Norman Rockwell and Illustration Mobilizing American by pengxuebo


									                         Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                           Mobilizing America in WWII

Charles Dana Gibson (1867-1944)
Government‘s Food Saving Campaign
Seen in The New York Times (January 20, 1918) article on the committee
           Norman Rockwell (1894-1978)
           Liberty Girl
           Cover illus for The SEP (September 4, 1943)

After having promoted American neutrality from the beginning of the war, in
1917, within days of America entering World War I, the government needed as
way to convince the public that American participation in the European war
was now not merely necessary, but imperative. Less than a week later, Pres.
Wilson issued an executive order creating a Committee on Public
Information (CPI) which was to act as an agency for releasing news of the
government; issuing information to sustain morale in the US, administering
voluntary press censorship, and later, developing propaganda abroad.

On April 22, 1917, Gibson met with Creel in New York City and the Division of
Pictorial Publicity of the Committee on Public Information was formally launched, just
nine days after Creel himself had received his mandate from President Wilson. Creel
later described his feelings: “Even in the rush of the first days…I had the
conviction that the poster must play a great part in the fight for public
opinion”. The printed word might not be read; people might not chose to attend meetings or
to watch motion pictures, but the poster billboard was something that caught even the most
indifferent eye. What was needed, what we absolutely had to have, were posters that
represented the best work of the best creative artists of our time. Looking the field over, it was
decided that Charles Dana Gibson was the best man to lead the army of artists.

The CPI was on target to reach the American reading public with its message,
but George Creel who headed the CPI realized that the word also had to read
those Americans less inclined to read newspapers and attend meetings. To
reach this other portion of the American public, Creel created the Division of
Pictorial Publicity and appointed Charles Dana Gibson, who was an ardent
supporter of the war, to assemble a group of artists to design posters for the

Gibson and a group of volunteer artists formed the Division of Pictorial Publicity under the
chairmanship of Charles Dana Gibson. The Division‘s mission was to produce on request all
manner of pictorial material in support of the war effort for governmental departments and
civilian organizations. Associate Chairmen of the DPP were Herbert Adams, E. H. Blashfield,
Ralph Clarkson, Cass Gilbert, Oliver D. Grover, Francis C. Jones, Arthur F. Mathews, Joseph
Pennell, Edmund C. Tarbell, and Douglas Volk.

The Division had an executive committee that received all requests for artwork and passed on
all the designs. Illustrator Charles B. Falls was one of the members of the executive committee
as were F. D. Casey, F. G. Cooper, Henry Reuterdahl, N. Pousette-Dart, I. Doskow, F. E.
Dayton, A. E. Gallatin, Ray, Greenleaf, Malvina Hoffman, W. A. Rogers, Jack Sheridan, H. Scott
Train, H. D. Welsh, J. Thomson Willing, H. T. Webster, Walter Whitehead, and Robert J.

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                                    1
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                        Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                          Mobilizing America in WWII

There were also Departmental Captains who followed through on requests
received by the Executive Committee. These captains (again such as C. B.
Falls) either produced the designs themselves or passed along an assignment
to a suitable artist.
The headquarters of the Division were at 200 Fifth Ave., NY, with sectional
branches in Chicago, Boston, and San Francisco.

Over the next 18 months the CPI’s Division of Pictorial Publicity turned out
1,438 different designs for posters, window cards, newspaper
advertisements, cartoons, seals and buttons. Its most famous poster, featuring a
stern, finger-pointing Uncle Sam saying "I Want You," was drawn by illustrator James
Montgomery Flagg. The muster roll of the Division of Pictorial Publicity contained the names of
279 artists and 33 cartoonists. Among them were such well known painters as George Bellows,
Kenyon Cox, Arthur G. Dove, William Glackens, F. Luis Mora, Joseph Pennell, Frank E.
Schhoonover, Albert Sterner, H. Giles, and N.C. Wyeth. The roster also included very famous
illustrators such as Howard Chandler Christy, Harrison Fisher, Joseph Leyendecker, Edward
Penfield, Jessie Wilcox Smith and James Montgomery Flagg to name but a few. In addition
there were those whose work for the Division made them famous: Charles Livingston Bull,
Dean Cornwell, Harvey Dunn, Gordon Grant, Herbert Paus, and Ellsworth Young.

Wladyslaw Theodor Benda (1873-1948)
More Socks and Sweaters
20" x 29.5"

This is an extremely rare and unusual WWI poster. The central image of the
woman knitting appeard first on a Red Cross poster with the title "You can
help". But this version is meant recruit experienced knitters to make socks and
sweaters for the boys "over there". Specifically, they want 30,000 socks and
12,500 sweaters, and the wool is provided free!

Norman Rockwell (1894-1978)
―Sure, Boys, All for You.‖, 1918
Poster and Ad for U. S. Naval Camp, Charleston, SC
Published in Afloat and Ashore (November 6, 1918): 1.

