5/2006                                                43
                           Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Physical Model                                                                                 <Q&A>



   To study the connection between the physical
    environment with the working culture and
    communication flow.


               Meeting Room                                          Chung (QS)
                                       Shawn
                                                                                    Henry
                                       Log book                          book
                                                                         Log
                                book
                                Log
                  Chris
                                                     Meeting Table
                                                                                    Lawrence




                                                                             book
                                                                             Log
                                                          Meeting
                                               drawings   agenda
                  Alice                                                     Log
                                                                            book

                                                                                     Pat M
                          Joe             Patrick Y




22/5/2006                                                                                         44
                                Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Vannevar Bush – Memex (1945)                                                           <Q&A>




 "He [mankind] has built a
 civilization so complex that
 he needs to mechanize
 his records more fully if he
 is to push his experiment
 to its logical conclusion
 and not merely become
 bogged down part way
 there by overtaxing his
                                         Vannevar Bush, "As We May Think," LIFE 19:11 (1945)
 limited memory."

     Source: ArtMuseum.net, http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Bush.html


22/5/2006                                                                                      45
                                     Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Ted Nelson – Hypertext (1963)                                                           <Q&A>




     "Everything is deeply
     intertwingled"




                                             Hypertext diagram from Ted Nelson's Literary Machines




     Source: ArtMuseum.net, http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Nelson.html

22/5/2006                                                                                      46
                                     Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Douglas Engelbart – Augmentation (1968)
                                                                                           <Q&A>




 "Our goal of augmenting
 the human intellect... will
 exhibit more of what can
 be called intelligence than
 an unaided human could...
 by organizing his
 intellectual capabilities
 into higher levels of                 oNLine System (NLS) demonstration at the 1968 Fall Joint
                                       Computer Conference
 synergistic structuring."



 Source: ArtMusuem.net, http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Engelbart.html#

22/5/2006                                                                                         47
                                     Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU
Tim Berners-Lee – WWW                               <Q&A>


   The current web (web 1.0)
      Contents are structured in
       paragraphs of natural
       language chunks (using for
       instance the <p></p> tag).
      Prominent technologies are
       hyperlinks and keywords
       search
      Limited support in
       information processing



22/5/2006                                               48
                         Y-C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

				
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