Teaching listening to young learners by hidayatulhasanah

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									 Babies  as young as one and two months of
  age have the capacity to discriminate speech
  sounds (Vihman, 1996)
 Before babies can comprehend words, they
  listen to the rhythm and melody of the
  language and have some awareness of
  interaction and relationship with a speaker
  (Cook, 2000)
 Toddlers listen to both sounds and words
 Hearing  refers to the actual perception and
  processing of sound
 In order to be able to listen in class, children
  need to be able to hear
 It has been reported that up to 18% of
  children in some countries have hearing loss
  before they are 19 years of age
 Even minor hearing loss can have a very
  profound impact on a child’s ability to listen
  and fully participate in the English-language
  classroom
The child :
 pulls on ear
 has frequent ear infections
 complains of ear aches
 ask for the CD or tape player to be turned up
  when the volume seems to be fine for
  everyone else
 asks for things to be repeated even when
  said in the child’s native language
 has trouble repeating words and phrases
 Place  the child who has a hearing loss in the
  front of the classroom so that he can see
  your lips move and is in your direct line of
  sound
 Make sure that the child doesn’t sit next to
  children who are noisy because that can
  muffle out your voice or the voice of a CD or
  cassette
 Young children listen to a variety of voices and
  sounds that are around them
 Inside buildings, they may hear people talking, a
  television, a vacuum cleaner, pots banging, or a
  microwave oven
 Children often announce when they suddenly
  hear a specific outdoor sound such as a fire
  engine or an ambulance
 If children live in an area where there are
  animals, they learn to distinguish the sounds of
  dogs barking, cows mooing, sheep baaing
 Young learners also enjoy listening to songs and
  stories
       Sound      Young Learner Topic

 Water boiling    Cooking, kitchen
 Dog barking      Animals, pets
 Experienced  teachers and parents know that
  a good way to capture children’s attention is
  to talk to another adult and pretend that the
  children aren’t present
 If a beginning teacher is having trouble
  controlling an unruly class, a good strategy is
  to bring another adult into the doorway of
  the classroom
 Then the teacher should talk about the
  unruly class as if they weren’t even there
 Rest assured that the class will actively listen
  to the conversation and any suggestions that
  either adult gives
   We can distinguish the skills by stating that
     listening and speaking are oral skills
     Reading and writing are written skills
     Listening and reading are receptive skills because the
      focus is on receiving information from outside source
     Speaking and writing are productive skills because
      the focus is on producing information
 Some people think that because children do not
  need to produce sounds when they are listening,
  that listening is passive. But this is not true
 Learners can and should be actively engaged in
  listening tasks and activities
 The relationship between listening and speaking
  is clear because they are both oral skills
 By listening, children are preparing to replicate
  the sounds when they speak
 There are specific listening skills which can lay
  the foundation for reading instruction because
  by developing good skills, children are able to
  match the sounds with the corresponding
  symbols when they decode words
 Listening comprehension skills can prepare
  children to develop reading comprehension skills
   Learning channels are the preferred ways that
    learners receive and process information
   The three main learning channels are auditory,
    tactile, and visual
   Auditory learners are better able to learn material
    when it is presented in an auditory format such as
    listening to someone read a story aloud
   Visual learners often recall visual images or pictures
    easily
   Tactile learners are better able to remember
    information, language, and content when they have
    physically manipulated or touched the information
   Tactile learners benefit when they have actually
    made something with their hands
Learning Channels                Examples of Input


   Auditory           Songs, chants, poems, stories read
                        aloud, environmental sounds such as
                        rain, cars, trucks, animals, vacuum
                        cleaners, computer printers, people
                        walking
   Visual             Pictures such as drawings, sketches,
                        photographs, paintings, posters,
                        murals, diagrams
                       Real life objects that children can
   Tactile
                        touch as well as toys and puppets (it is
                        important to make sure that the child
                        can actually touch the objects and not
                        merely look at them
 As teachers of second and foreign-language
  learners, it is useful to consider the listening skills
  that are taught to children learning English as a
  first language
 Being able to follow simple instructions is one of
  the foundation listening readiness skills that get
  children ready to develop other language skills
 Listening skills also help children who have
  literacy skills in their own language transition into
  English-language literacy
 Listening skills prepare children for reading in
  their native language as well as reading in a
  second or foreign language
The following statements help to
 summarize how other skills are built
 on listening :