During WWI Rockwell served in the U. S. Navy. Stationed at the Naval Camp in
Charleston, SC he worked for the camp newspaper creating pictures.
     Man in Fedora / Woman in military based hat / Like a Caubeen, Irish military
     hat, traditionally green with insignia / The Stetson Cavalry Hat / Boy scout hat,
     also made by Stetson. / Sailor cap—all cotton, like a bucket cap but the rim flips
     up away from the head. / Army helmet

Norman Rockwell (1894–1978)
U.S. Army Teaches a Trade, 1919
Oil on canvas
Painting for United States Army recruiting poster, 1919
Norman Rockwell Museum Collection, NRM.1977.03

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                                2
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                      Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                        Mobilizing America in WWII

Norman Rockwell's image of a G.I. telegrapher was meant to promote one of the
benefits of military service: Army training would prepare a soldier with skills
needed to get a job upon return to civilian life.

This painting was one of several which Rockwell completed in the style of his friend
and fellow Saturday Evening Post illustrator J.C. Leyendecker. Well-known for
advertising images commissioned by Arrow Shirt Collars, and the House of
Kuppenheimer, Leyendecker's deliberately thick, visible brushstrokes were emulated
by Rockwell in this work. The inclusion of a border with related thematic insignias was
also a motif which both Leyendecker and Coles Philips regularly employed.

James Montgomery Flagg (1877-1960)
I Want YOU for U. S. Army, c. 1917         I Want You, February 1917
Poster, lithographic print                 photomechanical print
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs      Library of Congress Prints and
Photographs Division Washington, D.C.           Division Washington, D.C.

The magazine cover illustration came first, it was based upon a popular icon of
the government popularly used earlier in the 19th century. Seeing the image‘s
strength, Flagg transformed it into the most famous WWI recruiting poster even
before the U.S. entered that war; it was reformatted and used again in WWII.

SEM (1863-1934)
For The Liberty of the World, c. 1917
30 in. x 46 in.
            C. R. Miller
            Never!, c. 1943
            27 in. x 20 in.

SEM was the moniker of the French caricaturist Georges Goursat. This very
famous poster transformed the European World War I and expanded it into our
hemisphere. Pour la liberté du monde By placing the silhouette of the Statue
of Liberty at the edge of the water over the horizon, S.E.M. reminded America
that the war‘s allied defense was for ‗the liberty of the whole world‘ and not just
western Europe as the poster says.

C. R. Miller‘s reuse of the statue of liberty in his WWII poster, Never! Shows
Liberty‘s light has gong out and she is shackled in chains. The hold colors of
the background make this unthinkable future feel even more dangerous.

J C Leyendecker (1874-1951)
New Year‘s Cover, 1940
Cover illustration for The Saturday Evening Post (December 30, 1939)

Leyendecker posed this New Year baby wearing a gas mask, carrying a military
ammunition bag and holding a large black umbrella. A storm was definitely
coming. By 1932 The National Socialist German Workers' Party, a.k.a. the Nazi

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                         3
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                     Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                       Mobilizing America in WWII

Party held the reigns of power in the German Reichstag. Led by Adolph Hitler
whose power was reinforced by the SA (Sturmabteilung), the paramilitary unit of
the Party (brownshirts) Germany underwent nazification.

Starting in 1938, Hitler began his aggressive quest for Lebensraum,or more
living space. Without engaging in war, Germany was able to annex neighboring
Austria and carve up Czechoslovakia (takeover of the Sudetenland). At last, a
reluctant Britain and France threatened war if Germany targeted Poland
and/or Romania. In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Britain and
France had no choice but to declare war on Germany. World War II had begun.

J C Leyendecker (1874-1951)
New Years Cover, 1941
Cover Illus. for the Saturday Evening Post (January 4, 1941)

Clenched fist is used as a gesture of defiance or solidarity. It dates back to the
salute of Rotfrontkämpferbund, a paramilitary organization of the Communist
Party of Germany before World War II

                        Industrial Workers of the World, pub. in Solidarity, June 30,1917

The armoured fist is the symbol of armoured cavalry. This derives from the
fact that armoured cavalry are good for putting stress on a single point until
the line breaks

The stamp on the baby‘s back reads, ―Received January 1941‖

R. Hoe & Co., Inc., won the National War Poster Competition held under
auspices of artists for victory, Inc. - Council for democracy –
            Unknown artist
            This is Prussianism!
            Advertisement for the Fourth Liberty Loan

World War II posters helped to mobilize a nation. They were inexpensive to
produce and ever-present in everyday life. The poster made was an ideal agent
for making war aims the personal mission of every citizen. Government
agencies, businesses, and private organizations issued an array of poster
images linking the military front with the home front.

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                             4
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                        Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                          Mobilizing America in WWII

―These jobs will have to be glorified as a patriotic war service if
American women are to be persuaded to take them and stick to
them. Their importance to a nation engaged in total war must be
convincingly presented.‖
--Basic Program Plan for Womanpower
Office of War Information

In the face of acute wartime labor shortages, women were needed in the defense
industries, the civilian service, and even the Armed Forces. Despite the continuing
20th century trend of women entering the workforce, publicity campaigns were aimed
at those women who had never before held jobs. Poster and film images glorified and
glamorized the roles of working women and suggested that a woman‘s femininity
need not be sacrificed. Whether fulfilling their duty in the home, factory, office, or
military, women were portrayed as attractive confident, and resolved to do their part
to win the war.

