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					Introduction to the Industrial
Revolution




         “Workers Celebration Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad”
         Railroad workers gather in Promontory, Utah, to celebrate the completion of the first Transcontinental
         Railroad on May 10, 1869
    The Industrial Revolution
    What?
       „Major change in the economy caused by the shift to industry with
       labor-saving machines

    When?
       „Really got going in America after the Civil War (1860s +)




2
                                          Railroads

    The Industrial Revolution
    Why? Eight reasons                   Industrial
                                         Revolution
                                           Wheel




                •Really took off after the Civil War
                   •Ex. In 1840 US had
                   3,000 miles of track and
                   by 1860 30,000
                 •Started many business practices
                 that made the Industrial Revolution
                 possible
3
                                      Railroads
                                                  New Lands


    Why? Eight reasons               Industrial
                                     Revolution
                                       Wheel




                 •Federal government gives western
                 land free to railroads to encourage
                 businesses & settlement


                 •Railroads took farmers out to their
                 land, carried their crops to market,
                 & brought them manufactured
                 goods
4
                                       Railroads
                                                   New Lands


    Why? Eight reasons               Industrial          Immi-
                                     Revolution          gration
                                       Wheel




                 •Railroad companies advertise in
                 Europe to attract immigrants to new
                 lands


                 •Most immigrants settle in cities,
                 joining the urban industrial
                 workforce
5
                                     Railroads
                                                  New Lands


    Why? Eight reasons              Industrial           Immi-
                                    Revolution           gration
                                      Wheel

                                                 Urbanization



                 •Railroads made cities possible,
                 providing them with the food they
                 needed, raw materials, and new
                 markets

                 •For 1st time, more people have
                 non-farming than farming jobs
6
    Thinking Slide:

     Which cause do you
     think is most important
     so far? Explain.




7
                                           Railroads
                                                        New Lands


    Why? Eight reasons                  Industrial              Immi-
                                        Revolution              gration
                                          Wheel

                                                       Urbanization

                                     Innovations & Inventions


                •Steel rails – safer and cheaper than
                iron
                         More examples: Cash
                         register, typewriter,
                         refrigerator car, Telephone,
                         Lightbulb, Phonograph
8
                                                  Railroads
                                                               New Lands


    Why? Eight reasons                         Industrial              Immi-
                                               Revolution              gration
                                                 Wheel

                 New Business Practices                       Urbanization

                                            Innovations & Inventions

                •“Trust” – a business entity formed to create a
                monopoly or fix prices
                „Monopoly- a business that has no competition


                •Where there is $ there is
                corruption and railroads introduced
                much of both
9
                                                   Railroads
                                                                New Lands


     Why? Eight reasons                         Industrial
                          Social Darwinism                              Immi-
                                                Revolution              gration
                                                  Wheel

                  New Business Practices                       Urbanization

                                             Innovations & Inventions




                 •“Survival of the Fittest”

                 •The rich have more money
                 because they run better businesses
10
                                                          Railroads
                             Government Laissez -
                                                                       New Lands
                             Faire

     Why? Eight reasons                                Industrial
                          Social Darwinism                                     Immi-
                                                       Revolution              gration
                                                         Wheel

                  New Business Practices                              Urbanization

                                                    Innovations & Inventions




                 •Laissez-Faire “Hands Off!”

                 •Government did not interfere with
                 the economy and businesses
11
       A 15-Minute
      Introduction to
        Economics
Objective: Describe business cycle and key elements of
economics


                                                         12
    WHAT’S BEING
SUPPLIED & DEMANDED


• Natural Resource—Found in the
            environment
 •Human Resource—A person who
           contributes
•Capital Resource—Already made,
      often used for profit   13
     THE BASICS

 • Supply—how much of a
   resource exists
 •Demand—how much
 people WANT a resource
•Scarcity—when the supply
is very LOW
                        14
          Warm-up
Pick three of the resources above--one from each category and answer the following questions for each. An example is provided below using a
resource not listed to show you what kind of answer is wanted.
NATURAL RESOURCE: CHICKENS
What is one thing that would happen if this resource was scarce?
If chickens were scarce McDonald's would have to stop selling Chicken Nuggets BECAUSE the price of chickens would become too high.
What would be happening if this resource was in demand?
If chickens were in demand cows might have become too expensive for some people to buy.

