Ideation by hidayatulhasanah


Muhammad Zainal Abidin
‘falling in love’







                ‘falling in love’

Names to each process




                           Examples           Elements
Who the sequence is
                       Helena, a young man    Participants
What they are doing in Met, working, spoke,
each step              see
                       Bubbly, vicacious,
What they are like                            Qualities
What kinds of people An Englishman, Boer
they are               Afrikaners
Kind of process:

  Doing, saying, sensing, being

    Clause as representation
        (halliday 1994)
Doing : focusing on activities
Doing – material actions (what people do, or what
Not all events be construed simply as ‘doing’, it can be
‘saying’ as steps in a dialogue.
Ex: book page 72.
      Four, may be five policemen viciously
      knocked      me down


     Second participant who has the effect of an action
Doing can involve one / two participant

He was working
I married to forget
I met a young man
Agent of effective actions need not be mentioned in
the clause. But the meaning of agency is still there.
Such effective clauses are known as passive, ex:

I was screamed at verbally abused
                                    The narrator use passive
I was slapped around                actions to focus on himself
I was punched                       as viction of abuse.
The source of agency is often an important consideration in
discourse analysis, and is not always to recover. On the
example about, the narrator introduces the agents (four,
maybe five policemen) when their number is significant.
Agent can be included in passive clause, focused on as new
information at the end.
Ex:   - I was screamed at, verbally abused by the
      - I was viciously knocked down by four, maybe five

Not effective actions are known as ‘middle’ because they are
neither ‘passive’ nor ‘active’. In middle processes, the
participant simply act, without causing an affect on another.
How we have prepared this recount for discourse
- Simple sentences’ – I was smakced again.
- Most sentences inclued several clauses that are
  marked off with commas or linked by conjunction
  (then, when, whose, and, and, and which
  resulting that).
- Punctuation and conjunction –→ clause to help in
  analysing a text into its constituent figures.
- By analysing the text into its constituent figures, it
  becomes possible to tease out how experience is
  construed within each one, and how this contrual
  is built up over a sequence of figures.
Verbal     relational

Saying and sensing –types of
processes that can project another
The relationship between the ‘saying’ and
‘what is said’ is known as ‘projection’.
Ordinary processes of ‘doing’ cannot
project; we can say.
Ex: I met he was working, or -
   He was working we won’t see each other.
It is not meaningful. There are processes of sensing that can
project, include ‘seeing’, ‘hearing’, ‘thinking’, and ‘feeling’.

I heard              he was working
I saw                that he was leaving

I forget             whether he left
I was to learn       that he had been operating overseas.

I didn’t want        him to leave
I wish               he wouldn’t go

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