   Adolph Treidler (1886-1981)
   She‘s a WOW, 1942
   28.5” x 40”

   Super scarce and desirable Woman Ordnance Worker poster ―The Girl He Left
   Behind‖. Shows a Rosie the Riveter-type in red bandana; there were a number
   of variants done during the war, this is among the most desirable.

   Adolph Treidler (1886-1981)
   For every fighter a woman worker
   30” x 40”

   YWCA poster with woman worker theme, this category has become extremely
   collectable in recent years. Triedler produced fine posters in both World Wars.
   This poster has a wonderful image of a young girl in work overalls holding a
   biplane and bomb! The artist Arthur Triedler later married the model for this
   poster. The yeomen World War I efforts of women gave a real boost to women‘s
   rights and the 19th Amendment which gave women the right to vote was ratified
   shortly after the war.

   Winslow Homer (1836-1910 )
   Our Watering Places—The Empty Sleeve at Newport, 1865
   Harper's Weekly IX, # 452 (August 26, 1865): 533
   Wood engraving
   DAM, Gift of Helen Farr Sloan, 1988-47

   This illustration accompanied a story in Harper’s Weekly, ―The Empty Sleeve at
   Newport; or, Why Edna Ackland Learned to Drive.‖ Captain Harry Ash, having
   lost an arm, returned from the war seeking his love, Edna Ackland, who, he

   JKSchiller Lecture for                                                  5
   Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                      Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                        Mobilizing America in WWII

discovered, had learned to drive a horse and buggy in his absence. The
returning men confronted women who had adjusted to changed circumstances
and sometimes took a stronger role in the relationship. Captain Ash and Edna
Ackland resolve their misunderstandings as she explains to him, ―I must be left
and right hand [for you] also, should it be God‘s pleasure . . . And I learned, as
I have learned many things, for love of you.‖ The dominance of the nineteenth-
century male prevails when Ash exclaims in the end: ―Yet, for all that, his eye is
on the road and his voice guides her; so that, in reality, she is only his left
hand, and he, the husband, drives.‖

Winslow Homer (1836-1910 )
The Morning Bell – Drawn by Winslow Homer
In Harper‘s Weekly XVII, # 885 (December 13, 1873): 1116
wood engraving
DAM, gift of Helen Farr Sloan, 1988-41

Labor outside the home was on the increase after the Civil War and signified
the growing industrialization of the country. With lunch pails in hand, six
workers (four women, a man, and a boy) head across a bridge for work. Atop
the three-story clapboard building on the opposite bank a large bell is being
pulled by an unseen ringer calling the workers to their jobs. An anonymous
poem of the same title precedes the image in the magazine and tells the tale.

J. Howard Miller (1918-2004)
We Can Do It!, 1942
Prod. by Westinghouse for the War Production Co-Ordinating Committee
NARA Still Picture Branch (NWDNS-179-WP-1563)

While today scholars may dispute over how many women were involved in the
war effort and how much effect their contribution made, [See James J. Kimble
and Lester C. Olson, ―Visual Rhetoric Representing Rosie the Riveter‖ Myth and
Misconception in J. Howard Miller‘s ―We Can Do It!‖ Poster‖ in Rhetoric & Public
Affairs v.9 no. 4 (2006): 533-570.] at the time various posters sent a different
message. In a 1944 republication of Rudolf Modley‘s A History of the War
(Penguin, 1941, 1944): 120, there is a graph of women‘s absorption into the
work force. The indicated that in July of 1940 almost 11 million American
women were part of the national workforce and that by July of 1944 there
would be an estimated 18 million women in the national workforce.

On the collar of her shirt is a Westinghouse badge which employees were
required to wear on the factory floor. The Badge not only had a woman‘s face
on it, it also bore the identification number of the worker who wore it.

This poster was one of many produced by Westinghouse to help increase
production, to decrease absenteeism, and to avoid strikes, not to serve as a

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                    6
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                        Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                          Mobilizing America in WWII

   recruiting target to bring women into the factories. Instead it reflects
   Westinghouse‘s concern with labor-management relations.

   Adolph Treidler (1886-1981)
   “Woman Ordnance Worker”
        Adolph Treidler (1886-1981)
        She‘s a WOW, 1942
              Adolph Treidler (1886-1981)
              My girl‘s a WOW, woman ordinance worker. 1943
              40” x 29”
              [Washington, D.C.] War Department. Army Service Forces.
              Ordnance Department. Printed be the U.S. Government
              Printing Office

   Adolph Treidler (1886-1981)
   Soldiers without guns, 1944
   Created for the office for Emergency Management and OWI Domestic
   Operations Branch
   National Archives (NWDNS-111-WF-9)

   Poster equating the work on the home front with those in combat.

Between 1941 and 1945, Rockwell produced 33 SEP covers, 25 of which
were related to the war in some way. Unlike the overt propaganda of the
war effort posters, Rockwell Post covers typically offered a home view of
the war period with regular people carrying on with the daily business of
life and of democracy.