NATURAL RESOURCE: ________________
     What is one thing that would happen if this resource was scarce?
     What would be happening if this resource was in demand?

CAPITAL RESOURCE: ________________
      What is one thing that would happen if this resource was scarce?
      What would be happening if this resource was in demand?

HUMAN RESOURCE: ________________
    What is one thing that would happen if this resource was scarce?
    What would be happening if this resource was in demand?

                                                                                                                                   15
     Making $ is dictated by....

    •Profit—make more money than
             you spend
  •Opportunity Cost—How much
       something is worth to an
            individual
•Cost-benefit analysis—Weighing
    pros and cons to come to a decision
                                          16
     The Business Cycle
 Business Cycle—The economy’s flow
    from recessiondepression
   recoveryprosperity or vice versa
•Recession—When the economy begins to
               slow down
•Depression—When the economy cannot
             sustain itself
  •Recovery—When the economy begins to
          come out of a Depression
•Prosperity—When the economy is healthy
             and ―booming‖             17
    WHO MAKES IT WORK?

  •Entrepreneur—A person who
     starts his own business
    •Consumer—A person
      who buys resources
 •Producer—The person from
whom the entrepreneur gets his
          resources              18
The Business Cycle
               Prosperity




                        Recession
             Recovery




                                    Depression


                                           19
Thinking Slide:
 Do you think we could use
 more ―Laissez faire‖ economic
 policies today? Explain.




                                 20
Objective: To examine the growth of the steel industry
in America.
Do Now: Read the following quotations made by
Andrew Carnegie.
“I started life as a poor man and I wish to end it that
way.”
“The man who dies thus rich, dies disgraced.”
What message was Carnegie trying to make in these
quotations, and do you agree with this message? Why,
or why not?


                                                          21
                    The Steel Industry
1850’s – The Bessemer Process allowed steel to be produced
cheaply.
· Therefore, the steel industry grew rapidly.
Examples: railroads, skyscrapers, nails, pins


                                                Bessemer
                                                converter,
                                                Kelham
                                                Island
                                                Museum,
                                                Sheffield,
                                                England
                                                       22
     Henry Bessemer                             (2002)
                         Steel: Vertical Integration        Rolling
  Raw Materials                                     The billets and slabs are
 Example: Iron Ore                                   heated and rolled into
                                                       finished products.
             1                                    4

         Melting
 Hot air is pumped into              Casting
a furnace, melting iron at The liquid steel is cast into
  1600 degrees Celsius.         billets and slabs.
    (2,912 degrees F)

                           2                      3


                                        Refining
                           Impurities are removed and alloys
                            are added from the molten metal             23
                               through the use of a ladle.
· Scottish immigrant Andrew
Carnegie became the ―King of
Steel‖, producing the majority
of America’s steel.




 Andrew Carnegie           24
25
· Carnegie reportedly
gave $350 million of
his $400 million
fortune to charities,
including $60 million
to build libraries.




  Harper's Weekly
   April 11, 190326
• Andrew Carnegie’s best known philanthropy was founding
libraries.
• The first was in his hometown, Dunfermline, Scotland,
opened in 1881.
• By 1919, 2,811 libraries had been founded at a total cost of
$56,704,188.
- U.S. libraries – 1,946
- British libraries – 660 (England and Wales, 423; Scotland
147; Ireland 90)
- Canadian libraries – 156
- New Zealand – 23, South Africa – 13, West Indies – 6,
Australia – 4, Seychelles, Mauritius, and Fiji – 1 each    27
Andrew Carnegie in his “Great Double Role”
                                                   This cartoon
                                                   originally
                                                   appeared in
                                                   the July 9,
                                                   1892 edition
                                                   of The
                                                   Saturday
                                                   Globe, a
                                                   pro-union
                                                   weekly out
                                                   of Utica,
                                                   New York.

