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					       Immigration & Industrialization
     (during the late 1800s – early 1900s)

              Why did immigration increase?

               •Why did cities develop & what were their problems?
               Were these problems solved?

How did new inventions change society and lead
to industrial growth?
How would you feel if you were forced to
leave your home and move to a new,
unfamiliar place?

What favorite things would you bring with you
     (to fit inside one large pillowcase)?
“Coming to America”
     The Great Migration

The largest group of immigrants came from
           Europe in the 1880’s.
   Reasons for Increased Immigration
     late 19th century – early 20th century

• 1. Hope for better opportunities
• 2. Religious freedom
• 3. Escape from oppressive or
    unfair governments
• 4. Fleeing from wars or famine
• 5. Sense of adventure
Push & Pull Factors
            Push & Pull Factors

Factors that pull
  people to the U. S.

• jobs
• religious or political
• land or business
• opportunities for
  fresh start
Push & Pull Factors

          • Factors that push
            people out of their
            home countries

          • political or religious
          • famine
          • wars or economic
The Journey Across the Atlantic
      The Journey Across the Atlantic

• Most people did not travel
  first class, but travelled in
  steerage which meant that
  conditions were crowded,
  uncomfortable, & usually
  below decks in a special
  part of the ship.

• They travelled this way
  because they could not
  afford a more expensive
   The Journey Across the Atlantic

• The average trip across the Atlantic
  took 2 - 4 weeks.
• During the trip, they would have
  experienced seasickness, crowded
  living/sleeping conditions, and maybe
  exposure to disease or illness.
Arrival in America

  The main processing point for
  newly arriving immigrants in
  the early 1900s was Ellis
  Island in New York City.
             Medical Inspections

• On Ellis Island, the new immigrants were checked
  for diseases by doctors. If they were found to have
  an incurable diseases or mental illnesses, then they
  could be sent back to their home countries.
Medical Inspections
Trachoma: Trachoma, a highly
contagious eye infection that
could cause blindness, was a
common disease in southeastern
Europe but relatively unknown in
the United States. it appeared as
inflammations on the inner eyelid.
Doctors checked for the disease
by raising the eyelid with either
their fingers, a hairpin, or a
buttonhook--a painful, but quick
procedure. Since trachoma is
difficult to cure, sufferers were
generally isolated and sent back
to their ports of embarkation at
the first opportunity.
         Legal Inspections

• They were also interviewed and
  sometimes given new names because
  the inspectors couldn’t spell or
  pronounce their real names.
           Legal Inspections

• The mixed emotions of fear (of being
  sent back home) and happiness of
  their safe entry into the U.S. caused
  Ellis Island to be nicknamed The Island
  of Tears.
            Legal Inspections

• It took 3-5 hours,
  but sometimes,
  days for so many
  people to be
  processed through
  the lines.
• People with a
  criminal record
  were not allowed to
  enter the U.S.
Ethnic Enclaves
             Ethnic Enclaves

• Immigrants congregated into ethnic
  neighborhoods because other people –
  friends, families from their home country
  already lived there.
                              often resembled
                              their own
                              countries, and
                              were given
                              nicknames such as
                              Chinatown, Little
                              Germantown, etc.
            Ethnic Enclaves

• Positive aspects of   • Negative aspects
  living in such a        were over-crowded
  neighborhood were:      conditions, poverty,
  a sense of              poor sanitation, and
  community,              lack of assimilation.
  common language,
  and customs and it
  created a support
       Cities tried to solve these
        problems by creating:

• Settlement houses such as Hull House
  founded by Jane Addams, which
  offered English language classes and
  job training.
          Cities tried to solve these
           problems by creating:

• Political machines
  gained power by trying
  to gain votes and
  political influence in
  exchange for helping
  immigrants find jobs,
  housing, and help for
  any brushes with the
Living Conditions
Living Conditions
 • Because they were often
   poor, immigrants lived in
   tenements which were
   run-down apartment
   buildings (no indoor
   plumbing, no electricity,
   often unsafe due to
   crowding) and ghettos
   which were entire
   neighborhoods of unsafe
Living Conditions
          Working Conditions

• Immigrants took low paying jobs, such as
  in steel mills (Pittsburgh), meatpacking
  (Chicago), making cloth in textile mills
  (New England). Many of these factories
  employed children who worked for even
  lower wages than adults.
Working Conditions
         Working Conditions

• Immigrants had no rights and worked
  long (10-12) hours in sweatshops
  factories with unsafe working
  conditions. Because of these poor
  working conditions, labor unions,
  groups of workers, formed together to
  fight for better working conditions.
 America’s Treatment of Immigrants

• Immigrants not only faced problems of
  learning new language and customs of
  America, but also faced discrimination
  and resentment because other
  Americans disliked their different ways,
  language, customs and willingness to
  work for lower pay.
America’s Treatment of Immigrants
  America’s Treatment of Immigrants

• The Irish who arrived in great numbers
  due to the potato famine in Ireland and
  the Chinese who also fled starvation as
  well as war in China were targets of
  discrimination because they came in such
  large numbers during this period of time.
America’s Treatment of Immigrants
“Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus”

  As you read the poem, think about the experiences of immigrants
                       coming to America……
  Which lines reflect “push factors and which reflect “pull” factors?

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