   NR (1894-1978)
   Rosie the Riveter
   Cover illus. for TSEP (May 29, 1943)
   Crystal Bridges Museum

   This was the Memorial Day cover for The SEP. Rosie‘s pose is based upon the
   16th C. image of the prophet Isaiah by Michelangelo on the Sistine Ceiling.
   Mary Doyle, the 19 yr. old phone operator in Arlington, VT was NR‘s model for
   Rosie. The artist later apologized to Mary for adding substantial weight to her
   slender figure. The painting and its use on the SEP cover boosted the sales of
   war bonds.

   It is possible that Rockwell chose the name based on a popular war-time song:
   By Redd Evans, and John Jacob Loeb. ―Rosie the Riveter‘s Song.‖ (New York:
   Paramount Music Corporation, 1942). There was also a 1944 movie by the
   same name about an attractive young woman working in an airplane factory.

   JKSchiller Lecture for                                                     7
   Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                      Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                        Mobilizing America in WWII

  This woman worker also wears buttons and badges on her overalls, but they
  represent her politics and dedication to the war effort (Victory button, Red
  Cross button, a service button and a service medal), not only her employee ID.

  Hitler wrote volume one of Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which was published in
  1925. This work detailed Hitler‘s radical ideas of German nationalism, anti-
  semitism, and anti-Bolshevism.

  NR (1894-1978)
  Liberty Girl
  Cover illus for TSEP (Sept. 4, 1943)

  For the following Labor Day issue of the SEP, NR again honored the women
  war workers. In the Post’s comments about this cover they listed 31 war-time
  occupations illustrated on this cover. NR said that his challenge was getting
  all the props together and then figuring out how to put them together on his

  On the printed cover at the right is the hand of Liberty holding the burning
  torch, and instead of the fancy pattern of the torch‘s base, the pattern is made
  up of 3 W‘s which stand for Women War Workers.

This cover and others like it were suggested by the government‘s Magazine Bureau
of the Office of War Information in their the monthly Magazine War Guide
which was sent to hundreds of magazine editors, most of whom considered it their
patriotic duty to cooperate with this agency. The MWG asked that everyone promote
Women at Work, and use the slogan, The More Women At Work, The Sooner We
Win the War for their Labor Day publication.
U. S. Office of War Information. Book and Magazine Bureau. Magazine War Guide
(April 17, 1943): 1-2. For quote, used in Sheridan Harvey‘s Webcast.

  Courtney Allen (1896-1969)
  The sky‘s the limit!, 1944
  20” x 28”

  Great War Bond poster with scarce variant of Rosie the Riveter showing her
  working on an aircraft engine along side two men.

  Lawrence L. Wilbur (active 1920s–1950s)
  Longing to bring him back sooner… , 1944
  National Archives (NWDNS-44-PA-389)

  Poster encouraging women to get a war job.

  Mead Schaeffer (1898-1980)
  Night Attack

  JKSchiller Lecture for                                                   8
  Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                    Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                      Mobilizing America in WWII

SEP (2/20/1943)
          Mead Schaeffer (1898-1980)
          Medic Treating Injured in Field
          SEP (11/6/44)

From Sept. 1942 through November of 1944 all Mead Schaeffer‘s cover
illustrations for The Saturday Evening Post were images of soldiers and sailors
doing their military duty.

Also during the War, Schaeffer created a pictorial chronicle of the fourteen
branches of the armed services for the United States military, which provided
all of the facilities, and under the sponsorship of the Saturday Evening Post,
the resulting paintings were exhibited in 90 cities. The artwork is now in the
permanent collection of the USAA, an association of military officers, former
officers and their families, in San Antonio, Texas.

Rea S. Irvin (1881-1972)
New Yorker (June 13, 1942)
            Constantin Alajalov (1900-1987)
            New Yorker (August 22, 1942)
                       Constantin Alajalov (1900-1987)
                       New Yorker (September 5, 1942)

McClelland Barclay (1891-1943)
Man the Guns—Join the Navy, 1942
Produced for the Navy Recruiting Bureau
NARA Still Picture Branch (NWDNS-44-PA-24)

Barclay served in the Navy in World War I. In 1941, Barclay returned to
military service in the Navy as a procurement and recruiting officer, moving
eventually to a division where his artistic talents could be better utilized the
War Arts Corp. Working steadily, he recorded the war around him, the people,
and other aspects of his daily existence in the Pacific.
"On July 23, 1943, Lt. Commander McClelland Barclay was reported missing
in action aboard an LST that was torpedoed in the Solomon Sea."

Adolf Treidler (1886-1981)
Loose Talk Can Cause This, 1942
20 x 14 in.

Features a Nazi guard with a rifle standing in front of a U.S. Army sergeant
who is held behind barbed wire. "Distributed in the interest of National
Defense, and as a means of obtaining funds for ambulances wherever needed.
British and American Ambulance Corps Inc."