Caption reads: "Forty-Millionaire Carnegie in his Great
Double Role. As the tight-fisted employer he reduces wages 28
that he may play philanthropist and give away libraries, etc.‖
Objective: To examine the causes and effects of the
Sherman Anti-trust Act.
Do Now: Name as many oil/gas companies as you can.




    John D.        Sen. John Sherman
   Rockefeller                           J. Pierpont
                                           Morgan 29
Standard Oil Trust
· John D. Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil trust in 1890.




                                                          30
· The Standard Oil trust ended competition, forming a
monopoly.




· The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed in 1890, banning the
                                                        31
formation of trusts and monopolies.
32
―The Modern Buccaneers‖   33
This Harper's Weekly cartoon by W. A. Rogers portrays the
rise of the large business corporation ("monopoly") as an
illicit enterprise (a pirate ship) which menaces economic
competition, and depicts the response of the federal
government as woefully inadequate (Uncle Sam shooting a34toy
cannon).
―Congress—Who’s In It and Who Owns It‖; cartoon by Jacob
Burck reflecting the opinion that big money interests were able
                                                           35
to maneuver the politicians.
  The Role of Banks
· J. Pierpont Morgan
used profits earned as a
banker to purchase other
major corporations.
· By 1898, Morgan
controlled most of the
major rail lines in
America.
· By 1901, Morgan
became head of the U.S.
Steel Company, which
became the first U.S.
company to be worth        36
over $1 billion.
37
Objective: To examine the causes of organized labor.


Do Now: After viewing the following child labor photos,
 write a reaction that answers the following questions.


1. How do the photos make you feel? Why? Be specific.


2. How has America changed since the time these
  photos were taken?


                                                    38
Title: 2 boys
and a horse in
a coal mine,
West VA.
Photo by
Lewis Hine
October, 1908




          39
                         “Newsies”




Out after midnight selling extras. There were many young boys
selling very late. Youngest boy in the group is 9 years old.
Harry, age 11, Eugene and the rest were a little older.      40
Washington, D.C.
Francis Lance, 5 years old, 41 inches high. He jumps on and     41
off moving trolley cars at the risk of his life. St. Louis, Mo.
Shorpy Higginbotham,
―greaser‖ at the Bessie Mine of
the Sloss-Sheffield Steel and Iron
Co. He said that he was 14 years
old, but that was doubtful. The
greasers carried heavy pails of
grease and were often in danger
of run over by the coal cars.
Photo: by Lewis W. Hine, 42
Dec.,1910
This little girl (like many others in the state) is so small she
has to stand on a box to reach her knitting machine. Loudon    43
Hosiery Mills, Loudon, Tennessee, December 1910.
Giles Edmund Newsom (Photo
October 23rd, 1912) while
working in Sanders Spinning
Mill, Bessemer City, N.C., A
piece of the machine fell on to
his foot mashing his toe. This
caused him to fall on to a
spinning machine and his hand
went into unprotected gearing,
crushing and tearing out two
fingers. He told the Attorney he
was 11 years old when it
happened. His parents said he
was 13 years old. The school
census taken at the time of the
                             44
accident made him 12 years old.
    Working
   Conditions

· Factory
workers, miners
and steel
workers faced
serious injury or
death on a daily
basis.
· Children
worked in many
industries, doing
dangerous work
for low pay. 45
                   Workers Organize


                   Knights of Labor – formed
                    in 1869 as the first labor
                       union in the nation.




                                                     Goal #3:
   Goal #1:                                      Equal pay for men
Shorter work day                                    and women


                          Goal #2:
                        End child labor
                                                              46
· On May 3, 1886,
striking factory workers
clashed with
strikebreakers in
Chicago.