     You need to hear a word before you
     can say it
    You need to say a word before you
     can read it
    You need to read a word before you
     can write it
 When a teacher shares a story with children and
  helps them to develop listening comprehension
  skills, she is also working on their reading skills
 Listening comprehension utilizes many of the same
  processes necessary to read and comprehend a
  story (Piper, 1993)
 Listening capacity refers to an informal measure
  of one’s ability to understand or comprehend
  spoken language in the context of a story being
  told or read aloud (Gunning, 2003, 2000)
 As a foundation for reading, we need to develop
  children listening comprehension and listening
  capacity
 Another  way to think about the relationship
  between listening and reading is to consider
  the fact that one needs to recognize patterns
  in order to read
 Detecting the auditory or phonological
  patterns that occur in language will better
  prepare children for the visual patterns that
  occur in English-language words
 By learning to recognize rhyming words,
  children will be in a better position to
  decode and read words that follow a similar
  patterns
 Total Physical Response (TPR) activities
 TPR songs and finger-plays
 TPR storytelling
 Yes/no cards
 TPR drawing
 Syllable clapping
 Rhyming word activities
 Minimal pairs
 Although  infants aren’t speaking, they are still
  active users of the language because they are
  physically responding to what has been said
 Learners physically respond to oral commands
  which are given
 Learners are expected to respond non-verbally
  to commands before they are expected to speak
 The teacher usually gives an oral command
  while she demonstrates it
 The learners follow along with the commands
  and only speak when they are ready
 When they first begin to speak, they repeat the
  commands given by the teacher
   It utilizes the auditory, visual, and tactile
    learning channels
   TPR helps to teach children to follow
    directions and listen attentively–two
    important skills for academic success
   In keeping with developmentally appropriate
    notions or thoughts, children are allowed to
    listen and then choose when they feel
    comfortable to start speaking
   This method can easily be adapted in many
    different ways for young learners
 TPR  can be used with songs and finger-plays
 Finger-plays are little chants that children
  says while moving their fingers and hands

    The Eensy Weensy Spider
     The eensy weensy spider climbed up the water
     spout
     Down came the rain and washed the spider out
     Out came the sun and dried up all the rain
     And the eensy weensy spider climbed up the
     spout again
 Itworks especially well with stories where
  sentence patterns are repeated
 Choose a favorite story and tell it using
  puppets or storytelling pieces (pictures of
  characters and different items in a story that
  children manipulate or move around as the
  story is told
 By using TPR yes/no cards, you can easily
  measure children’s listening capacity
 Children are asked questions and then resond
  by showing a yes/no card
 As a teacher, you can look around and see
  how many children were able to comprehend
  the question and answer it correctly
 All of the children can be given the same
  instructions but should be given latitude in
  how they carry out the instructions

  1.    Draw a circle
  2.    Draw two eyes. The eyes can be any color you
        want.
  3.    Draw some hair. Make it long or short
 Giving children good phonological awareness
  foundation prepares them to engage in
  beginning formal reading instruction
 One way to help children learn the way the
  words are broken into syllables and into
  separate words is to chant the words while
  you clap them in syllables
 Although  rhymes are wonderful and are
  especially useful in the forms of finger-plays
  and songs, the language is not always
  completely accessible for children
 However, for children learning English as a
  foreign language these words can be very
  challenging
 Theyare two words that differ in only one
 sound
     bat – pat


 One  way to practice minimal pait distiction is
  to have your learners listen to two words and
  tell whether they are the same or different
  by holding up the yes/no card
 Murphy (2003) suggests the use of pictures to
  make the traditional technique known as
  minimal pairs more meaningful

								
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