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                    9
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                     Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                       Mobilizing America in WWII

Al Parker (1906-1985)
Even a Little can help a lot--NOW, 1942
Buy U. S. War Stamps & Bonds
20 x 14 in.
U. S. Government Printing Office: 1942-O-455803 Form DSS-405.

Beautiful and idealized mother and daughter dutifully using war stamps, as
this poster encourages with art by A. Parker. "Buy U.S. War Stamps & Bonds"-
only the ampersand is replaced with the patriotic Minute Man icon. On the
right hand side, "Illustration Courtesy of Ladies' Home Journal". Folded by the
USGPO for mailing. Gentle reminder of a time when Americans all pitched in
for a great cause. A founder of the modern glamour aesthetic, Al Parker
defined the progressive look and feel of published imagery at a time of sweeping
change, as Americans emerging from the trials of economic depression headed
for war.

N C Wyeth (1882-1945)
Buy War Bonds, 1942
US Government Printing Office.

featuring an assertive Uncle Sam clutching Old Glory and urging on planes
overhead and infantrymen on the ground, helped the Treasury Department sell
a lot of bonds to back the war effort. One poster sold $200,000 worth of bonds,
while another took in $1 million, according to Wyeth biographer David

Al Capp (1909-1979)
Buy Bonds the G.I. way!, 1945
United States Army War Bond Poster

This poster of Lil‘ Abner characters was produced to stimulate the purchase of
War Bonds by members of the American armed forces. Notice beautiful Daisy
Mae posed as though she‘s a pin-up. G. I. = government issue

Leon Schlesinger (producer) (1884-1949) cartoonist Friz Freleng (1906-1995)
Looney Tunes Merrie Melodies Comics
Cover illustration (June 1943)

During the war period, Schlesinger and the cartoon‘s directors produced a
number of anti-axis animated cartoons. Even their comic books patriotically
pushed this popular cause. Schlesinger‘s studio later became Warner Bros. Cartoons.

Jean Carlu (1900-1997)
Give ‗Em Both Barrels, 1941
30 x 40"
U.S. Government Printing Office.

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                       10
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                    Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                      Mobilizing America in WWII

Jean Carlu (1900-1997)
America‘s Answer! Production, 1942
30 x 40"
U.S. Government Printing Office
National Archives (NWDNS44-PA-358)

The gauntlet clad hand, in a power grip, is applying torque to the bolt, an
element of "production" itself. Encouraging the American work force as the
answer to winning the war. Jean Carlu was a French graphic designer who
specialized in posters and illustration and was from a family of artists. Truly
a classic of modernist WWII poster design, one of the most desirable
American posters of the era.

Ben Shahn (1898-1969)
We French workers warn you…Defeat Means Slavery, Starvation, Death,
28.5" x 40"

Great WWII poster by Ben Shahn, showing surrendering French workers,
reminding Allied workers that defeat means slavery, starvation and death.

Ben Shahn (1898-1969)
This is Nazi brutality, 1943
28.5"x 38"

Powerful Ben Shahn image of Nazi oppression, it describes a Radio Berlin
broadcast after of the destruction of the Czech town of Lidice in 1942,
destroyed as a retaliation for the murder of SS Leader Reinhardt Heydrich by
Czech partisans. The poster was issued when Shahn worked for the
Department of War Information in 1943.

Norman Rockwell (1894-1978)
Let's give him enough and on time, 1942
28.5" x 40.5"

Commissioned by the Ordnance Department of the U. S. Army, this rare
Rockwell classic, very dramatic image of tattered soldier firing Browning M1917
water cooled machine gun. To create this poster, Rockwell had a local retired
Army officer arrange to have a gun crew and machine gun sent to Rockwell‘s
Arlington, VT studio. The gunner allowed Rockwell to rip his uniform for
verisimilitude but insisted that the gun remain in polished readiness.

Walt Disney, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator (1901-1966)
You Can‘t Breakfast Like a Bird and Work Like a Horse!, 1943
Food and Nutrition Committee, California War Council

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                   11
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                    Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                      Mobilizing America in WWII

This is an original 1940's Disney war poster commissioned by the Food and
Nutrition Committee of the California War Council. It features great early
images of Donald Duck and an early Disney character Horace Horsecollar,
working together on a project. Donald hasn't eaten a good breakfast and is
loopy, sweaty and having a difficult time, while Horace is whistling along
riveting in his forties overalls, a great image!

Al Parker (1906-1985)
Grow your own, can your own, 1943
16" x 22.5"
Charming wartime food conservation poster promoting home canning. A
promotion based upon the growing numbers of Victory Gardens promoted as a
home-front involvement. According to a Gallup pole taken in March 1943, more
than 21 million families had or planned to grow a victory garden. There was
even a popular song titled, ―Get Out and Dig, Dig, Dig.‖
            Maginel Wright Enright Barney (1881-1966)
            War Gardens Victorious
            22.5" x 35.5"
            Delightful and very scarce National War Garden Commission

Food is a weapon, don't waste it!
16" x 22.5"

Very memorable food conservation poster published by National Wartime
Nutrition Program.