· Four workers were
killed by the police.




                        47
· The next day,
thousands of people
gathered in Haymarket
Square to protest the
killings.
· A bomb exploded,
killing a police officer.

· The police then opened
fire, killing ten
protesters. This became
known as the Haymarket
Riot.

                       48
Harper's weekly. Vol. 30 , no. 1534 (May 15, 1886)




                                             49
      American
  Federation of Labor
        (AFL)

• In 1886, Samuel
Gompers formed the
AFL.




                        50
• The AFL is
an umbrella
organization
made up of
many different
trade unions.




         51
Unions of the AFL - CIO


                   A         F         L


                                                   United Farm
                                                   Workers of
                                                   America
   Screen
   Actors                        United Steel
   Guild                         Workers of
                                 America
       American Postal
       Workers Union
                                                International
                         American               Association of
                         Federation             Firefighters52
                         of Teachers
Objective: To examine the Pullman Strike, women in the
labor movement, and the Triangle Fire.




                                                  53
Pullman Strike – (1893) George Pullman cut the salaries of
his workers at his railroad car factory.
- However, the rent in company owned houses remained the
same.
- Therefore, the workers went on strike.
                                                   Pullman
                                                   workers
                                                   walk the
                                                   short
                                                   distance to
                                                   their
                                                   nearby
                                                   Pullman-
                                                   owned
                                                   homes and
                                                   apartments
                                                   after a day
                                                         54
                                                   of work.
Jennie Curtiss, a Pullman worker for five years wrote:

        My father worked for the Pullman Company for ten years.
Last summer he was sick for three months, and in September he
died. At the time of his death we owed the Pullman Company about
sixty dollars for rent. I was working at the time and they told me I
would have to pay that rent, give what I could every pay-day, until
it was paid. I did not say I would not pay, but thought rather than be
thrown out of work I would pay it. Many a time I have drawn nine
and ten dollars for two weeks' work, paid seven dollars for my
board and given the Company my remaining two or three dollars
on the rents, and I still owe them fifteen dollars. Sometimes when I
could not possibly give them anything [because her wage was cut
from $.90 to $.20 per section of carpet], I would received slurs and
insults from the clerks in the bank, because Mr. Pullman would not
give me enough in return for my hard labor to pay the rent for one
                                                                 55
of his houses and live.
The entire financial burden was
carried by the workers. There were no
wage cuts for managers or personnel
and there were no reductions in
stockholder dividends. There was a
rent reduction--for shopkeepers only.
Yet, the Pullman Palace Car
Company at the time of the strike had
a $27,000,000 surplus, capitalization
of $30,000,000 and a quarterly 56
dividend of $600,000 in three months.
1894 – A federal judge issued an injunction against the
workers, forcing them back to work.
- Union
leaders
were
jailed for
violating
the
Sherman
Anti-trust
Act.



                                                          57
    Women in the Labor
       Movement
- By 1840, over 1 million
women worked in factories.

- Mother Jones became a labor
leader, helping to organize
unions nationwide.


―Pray for the dead and fight
like hell for the living.‖
– Mother Jones

                         58
―There are no limits to
which powers of privilege
will not go to keep the
workers in slavery.‖     –
Mother Jones
―I asked a man in prison
once how he happened to
be there and he said he
had stolen a pair of shoes.
I told him if he had stolen
a railroad he would be a
United States Senator.‖
- Mother Jones

