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					Break-Out Session
A Roadmap to Sustainable Security
for the U.S.-Mexican Border Region
           Devon Howard
Original Authorities
   International Boundary Commission (1889)→ International Boundary and Water
    Commission (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   US Environmental Protection Agency (1970)
   US-Mexico Chamber of Commerce (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ Integrated Border Environmental Plan (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   Border Trade Alliance (1986)
   Ley General del Equilibrio Ecologico y la Proteccion al Ambiente (1988/1996)→ Secretaria
    de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessments (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ Commission for Environmental Cooperation→ Joint Public Advisory
    Committee
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ Good Neighbor Environmental Board (1994)
   Consulate General→ Border Liaison Mechanism (1993)
   Public Law 103-400 (1994)→ Border Health Commission (2000)
   Memorandum of Understanding: Border Transportation Planning (1994)
    → Joint Working Committee
   Integrated Border Enforcement Teams (1996)
   Dept of Interior→ Field Coordinating Committee (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → Comision Asuntos para la Frontera Norte (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   International Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations
Original Authority
 IBC         (1889): created as the International Boundary
    Commission by the Convention of 1889

   United States and Mexico to administer boundary and water-rights
    treaties, and agreements between the two nations.
       How to resolve disputes over changes of course in international rivers
Original Authority
   IBWC (1944):        International Boundary and Water Commission of
    the US and Mexico, created to jointly address boundary and water
    rights.

   Oversight headed by the Engineering Commissioner of each nation,
    appointed by the President of each nation.

   Colorado, Rio Grande and Tijuana Rivers et. al
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   Presidential Permit (1968): “The proper conduct of the
    foreign relations of the United States requires that executive permission be
    obtained for the construction and maintenance at the borders of the United
    States of facilities connecting the United States with a foreign country.”

   The Department of State is responsible for coordinating compliance with:
     National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969

             Transboundary Environmental Impact Statements
       National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966
       Executive Order 12898 of February 11, 1994
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   EPA (1970): The Environmental Protection Agency was designed
    to protect human health and the environment, as well as lead the nation's
    environmental science, research, education and assessment efforts.

   Works to develop and enforce regulations that implement environmental
    laws enacted by Congress.

   Responsible for researching and setting national standards for a variety of
    environmental programs.

   Executive Order 13175: Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments
    (2000)
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   USMCOC (1973): US-Mexico Chamber of Commerce is a
    bilateral coalition of business people organized to promote trade,
    investment and joint ventures on both sides of the border.

   Non-profit corporation operating through 12 offices in Mexico and the United
    States.

   Strong local membership and international contacts, help businesses bridge
    differences in legal, regulatory and economic systems, as well as language
    and culture.

   The Seven Principles of Environmental Stewardship for the 21st century
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities

   CSG (1933) The Council of State Governors serves the executive,
    judicial and legislative branches of state government; it offers
    innovative state policy responses to rapidly changing conditions and
    advocates multistate problem-solving to maximize resources and
    competitiveness.

   AMC (1959): Arizona-Mexico Commission, through their own work
    and support of the governor’s policy priorities, facilitates cross-
    border trade, business, community networking and binational
    information sharing.

   NMBA : New Mexico Border Authority provides leadership in the
    development of the state's international ports of entry as well as
    serving as the Governor's advisor and point of contact for those
    interested in opportunities at the ports of entry.
Original Authority
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities cont’d

   Border Governors Conference (1980): opening lines of communication
    among the 10 U.S. and Mexican border states. The organization has
    enhanced joint border efforts addressing the environment, economic
    development, health, social development and trade.

   Binational Commission (1981): established in 1981 by Presidents Reagan
    and Lopez Portillo to serve as a forum for meetings between cabinet-level
    officials from both countries, addressing agendas of topics requiring high-
    level attention
Original Authority
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities Cont’d

   BLC (1992): Border Legislative Conference serves as a mechanism for on-
    going dialogue and collaboration among state legislators of the ten border
    states. The goal of the project is to empower border state legislators to
    engage in the binational agenda and provide input and direction in the
    development of policy between both countries.