David Stone Martin (1913-1992)
Above and Beyond the Call of Duty
Government Printing Office for the Office of War Information
NARA Still Picture Branch (NWDNS-208-PMP-68)

At the beginning of the war, African Americans could join the Navy but could
serve only as messmen—a steward. Doris ("Dorie") Miller joined the Navy and
was in service on board the U.S.S. West Virginia during the attack on Pearl
Harbor (7:55 am, Sunday December 7, 1941). Because he was only a steward,
he received no gunnery training. But during the attack, at great personal risk,
he manned the weapon of a fallen gunman and succeeded in hitting Japanese
planes. He was awarded the Navy Cross, but only after persistent pressure
from the black press.

As African Americans moved north to take jobs in the nation‘s defense plants,
they were often shunned. In some places like Detroit, race riots erupted as they
tried to move into the good paying factory jobs. Only the success of groups like

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                 12
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                     Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                       Mobilizing America in WWII

the Tuskegee Airmen helped to slowly create a new public perception of African
American fighters.

David Stone Martin (1913-1992)
Strong In The Strength of the Lord, 1942
We who fight in the people’s cause will never stop until that cause is won

Henry Koerner (1915-1991)
Save waste fats for explosives, 1943
16" x 22.5" and 20" x 28"
Government Printing Office for the Office of War Information
NARA Still Picture Branch (NWDNS-44-PA-380)

Koerner produced some of the finest modernistic posters of WWII. This Koerner
poster encourages ordinary citizens to make a difference in the war effort by
saving their waste fats. As a woman’s hand pours out the excess grease in a
pan, the fatty waste becomes a fiery ball of explosives and bullets. The message
is clear: donate excess grease so that the army will have enough explosives to
win the war.
During World War II waste fats were one of many household items salvaged by
families for the war front. American civilians were also asked to save nylon,
silk, old clothing, rags, paper, tin, rubber, and steel. Waste fats were converted
into glycerin and then nitroglycerine, an important component of anti-aircraft
shells, dynamite, and pharmaceutical supplies. Fats were taken to official fat
collecting stations, usually butcher shops and grocery stores. "Minute women,"
female leaders appointed to encourage the war effort, were the main impetus
behind the success of salvaging waste fats. They started campaigns, created
pledge cards, and advertised the need to save and donate to the war.
Henry Koerner, best known for illustrating Time Magzine covers, was a young,
talented artist when he created this poster in 1943. He immigrated to America
from Vienna in 1939 and soon began working for the Office of War Information.
In 1943 he was drafted into the U.S. Army, and after the war he was appointed
court artist at the Nuremberg trials. Perhaps more than any other illustrator in
the exhibition, Koerner was deeply affected by the events of World War II. His
father, mother and brother were killed in the holocaust.

McClelland Barclay (1891-1943)
Save Your Cans, 1944
33 x 23 in.

Save your cans: help pass the ammunition : prepare your tin cans for war ....
An woman's arm holding a tomato can appears on the bottom right side of the
poster. The can image is repeated and runs into the illustration. As the cans
get smaller, they change into a chain of bullets that a soldier is feeding into his

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                    13
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                       Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                         Mobilizing America in WWII

   gun, Text continues: 1. Remove tops and bottoms, 2. take off paper labels, 3.
   wash thoroughly, 4. flatten firmly. War Production Board seal in bottom left

   Howard Scott (1902-1983)
   Patching a Tire
   SEP (December 5, 1942)
              Howard Scott (1902-1983)
              Victory Garden
              SEP (August 7, 1943)

   In addition to humorous SEP cover illustration, Howard Scott created a variety
   of war posters for the Government Office of War Information

How to Make Posters That Will Help Win The War
Office of Facts and Figures, 1942

The Government tried to identify the most effective poster style. One government-
commissioned study concluded that the best posters were those that made a direct,
emotional appeal, and presented realistic pictures in photographic detail. The study
found that symbolic or humorous posters attracted less attention, made a less
favorable impression, and did not inspire enthusiasm. Nevertheless, many symbolic
and humorous posters were judged to be outstanding in national poster competitions
during the war.

   Mead Schaeffer (1898-1980)
   Tank Destroyer in Action, 1943
   oil on board, 38 ¾ x 27 ¾ in.
   Courtesy of the Army Art Collection, U.S. Army Center of Military History

   During the War, Schaeffer created a painted record of the fourteen branches of
   the armed services for the U.S. military. After this experience reporting military
   actions, he painted many depictions of the American military. The Saturday
   Evening Post sponsored an exhibition of these paintings that traveled to ninety
   cities. Because of his personal observation and his methodical and meticulous
   representations, some thought his paintings to be the most authentic paintings
   of the war.

   Tank Destroyer is an example of Schaeffer‘s military paintings that were made
   into posters: Your Metal Keeps ‗em Shooting

   Dean Cornwell (1892-1960)
   Buy War Bonds Today, 1944

   JKSchiller Lecture for                                                   14
   Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                      Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                        Mobilizing America in WWII

  Produced as an advertisement for Fisher Body and used in magazines in the
  summer of 1944.