Quotations Source: Mother Jones   59
Autobiography
Triangle Fire – (1911) One hundred and fifty people, mostly
young women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
in New York City.
                                Fire fighters arrived soon after
                                the alarm was sounded but
                                ladders only reached the 6th
                                floor and pumps could not raise
                                water to the highest floors of the
                                10-story building. Still the fire
                                was quickly controlled and was
                                essentially extinguished in half
                                an hour. In this fire-proof
                                building, 146 men, women, and
                                children lost their lives and
                                many others were seriously
                                injured.                      60
The 240 employees sewing shirtwaists on the ninth floor had
their escape blocked by back-to-back chairs and workbaskets
in the aisles. The 75-foot long paired sewing machine tables
obstructed essential access to the windows, stairs, and   61
elevators.
For endless hours,
police officers held
lanterns to light the
bodies while crowds
filed past victims
laid out in numbered
rough brown
coffins. As the dead
were identified the
coffin was closed
and moved
aside. Forty-three
were identified by
sunrise on Sunday.
Six days later 7 were
                  62
still unrecognized.
Labor unions, religious communities, political groups and social
reform organizations assembled to mourn the lost lives and
demand real progress in worker protection. At times their
differences in methods and priorities threatened to take back63
gains made in public awareness and the commitment to act.
Eyewitness at the Triangle
By, William G. Shepherd
       I was walking through Washington Square when a puff
of smoke issuing from the factory building caught my eye. I
reached the building before the alarm was turned in. I saw
every feature of the tragedy visible from outside the building. I
learned a new sound--a more horrible sound than description
can picture. It was the thud of a speeding, living body on a
stone sidewalk.
       Thud—dead, thud—dead, thud—dead, thud—dead.
Sixty-two thud—deads. I call them that, because the sound
and the thought of death came to me each time, at the same
instant. There was plenty of chance to watch them as they
came down. The height was eighty feet.
       The first ten thud—deads shocked me. I looked up—    64
saw that there were scores of girls at the windows. The flames
from the floor below were beating in their faces. Somehow I
knew that they, too, must come down, and something within
me—something that I didn't know was there—steeled me.
       I even watched one girl falling. Waving her arms, trying
to keep her body upright until the very instant she struck the
sidewalk, she was trying to balance herself. Then came the
thud--then a silent, unmoving pile of clothing and twisted,
broken limbs.
       As I reached the scene of the fire, a cloud of smoke
hung over the building. . . . I looked up to the seventh floor.
There was a living picture in each window—four screaming
heads of girls waving their arms.
"Call the firemen," they screamed—scores of them. "Get a
ladder," cried others. They were all as alive and whole and
sound as were we who stood on the sidewalk. I couldn't help  65
thinking of that. We cried to them not to jump. We heard the
siren of a fire engine in the distance. The other sirens sounded
from several directions.
       "Here they come," we yelled. "Don't jump; stay there."
       One girl climbed onto the window sash. Those behind
her tried to hold her back. Then she dropped into space. I
didn't notice whether those above watched her drop because I
had turned away. Then came that first thud. I looked up,
another girl was climbing onto the window sill; others were
crowding behind her. She dropped. I watched her fall, and
again the dreadful sound. Two windows away two girls were
climbing onto the sill; they were fighting each other and
crowding for air. Behind them I saw many screaming heads.
They fell almost together, but I heard two distinct thuds. Then
the flames burst out through the windows on the floor below
them, and curled up into their faces.                        66
       As I reached the scene of the fire, a cloud of smoke
hung over the building. . . . I looked up to the seventh floor.
There was a living picture in each window—four screaming
heads of girls waving their arms.
       "Call the firemen," they screamed—scores of them.
"Get a ladder," cried others. They were all as alive and whole
and sound as were we who stood on the sidewalk. I couldn't
help thinking of that. We cried to them not to jump. We heard
the siren of a fire engine in the distance. The other sirens
sounded from several directions.
       "Here they come," we yelled. "Don't jump; stay there."
       One girl climbed onto the window sash. Those behind
her tried to hold her back. Then she dropped into space. I
didn't notice whether those above watched her drop because I
had turned away. Then came that first thud. I looked up,
another girl was climbing onto the window sill; others were  67
crowding behind her. She dropped. I watched her fall, and
again the dreadful sound. Two windows away two girls were
climbing onto the sill; they were fighting each other and
crowding for air. Behind them I saw many screaming heads.
They fell almost together, but I heard two distinct thuds. Then
the flames burst out through the windows on the floor below
them, and curled up into their faces.
The firemen began to raise a ladder. Others took out a life net
and, while they were rushing to the sidewalk with it, two more
girls shot down.
       The firemen held it under them; the bodies broke
it…Before they could move the net another girl's body flashed
through it. The thuds were just as loud, it seemed, as if there
had been no net there. It seemed to me that the thuds were so
loud that they might have been heard all over the city.
       The firemen raised the longest ladder. It reached only to
                                                               68
the sixth floor. I saw the last girl jump at it and miss it. And
then the faces disappeared from the window. But now the
crowd was enormous, though all this had occurred in less than
seven minutes, the start of the fire and the thuds and deaths.
       I heard screams around the corner and hurried there.
What I had seen before was not so terrible as what had
followed. Up in the [ninth] floor girls were burning to death
before our very eyes. They were jammed in the windows. No
one was lucky enough to be able to jump, it seemed. But, one
by one, the jams broke. Down came the bodies in a shower,
burning, smoking—flaming bodies, with disheveled hair
trailing upward. They had fought each other to die by jumping
instead of by fire. The whole, sound, unharmed girls who had
jumped on the other side of the building had tried to fall feet
down. But these fire torches, suffering ones, fell inertly, only
intent that death should come to them on the sidewalk instead 69
of in the furnace behind them.
On the sidewalk lay heaps of broken bodies. A policeman later
went about with tags, which he fastened with wires to the wrists
of the dead girls, numbering each with a lead pencil, and I saw
him fasten tag no. 54 to the wrist of a girl who wore an
engagement ring. A fireman who came downstairs from the
building told me that there were at least fifty bodies in the big
room on the seventh floor. Another fireman told me that more
girls had jumped down an air shaft in the rear of the building. I
went back there, into the narrow court, and saw a heap of dead
girls. . . .
         The floods of water from the firemen's hose that ran into the
gutter were actually stained red with blood. I looked upon the heap
of dead bodies and I remembered these girls were the shirtwaist
makers. I remembered their great strike of last year in which these
same girls had demanded more sanitary conditions and more safety
precautions in the shops. These dead bodies were the answer. 70
Moments in History Project-
5th marking period