   EPA Ten State Program (1996): annual meeting of the ten Environmental
    Secretaries of the ten US-Mexico border states

   BCC (1998): The United States/Mexico Border Counties Coalition
    addresses the fact that issues resulting from the enormous impacts of
    immigration, legal and illegal, along with concerns ranging from trade ,
    border security, economic development, transportation and infrastructure, to
    public health, environmental health, social services and criminal justice
    have disproportionate consequences for counties along the international
    border with Mexico.
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
La         Paz (1983):                      Agreement between President
    Reagan of the United States of America and Presidente de la Madrid of the
    United States of Mexico on cooperation for the protection and improvement
    of the environment in the border area

   Defined the border region as the area lying 100km north and south of the
    US-Mexico boundary

   Measures to prevent and control pollution in the border area, and to provide
    the framework for development of a system of notification for emergency
    situations.
Original Authority
   IBEP (1992): Integrated Border Environmental Plan for
    US/MEX border area, formed by EPA and Mexican environmental
    authorities, built on La Paz
Original Authority
   Border XXI (1996):           Binational effort to work cooperatively toward
    sustainable development through protection of human health and the
    environment and proper management of natural resources in both
    countries.

   Build capacity and decentralize environmental management in order to
    augment the participation of state and local institutions in implementing the
    Border XXI Program.

   Ensure interagency cooperation to maximize available resources
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   BTA (1986): The Border Trade Alliance is a grassroots,
    trilateral, non-profit organization that serves as a forum for
    participants to address key issues affecting trade and economic
    development in North America.
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   LGEEPA- México (1988):                  Ley General del Equilibrio
    Ecológico y la Protección al Ambiente or General Law of Ecological
    Equilibrium (Balance) and Environmental Protection “The General Law”
    enacted in 1988 and amended on Dec 13th 1996.

   Establishes national environmental policy, defines jurisdictional distribution
    and regulates most important environmental areas such as; environmental
    impact permitting, natural resource protection, prevention and control of soil,
    air and water pollution, high-risk industrial activity regulation, hazardous
    waste management, community right to know and environmental liability.
Original Authority
   SEMARNAT- México (2000):                     Secretaria de Medio
    Ambiente y Recursos Naturales or Secretariat of the Environment and
    Natural Resources created the decentralized bodies of:

   1. National Ecological Institute (Instituto Nacional de Ecologia- INE)
   2. National Water Commission (Comision Nacional del Agua- CONAGUA)
   3. Federal Bureau of Environmental Protection (Procuraduria Federal de
    Proteccion al Ambiente- PROFEPA   )
   4. National Commision for Natural Protected Areas (Comision Nacional de
    Areas Naturales Protegidas- CONANP)
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   Espoo Convention (1991): Convention on Environmental
    Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context which sets out the
    obligations of Parties to assess the environmental impact of certain
    activities at an early stage of planning. It also lays down the general
    obligation of States to notify and consult each other on all major projects
    under consideration that are likely to have a significant adverse
    environmental impact across borders.

   Espoo and TEIA enter into force in 1997
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   NAFTA (1993):The North American Free Trade Agreement called
    off the majority of tariffs between products traded among the United States,
    Canada and Mexico, and gradually phased out other tariffs over a 15-year
    period.

   The agreement is trilateral in nature in all areas except agriculture, tariff
    reduction phase-out periods and protection of selected industries, were
    negotiated bilaterally.

   Provisions regarding worker and environmental protection were added later
    as a result of supplemental agreements signed in 1993.
Original Authority
   CEC (1993): Commission for Environmental Cooperation
    addresses environmental issues of continental concern; specifically the
    environmental challenges and opportuntites presented by continent wide
    free trade

   The CEC is rooted from the North American Agreement on Environmental
    Cooperation (NAAEC)

   Delegated with the responsibility of performing TEIA’s when appropriate

   The CEC council is comprised of the Canadian Environment Minister,
    Mexican Secretary for Envirnment and Natural Resources, the US EPA
    Administrator and the JPAC
Original Authority
   JPAC: The Joint Public Advisory Committee (JPAC) is composed of
    fifteen members, five from each of the three countries (Canada, Mexico and
    the United States), who are appointed by their respective governments.

   Members form an independent, volunteer body that provides advice and
    public input to the Council, on all matters within the scope of the NAAEC.
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   GNEB (1992): Good Neighbor Environmental Board, created
    by the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative Act to advise the
    president and congress concerning environmental and infrastructure
    needs within the states contigious to Mexico.

