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					Goal, Objective and Target Concepts

Goal
• A goal is a future event towards which a series of activities is directed

• A goal is the over-all intent of the program

Goal Example To improve the status of women of Nepal

Goal….
Status… ??
• • • • • • Economic, social or health , which?? Whole Nepal… can’t it be made specific? What is the time limit …..not clear How are we going to do?? Who will do it???? Which group will be targeted???

Goal ……
• Is comprehensive/broad • Is written to include all aspects of the program. • Provides over-all direction of a program. • Is more general in nature. • Usually takes longer to complete. • May not be measurable in exact terms.

Objective
• objectives are the steps to be taken to achieve that goal • objectives are the ways to meet the goals

Example
• To improve the health of mothers of Kaski district

Examples
• “To improve the health condition of pregnant or delivered women” • “To reduce delivery related complications” • “To improve nutritional status of pregnant women” • “To ensure, proper health care during and after delivery” • “To increase contraceptive prevalence rate”

Objective …..
To provide direction and to be useful in the evaluation process, •It must be clearly understood, and stated what is to be accomplished •Should be measurable.

Some guidelines to write objectives

Elements 1
1. The outcome to be achieved, or the action, behavior, or something else that will change as a result of the program. 2. Usually identified as the verb of the sentence. 3. Thus, action words such as apply, change, measure, compare, demonstrate, evaluate, etc should be used while defining objectives

Examples
• “To change the knowledge and attitude of mothers regarding exclusive breast feeding”

• “To change the practices regarding breastfeeding in recently delivered mothers”

Elements 2
 The conditions under which the outcome will be observed, or when the change will occur. "Typical" conditions found in objectives might be “within 6 months” "by the year 2009," "after training is given”

Examples
• “To change the knowledge of mothers regarding exclusive breast feeding within 2 months” • “To change the practices regarding breastfeeding in recently delivered mothers after giving trainings”

Elements 3
The criterion for deciding whether the outcome has been achieved, or how much change.

The purpose of this element is to provide a standard by which the program planners/evaluators can determine if an outcome has been performed in an appropriate and/or successful manner.
Examples include “About 95% of mothers . “All pregnant women” “ CPR rate from 39 to 45% by 2 years”

Elements 4
The Target population, or who will change.
Examples are “20” health workers," "all medical persons," and "those working in the Pokhara Municipality."

A good objective should be: SMART
• Specific: for conditions the project seeks to change • Measurable: quantitative indicators (precise, can be aggregated, and further statistically processed), but quantification may be difficult. Use also qualitative indicators! • Attainable: at reasonable costs and method • Relevant: to the management information needs

• Timely: collected and reported

• General Objective – what are the wider problems, which your project will help resolve? • Specific Objectives – what are the intended immediate effects on the project area and the target group, what improvements or changes will the project bring about?

General objectives
• To improve the health status of women in kaski districts by last of 2009

Activity
A combination of purposefully designed actions that transforms the various inputs into specific outputs.

• Input

• Output

• Impact

Input
All resources (Human, financial and other) that are allocated to specific activities. Eg: (health workers, educators, organizatoin,etc)

Output
Combination of short term results that are immediate, visible, concrete and tangible consequences of completed project activities. Eg: (trainings, medical checkups, vaccination, treatment, supplement nutrition)

Outcome
Medium-term developmental results benefiting an identified target population that are achievable within the time frame of the project and are the logical consequence of achieving a specified combination of short-term results (outputs). Eg: (normal delivery, fully immunized children, no complications)

Impact
Broader, higher level, long-term effects or consequences of the project. Long-term results usually reach society as a whole and are the logical consequence of achieving a series of medium and short term results. Eg:

•Reduce morbidity •Reduce mortality •Increase in ANC visits •Increase in CPR

Objectives and Targets are expressed in terms of expected values of indicators by the reference time of the plan / programme”

IMR, MMR, literacy rate,

Evaluating action

Exploration

Process
Action Interaction with community leaders Thinking what can be investigated and where (objectives) Planning the survey and questionnaire

Planning action and health program Feedback to relevant individuals & groups and obtain their interpretation Writing report

Training interviewers Pre-testing Reworking survey instruments

Analysis of data and thinking out the implication
Executing survey


				
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posted:7/24/2009
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