                              71
Moments in History Project-
6th marking period
   Reenactments of major historical moments
   Groups 1-5
       Any student that has this class
       The more members in the group the more elaborate the
        reenactment
   Movies or live plays
   All topics must be approved by me, first come
    first serve- no duplicates
   Based on a primary source, cited and turned
    in
   Due: May 3rd, 2011                                         72
73
- After the fire,
new laws were
passed to
protect factory
workers.




                    74
Employer vs. Employee

     Dialogue Activity




                         75
Objective: To discuss how immigrants adjusted to life
in America.




                                                  76
Adjusting to a New Land
· Most immigrants stayed in the cities where they landed.
· By 1900, lower Manhattan was the most crowded place in
the world.




                   Hester Street, ca. 1900
                                                       77
Essex Street, Lower East Side, New York City, ca. 1900
                                                    78
· Immigrants adjusted by settling in communities with
people of their own ethnic group.




                               A Jewish vendor in Lower 79
 Little Italy, New York City   East Side, New York City
· Immigrants came to northern cities looking for work.

  New York City population, total
  and by borough, from 1790 to
  2000. Figures in millions.

       Key:
   New York City
    The Bronx
     Brooklyn
    Manhattan
      Queens
   Staten Island

                                                    80
Objective:
To examine the
growth of cities
at the turn of the
20th century.




Hine, Lewis W.       81
NYC tenement 1910
City Life



• Tenements were        • Poor families
overcrowded, dirty      struggled to survive in
and oftentimes had no   crowded slums living
windows, heat, or       in tenements.
indoor bathrooms.