   The combined expertise at the table reflects perspectives from many
    U.S. sectors including federal, tribal, state, and local government;
    non-governmental; academic institutions; and businesses.
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   Consul General Border Liaison Mechanism (1993): allow
    for local governments to negotiate agree on solution sets, to be later
    approved by federal government

   Joint government mechanism to further the bilateral dialogue, discuss
    issues of mutual interest, encourage economic development and improve
    safety and security
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   PL 103-400 Border Health Commission(1994):
    Congress authorized the President to conclude an agreement with
    Mexico to establish the United States-Mexico Border Health
    Commission to server as an international authority to design,
    coordinate, and fund programs on health, water resources, sewage
    treatment, vector control, and air quality along the border.

   The Commission was established to enhance existing state and
    federal border initiatives by providing a joint, coordinated,
    cooperative, and comprehensive attack on health problems on both
    sides of the border.
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889) → IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   Memorandum of Understanding and Joint Working
    Committee (1994): US/Mexico border transportation planning

   Cooperation on land transportation planning and the establishment of
    methods and procedures to analyze current and future highway
    transportation infrastructure needs to facilitate efficient safe and economical
    cross-border transportation movements

   JWC to include 20 members
          Four representatives from the Dept. of Transportation
          One representative from each of the four US border states
          One representative from the US delegation to the US-MEX Bilateral Committee on
           Bridges and Border Crossings
          Four representatives of the Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes
          One representative from the Mexican delegation to the MEX-US Bilateral Committee on
           Bridges and Border Crossings
          One representative from each of the six border states of Mexico
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   IBETS (1996):           Integrated Border Enforcement Teams, orchestrated
    to prevent illegal immigration and smuggling (while combating the threat of
    terrorism)

   Goal of advancing greater bilateral integration, while managing important
    safety, security and public policy interests

       Develop means to validate in advance the majority of goods that cross the border
        as law abiding and low risk
       Enhance means of federal agents to target and intercept high inbound risk people
        and goods
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   FCC (1994): Border Field Coordinating Committee identifies and
    facilitates opportunities to communicate and coordinate at regional, state,
    and field levels between and among 7 U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI)
    bureaus and offices and between field and headquarters offices on border
    natural and cultural resource issues


   La Paz working group
Original Authority
   “Letter of Intent” (1997): between the Department of the
    Interior (DOI) and SEMARNAP (now SEMARNAT) for Joint Work in
    adjacent Natural Protected Areas on the US-Mexico Border

   Special emphasis on the need for binational cooperation at the local level

   improve dialogue between federal, state and local agencies responsible for
    strengthening the process for voluntary participation by the communities
    and social organizations that are interested in protecting the natural riches
    of these zones and in improving the quality of life of their residents
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   Smart Borders (2001):
   1) 30-point action plan between the US and Canada to enhance the security
    of our shared border while facilitating the legitimate flow of people and
    goods.
   NEXUS
   Four pillars; the Secure Flow of People, the Secure Flow of Goods, Secure
    Infrastructure, and Information Sharing and Coordination in the enforcement
    of these objectives.

   2) 22-point agreement between the US and Mexico “Border Partnership
    Action Plan” came shortly after the US-CAN agreement
   SENTRI
   Three pillars; Secure Infrastructure, Secure Flow of People and Secure
    Flow of Goods
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   Border Czar and CAFN(2001): Comisión para Asuntos
    de la Frontera Norte
   Created by the Fox administration, Ernesto Ruffo Appel the first appointed
    Border Czar

   Focused efforts on improving communication and coordination between
    cabinet secretaries and state and local governments working on border
    issues. “On the border there’s no direct communication between the east
    and west”

   “Border Region Development Plan” 2001-2006 identified investment needs
    for border infrastructure, social development, environmental protection, and
    institutional capacitation of 187 billion pesos

   Ernesto Ruffo Appel resigned in December 2003
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   USA PATRIOT Act (2001): Uniting and Strengthening
    America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and
    Obstruct Terrorism

   Increased the ability of law enforcement agencies to search telephone and
    email communications, as well as medical, financial and other records

   Eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States

   Enhanced the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in
    detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism.
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   Border Region Tribal Nations: approximately 25 native
    Indian Tribal Nations are living in the United States in the border region and
    there are a similar number of Indian Nations living in the Mexican part of the
    border region. Collectively, the indigenous population in this region count for
    over forty thousand people and encompass a land base of over three million
    acres

   Yuma’s East and West Wetlands Project conducted in partnership with the
    Quechan Indian Nation