Accentuate the Positive,
Eliminate the Negative,
Latch on to the Affirmative,
Don`t Mess with Mr. In-Between.
Hit song, 1945, Music by Harold Arlen, Lyrics by Johnny Mercer
As had been true in WWI, popular music both reflected cultural enthusiasms and
drove public sentiment.

  C. R. Miller
  We're fighting to prevent this
  Created for the Think America Institute and Kelly Read & Co.
  Source: National Archives (NWDNS-44-PA-2376)

  J. C. Leyendecker (1874-1951)
  New Year cover 1943
  Cover illustration for The Saturday Evening Post (January 3, 1943)

  All around the helmeted New Year‘s baby the symbols of the Axis Alliance are
  being destroyed or self-destructing.

        The FASCES was a cylindrical bundle of elm or birch rods bound
         together by red bands, from which an ax head projected; and which was
         borne by Lictors (attendants and body guards) before a Consul or high
         Magistrate, as a symbol of their authority. Benito Mussolini's Italian
         "Fascist" Party of the 1930's, derived its name from the Fasces, which it
         had adopted as an emblem in 1919.
        SWAZTIKA from the Sanskrit svastika, meaning "all is well" a good luck
         symbol—it is a cross with four arms of equal length, with the ends of
         each arm bent at a right angle. Symbol transformed into symbol for
         racial purity and elitism of the Nazi party.
        RISING SUN, during the Meiji Restoration (1868-1912), both the sun disc
         and the Rising Sun Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy became major
         symbols in the emerging Japanese empire

  Norman Rockwell‘s The Four Freedoms (1942) were inspired by President
  Roosevelt‘s 1941 State of the Union Address envisioning a postwar world
  founded on freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and
  freedom from fear.

  ―In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a
  world founded upon four essential freedoms.

  JKSchiller Lecture for                                                 15
  Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                       Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                         Mobilizing America in WWII

The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world.

The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—
everywhere in the world.

The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms,
means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a
healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—everywhere in the world.

The fourth is freedom from fear—which translated into world terms,
means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such
a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act
of physical aggression against any neighbor—anywhere in the world.‖

Norman Rockwell (1894–1978)
Freedom of Speech [preliminary version]
The Saturday Evening Post, February 20, 1943
Oil on posterboard           21½ x 16½ inches
Collection of Steven Spielberg

Rockwell‘s images were published in 1943 as Post illustrations over four
consecutive weeks, accompanied by essays by leading writers and thinkers:
Freedom of Speech was paired with a parable by Booth Tarkington; Freedom of Worship with
text by Will Durant, Freedom from Want with a poem by Carlos Bulosan, and Freedom from
Fear with an essay by Stephen Vincent Benét. A phenomenal success, the Post and
U.S. Department of Treasury sent the Four Freedoms on a national whistle-stop
tour, where they raised $133 million in war bonds and stamps. After the War,
Four Freedoms developed their own iconic identity, linked to our historic and
cultural fabric. More than 25 million Americans have bought the images – and
they remain among Rockwell‘s best known works.
Posters of the Four Freedoms were displayed in every telephone building
throughout the land.

NR (1894-1978)
Willie Gillis: Food Package
Cover illus for SEP (October 4, 1941)

After the first draft call, but before Pearl Harbor, Rockwell planned a series of
Post covers about an every boy soldier. Wanting a model who would not go off
to war, Rockwell chose a young man exempt from the draft because he had had
stomach surgery some time before, Bob (Robert Otis) Buck. To make his
character look true to life, Rockwell took a trip to Fort Dix in New Jersey and
studied the uniforms his character would eventually wear. He even purchased
a complete series of GI outfits.

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                           16
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                     Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                       Mobilizing America in WWII

Rockwell‘s wife made up the character‘s name and to his surprise, the cover
and the character were a hit. Everyone wanted to know about the war and this
seemed an inconspicuous way to tell the story.

NR specifically did not show battle or war images because he felt those ought to
be the province of reporter photographers and newsreel journalists. Instead he
made Willie into an everyman and showed the trials and joys of service.

NR (1894-1978)
Willie Gillis: Home Town News
Cover illus for SEP (April 11, 1942)

By the time the US entered the war, Willie Gillis was a symbol of the American
soldier. His images could be seen in most every USO and American train

NR (1894-1978)
Willie Gillis Says: ―For Victory Buy United States Savings Bonds and
Advertising illus published in SEP (April 11, 1942)

Willie Gillis was even selected to promote the sale of United States Savings

NR (1894-1978)
Willie Gillis in Convoy 1943
Unused study for cover illustration for TSEP

With the news that the allies were moving on the offensive in 1943, Willie Gillis
images took on a more active aspect. This one, however, did not make the
grade and was not used as a SEP cover.

NR (1894-1978)
Willie Gillis: New Year's Eve
Cover illus. for SEP (January 1, 1944)

While Bob Buck was not drafted, he did enlist as a Naval navigator in 1943.
When he was no longer available, Rockwell sometimes used photos of the
model to create new SEP covers, or more likely created covers related to and
referencing Willie Gillis, without exactly being images of Willie.