                                           82
                 Jacob Riis, 1889
“Lodgers in a Bayard Street Tenement, Five Cents a
                       Spot"




                                               83
Bunks in a
seven-cent
lodging-house,
Pell Street




           84
―There is no mistaking it: we are in Jewtown. It is said that
nowhere in the world are so many people crowded together on
a square mile as here….yet the sign ―To Let" is the rarest of
all….Here is one (building) seven stories high. The sanitary
policeman whose beat this is will tell you that it contains
thirty-six families, but the term has a widely different meaning
here….In this house, where a case of small-pox was reported,
there were fifty-eight babies and thirty-eight children that were
over five years of age. In Essex Street two small rooms in a
six-story tenement were made to hold a "family" of father and
mother, twelve children, and six boarders….These are samples
of the packing of the population that has run up the record here
to the rate of three hundred and thirty thousand per square
mile.‖
– Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives, 1890                 85
Source: http://www.yale.edu/amstud/inforev/riis/chap10.html
Jacob Riis – Men’s Lodging Room in the West 47th
Street Station – c. 1892




                                                   86
Reform
• Garbage collection and street cleaning began regularly.




                                                     87
              Street cleaning, Fourth Street
• New buildings were required to have fire escapes and
plumbing.




Typical tenement fire-escape serving as an extension of the
                                                         88

flat: Allen Street
Anti-Immigrant Feelings
· Many Americans feared that new immigrants would never
assimilate.

· Asians were prohibited
from buying land in
California.

· Chinese immigrants
were frequently attacked, and
occasionally killed, by
racist mobs.

Video: Snake River Massacre
           (1:50)           Seattle's anti-Chinese riot of
                                                      89
                                  February 8, 1886
· Assimilation was a long, slow process.
Assimilation - The process whereby a minority group
gradually adopts the customs and attitudes of the
majority culture.




                                                      90
91
92
  Chinese
Exclusion Act
(1882) – Video (1 min.)

- It barred the
immigration of
Chinese laborers
for 10 years.
- It was renewed
several times by
Congress
before being
repealed in
1943 by the
Supreme Court.93
94
95
  What was life like in PA in 1900?
• By 1900, Pennsylvania had a population of
  over 6,302,000 living hard lives making iron
  and steel, mining coal, timbering, drilling for
  oil, farming and manufacturing.
• Surveys of tenement houses in Philadelphia
  in 1905 found 7 people living in one room,
  common toilets and 41 percent of the sinks
  not connected to sewers. They emptied into
  yards.

                                                    96
 What was life like in PA 1900?
• Housing in Pittsburgh was worse. In a
  similar survey the same year found
  35,000 people using Saw Mill Run as an
  open sewer with privies built over
  wooden trenches leading into the
  stream.
• The average number of days worked in
  47 Pennsylvania industries in 1898 was
  298.

                                       97
 What was life like in PA in 1900?
• Garment workers made $8.50 in a 60 hour
  week, but only worked half a year and a
  family of 5 paid $9 a month for a three room
  apartment in Philadelphia. Miners made $300
  a year in 1907 and agricultural workers made
  $215 a year.
• In 1893 the General Assembly passed a new
  law prohibiting children under 13 from
  working and limited the work hours of
  children over 13 to no more than 12 hours a
  day and 60 hours a week.
                                             98
 What was life like in PA in 1900?
• Ida Tarbell, the famous "muckracking"
  journalist from Erie, wrote about the
  excesses of the Standard Oil Company;
  appropriate since she was raised in
  Titusville.
• Lincoln Steffins wrote about public
  corruption in Pittsburgh and
  Philadelphia.

                                      99
 What was life like in PA in 1900?
• Economically, Pennsylvania continued
  to lead the nation in basic industries
  like textiles (including silk
  manufacturing), iron and coal
  production.
• Pennsylvania was also fifth in cotton
  and carpet production.


                                       100
 What was life like in PA in 1900?
• By 1910, Pennsylvania’s urban
  population surpassed the rural
  population for the first time.
• The U.S. Census counted 4,631,000
  urban residents and 3,034,000 rural
  residents.



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