   Cocopah’s efforts to restore the lower Colorado River limitrophe by
    replacing invasive species with native species
Original Authorities
   IBC (1889)→ IBWC (1944)
   Presidential Permit (1968)
   EPA (1970)
   USMCOC (1973)
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   La Paz (1983)→ IBEP (1992)→ Border XXI (1996)
   BTA (1986)
   LGEEPA (1988)→ SEMARNAT (2000)
   Espoo Convention (1991)→ TEIA (1997)
   NAFTA (1993)→ CEC→ JPAC
   Enterprise for the Americas (1992)→ GNEB (1994)
   CG→ BLM (1993)
   PL 103-400 (1994)→ BHC (2000)
   MOU (1994)→ JWC
   IBETS (1996)
   DOI→ FCC (1994)→ “Letter of Intent” (1997)
   Smart Borders (2001)
   Border Czar → CAFN (2001)
   PATRIOT Act (2001)
   Border Region Tribal Nations
   IENGO’s
Original Authority
   IENGO’s: International Environmental Non-Governmental
    Organizations

   Defenders of Wildlife (1947): Mexico Program tackles a full array of threats
    in biodiversity-rich Mexico. Defenders is recognized as a national leader for
    conservation in Mexico and is working to make sure comprehensive
    immigration reform includes protections for fragile desert ecosystems and
    wildlife along our border with Mexico.

   The Nature Conservancy (1951): The mission is to preserve the plants,
    animals and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth
    by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive.
        1995 adopted Conservation By Design, a cutting-edge ecoregional approach for
         setting conservation priorities and taking action.
Original Authority
   IENGO’s continued:

   COLEF (1982): School of the North Border is an institution of scientific
    research and superior education, specializing in the study of the problematic
    circumstances in the Mexican-US border region

   SCERP (1990): Designed to address environmental issues of the U.S.-
    Mexico border region and to “initiate a comprehensive analysis of possible
    solutions to acute air, water and hazardous waste problems that plague the
    United States - Mexico border region.”
     Original Authorities to Current and Evolving
   IBWC (1944)                    CPER
   La Paz (1983)                  BSCA/SERA
   SEMARNAT (2000)                Limitrophe
   TEIA (1997)                    SPP
   NAFTA (1993)                   Joint CIP/CVTA’s
   MOU (1994)→ JWC                Mitigation Bank
   IBETS (1996)                   Border 2012
   FCC (1994)                     ZoDI
   Smart Borders (2001)           BMTF
   Patriot Act (2001)             BECC/NADBank
   Border Region Tribal Nations   Technical Committee
   IENGO’s                        Green Infra/Enviro Acct’g
                                   Corridors
                                   JAC
Current and Evolving

IBWC (1944)

La Paz (1983)
                       CPER (1988/1999)
IBETS (1996)

IENGO’s
Current and Evolving
   CPER (1988/1999): Contingency Planning and Emergency
    Response
   “Sister City Partnerships” build confidence along the U.S.-Mexico
    border by planning to help each other when there is an emergency
    on either side of the border.
   Police, fire, paramedics, and other personnel from both sides of the
    border to respond quickly to large fires, dangerous chemical spills,
    or other emergencies.
   The plans also address preparedness issues including: hazard
    identification; pollution prevention; risk reduction; training; exercises;
    and equipment.
Current and Evolving



FCC (1994)

TEIA (1997)            BSCA (2007)

IENGO’s
Current and Evolving
   BCSA (2007): Congressman Raul Grijalva proposed the
    Borderlands Conservation and Security Act which would help secure the
    border and protect borderland resources by:

   Working together with DHS to assess alternative options for the border wall

   Giving land management agencies and local, state, and tribal officials a
    voice in border construction and decision-making.

   Requiring compliance with federal, state, and local laws meant to protect
    the air, water, wildlife, culture, and health and safety of people in Borderland
    communities.
Current and Evolving

IBWC (1944)

FCC (1994)
                       Limitrophe (2005)
TEIA (1997)

BR Tribal Nations
Current and Evolving
   Limitrophe (2005): is the segment of the Lower Colorado River
    that serves as the international boundary between the U.S. and Mexico

   In December 2006, the BLM issued a draft Environmental Impact Statement
    proposing creation of a Limitrophe Coordinated Management Area (CMA)
    for the Bureau of Reclamation’s 4500 acres along the Limitrophe.