In this instance, Rockwell used another Vermont model, the daughter of his
friend and fellow illustrator Mead Schaeffer to create this cover image of Willie‘s
girlfriend asleep on New Year‘s Eve having fallen asleep while re-reading a
missive from Willie and surrounded of photos of Willie.

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                    17
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                        Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                          Mobilizing America in WWII

   NR (1894-1978)
   Willie Gillis, 1944
   Cover illus. for The Saturday Evening Post (September 16, 1944)
For this September 16, 1944 cover Rockwell relied on his library of reference photos
and created a picture about six generations of the Willie Gillis family; his model Bob
Buck had enlisted as a Navy aviator and been sent to the Pacific. Enlargements of
the Willie Gillis covers were distributed by the USO to be posted in USO clubs in the
United States and overseas, and in railway-station and bus-terminal lounges.
   ―Beneath the portraits I painted a row of books with titles like The Gillis Family
   Genealogy, A History of the United States and the Gillis Family, With Gillis at
   Valley Forge, Gillis and Lincoln—purely imaginary titles…The cover was very
   popular, mostly, I‘m sorry to say, because of those books. All the Gillis‘s in
   America wrote me asking where they could buy them.‖— Norman Rockwell (My
   Adventures as an Illustrator, p.328)

   NR‘s desire for verisimilitude caused him to find a period appropriate oval
   frame to copy for the earliest Gillis portrait.

   NR (1894-1978)
   A Night on a Troop Train with the Paratroopers (Line of Paratroopers)
   Story illus. in SEP (May 8, 1943): 23.

   ―For good reasons, Army reports have refused to allow photographers aboard
   troop trains. The Post has no desire to disclose military secrets, but it does feel
   that a candid portrait of the young heroes who are starting on the last lap to
   battlefronts should be part of the permanent record of this war. Here artist
   Norman Rockwell does that job. With the warm feeling for human beings that
   distinguishes his craftsmanship, he pictures a troop train for you as perhaps
   no camera could. The Editors.‖

   NR (1894-1978)
   Mine America‘s Coal 1943
   Orig oil ptg. For U.S. Office of War Information poster

   During WWI the US Office of War Information had a large-scale program to
   promote the war. But they did not do the same in WWII. Like others of his
   colleagues, NR volunteered his services for the war effort, as for this ptg. For a
   poster urging American to mine their own coal for fuel. The model for this
   poster image was a fellow resident of Arlington, VT, where NR then lived. The
   model like the miner had two sons in the service, hence the service stars
   pinned to his coveralls.

   NR (1894-1978)
   “Wilbur would come to work in the morning with bloodshot headlights”
   Illus. for “The Wonderful Life of Wilbur the Jeep” by Wilbur Schramm
   Story illus. in SEP (1/29/1944)

   JKSchiller Lecture for                                                    18
   Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                    Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                      Mobilizing America in WWII

About the sexual escapes of an army jeep. There were already popular stories
about Willy‘s jeeps, a general purpose car called a Model GP, hence jeep.

NR (1894-1978)
War News
Unused cover illus for TSEP (1944)

Moved by the anxious tension of the people at home waiting to hear what was
happening, NR worked on this idea for a SEP cover. It was abandoned in favor
of . . .

NR (1894-1978)
Charting War Maneuvers
Cover illus for TSEP (April 29, 1944)

NR (1894-1978)
Norman Rockwell Visits a Ration Board
Story illus. for TSEP (July 15, 1944)

To create this image for the SEP article, NR visited a nearby Ration Board in
Manchester, VT. Like the other ordinary citizens who made their case for
special dispensation to the all-volunteer board, NR placed himself among them
waiting for his turn.

John Gannam (1907-1965)
John Gannam (1907-1965)

NR (1894-1978)
Home for Thanksgiving: Mother and Son Peeling Potatoes, 1945
Cover illus. for The Saturday Evening Post (November 24, 1945)

During the summer of 1945 Rockwell had planned on creating his
Thanksgiving cover while on a visit to Maine. While there he located an old
fashioned country kitchen, found local models, and hired a photographer to
make dozens of study photos to aid in his preparation for the cover. But
nothing seemed right. As his deadline approached he abandoned his original
conception and instead asked a local mother and her newly returned
bombardier son to pose for this more modest cover preparing for the
Thanksgiving dinner.
    One of NR‘s teacher‘s, Thomas Fogarty, taught that the artist must live in
      his illustration. ―They had to know what kinds of people they were
      painting, why they were behaving as they were, what the weather was
      like, and why they sat6 in a particular kind of chair‖ Thomas S.
      Buechner, Norman Rockwell: A Sixty Year Retrospective (NY: Harry N.
      Abrams, 1972): 38.

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                19
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas
                    Norman Rockwell and Illustration
                      Mobilizing America in WWII

     Mother sits in her sack-back Windsor chair since she is the senior
      person in the picture.
     Her boy sits in the rush-seated ladder-back chair. By resting his heels on
      the upper leg brace it puts him back into the role of the child of the

JKSchiller Lecture for                                                 20
Teaching American History, Democratic Vistas

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