   The proposed Limitrophe CMA would protect and maintain riparian habitat
    and marsh vegetation, as well as enhance the characteristics of the
    Limitrophe area identified by the Cocopah and other tribes as important for
    traditional uses.

   Win-Win
Current and Evolving



Smart Borders (2001)



                       SPP (2005)
Current and Evolving
   SPP (2005): Security and Prosperity Partnership
   Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Quality of Life

  “To enhance the competitive position of North American industries in the
   global marketplace and to provide greater economic opportunity for all of
   our societies, while maintaining high standards of health and safety for our
   people”
  Montebello 2007: State of the Border Report
Objectives
  Trilateral
  Preparedness
  Law enforcement
  Screening
Current and Evolving

La Paz (1983)

                   Joint CIP/Common
                   Vulnerability and Threat
                   Assessment (2002)


Smart Borders (2001)
Current and Evolving
   Joint CIP (2002): Critical Infrastructure Protection is a cooperative,
    bilateral effort to assess and enhance critical cross-border resources and
    infrastructures.
   Co-chaired by DHS and the Mexican Secretariat of Governance
   Working groups for Energy, Transportation, Telecommunications,
    Water/Dams, and Public Health/Agriculture


   Common Vulnerability and Threat Assessment (2002):
   Addresses need to better understand and assess the total integrative nature
    of the interdependencies among physical, cyber, and organizational critical
    infrastructure between our two nations, in order to counteract the impact of
    a threat
   DoE energy infrastructure across borders
Current and Evolving


La Paz (1983)

TEIA                   Joint Mitigation
                       Bank(1995)

FCC (1994)
Current and Evolving
   Joint Mitigation Bank (1995): wetland, stream, or other
    aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or
    preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable
    impacts to aquatic resources

   May be created when a government agency, corporation, nonprofit
    organization, or other entity undertakes these activities under a formal
    agreement with a regulatory agency

   Value of a bank is defined in “compensatory mitigation credits.”

   Can be extra-territorial
Current and Evolving


La Paz (1983)

                   Border 2012 (2003)



SEMARNAT (2000)
Current and Evolving
   Border 2012 (2003): ten year program to “protect the
    environment and public health in US-Mexico border region, consistent with
    principles of sustainable development”

   federal/state/tribal/local: collaborate to produce prioritized and sustained
    actions considering needs of border communities

   result oriented goals

   measured by environmental indicators and performance indicators
Current and Evolving


PATRIOT Act (2001)

                     ZoDI

IBETS (1996)
Current and Evolving
   ZoDI: Zone of Detection and Interdiction
   Goal is use of intel and tech to detect and apprehend while in transit from
    the source zone

   Illegal entries include aliens and drug smugglers, potential terrorists, wanted
    criminals, and persons seeking to avoid inspection at the designated ports
    of entry due to their undocumented status

   U.S. federal agencies closely coordinate their operations with the
    interdiction forces of a number of nations in order to deny criminals the use
    of air, maritime and land routes.
Current and Evolving

DOI

          FCC (1994)

                       BMTF (2002)

PATRIOT Act (2001)
Current and Evolving
   BMTF (2002): Borderlands Management Task Force
   Intergovernmental forum with the primary mission to address border
    security, human safety, and natural and cultural resource protection through
    shared resources, information, communication, problem-solving,
    standardization, and training

   MoU’s with state, tribal and local land managers

   Task forces formed in:
    Tucson
    Yuma
    San Diego
Current and Evolving

NAFTA (1993)



               BECC/NADBank (1993)
Current and Evolving
   BECC (1993): the Border Environment Cooperation Commission
    provides technical assistance to the border communities on environmental
    matters and certifies infrastructure projects related to the improvement of
    potable water systems, sewers and wastewater treatment or municipal solid
    waste management on the 100km border strip to the north and south of the
    dividing line


   NADBank (1993): the North American Development Bank,
    created jointly with the BECC, under NAFTA with purpose of financing
    environmental infrastructure projects, all NADB projects must be certified by
    the BECC

   as of 2002 BECC and NADB are presided over by a single administrative
    council, and Mexico’s coverage extends to 300km past border rather than
    just 100km
Current and Evolving


FCC (1994)

               Green Infrastructure/
               Environmental Accounting

Border Region Tribal Nations
Current and Evolving
   Green Infrastructure: natural life support system – an
    interconnected network of protected land and water that supports native
    species, maintains natural ecological processes, sustains air and water
    resources and contributes to the health and quality of life for America’s
    communities and people.”

   Preserve critical resources within each landscape type to provide for
    future population growth while maintaining the natural systems and
    character of the community.
   Maintain important ecological processes that are required for long-term
    sustainability.
   Reclaim lands that have been adversely affected by human activity.
   Create connections that will allow for the movement of wildlife and provide
    opportunities for people to interact with nature.
Current and Evolving
Current and Evolving
   Environmental Accounting: incorporates both economic
    and environmental information

   Environmentally differentiated accounting measures impacts of the natural
    environment on a company in monetary terms.

   Ecological accounting measures the impact a company has on the
    environment, but in physical units (e.g. kilograms of waste produced,
    kilojoules of energy consumed) rather than in monetary units

   communicates costs from a company’s or country’s actual or potential
    impact on the environment.
        costs to clean up or remediate contaminated sites, environmental fines, penalties
        and taxes, purchase of pollution prevention technologies and waste management
        costs.
Current and Evolving

NAFTA (1993)



MOU/JWC (1994)         Transit Corridors



Smart Borders (2001)
Current and Evolving
   Transit Corridors
   Binational Transportation Infrastructure Needs Assessment Study
   Development of Border Information Flow of Architecture
   Bottlenecks Study Phase
   SimFronteras/Border Wizard
   The Border Master Plan
     gather land use, environment, population and socio-economic data
       adequately
     evaluate growth and future capacity needs at the border

     evaluate the existing binational transportation and POE system, and the

       infrastructure necessary to handle the expected growth
Current and Evolving


La Paz (1983)

         Annex IV JAC (1987)

                       APF (2004)
Current and Evolving
   JAC (1987): Joint Advisory Committee “One Basin” approach and
    the Air Policy Forum (2004)

   cross border air quality management in transboundary airsheds

   Paso del Norte JAC “One Basin Resolution” was model for other shared
    airsheds

   reduce PM from diesel and understand impact of diesel PM emissions

   ultra-low sulfur diesel availability in border region- Mexico to start producing
    LS diesel (PEMEX)

   workshops and training sessions, area specific work groups/task force, local
    level
                 Important Mechanisms
                  Intel & Tech
                  Normalized Enviro Indicators
                  Public Participation
                  Sovereignty Bargaining
CURRENT                                          ULTIMATE
CPER                                             DHS justify exclusions
BCSA/SERA                                        and exemptions/BMP
TEIA                                             for CBP, together
Joint CIP/VTCA’s                                 mitigate
Mitigation Bank
Border 2012                                      CPER/SPP come
ZoDI                                             together and support
BMTF                                             /flexibility to migrate
BECC/NADB
Tech Committee                                   BECC/NADB expand
Border Region Tribal Nations                     work on infra/POE’s
Green Infra/Enviro Acct’g
Corridors                                        IBWC to work on CIP
SPP
                                                 SERA/BCSA put into
                                                 motion

                                                 SMS/EMS each to include
                                                 a chapter that covers the
                                                 other

                                                 ZoDI advance mitigation
                                                 detect, classify, follow
                                                 apprehend
MODELS: International Coordinating Councils
   Intergovernmental Border Relations Authorities
   IE NGO’s
   GNEB
   CG & BLM
   JAC
   CAFN & “Border Czar”
   BTA
   USMCOC
   Cocopah Limitrophe
Simplified Roadmap

   Authorities

                                                  Binational Border
   Current and Evolving       Using Mechanisms   Security Authority
    Frameworks                 Forming Models     and Agreement



   Suggested Ultimate Goals
Acronym Clarification
CURRENT AND EVOLVING
 CPER: Contingency Planning and Emergency Response
 BCSA: Borderlands Conservation and Security Act/ SERA: Security
  Environmental Responsibility Act
 SPP: Security and Prosperity Partnership
 Joint CIP: Critical Infrastructure Protection/ CVTA: Common Vulnerability
  and Threat Assesments
 ZoDI: Zone of Detection and Interdiction
 BMTF: Borderlands Management Task Force
 BECC: Border Environment Cooperation Commission/ NADBank: North
  American Development Bank
 JAC: Joint Advisory Committee
ULTIMATE
 DHS: Department of Homeland Security
 BMP: Best Management Practices
 CBP: Customs and Border Patrol
 SMS: Security Management Systems
 EMS: Environmental Management Systems

				
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