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Name                     Title                         Journal                Date                     Conclusions
aaa                                                                                                    10/3/2010

Abranches J      Invasion of human coronary artery      Oral Microbiol        2009 Apr;24(2):141-5     Our findings highlight a potential role for S. mutans
                 endothelial cells by Streptococcus     Immunol.                                       in the pathogenesis of certain cardiovascular
                 mutans OMZ175.                                                                        diseases

Accarini R       Periodontal disease as a potential     Arq Bras Cardiol      2006 Nov;87(5):592-6     Periodontal disease should be considered as a
                 risk factor for acute coronary                                                        potential risk factor in the etiology and instablility of
                 syndromes                                                                             the atherosclerotic plaque.

Agueda A         Periodontal disease as a risk          J Clin Periodontol.   2008;Jan:35(1):16-22     This study found a modest association between
                 factor for adverse pregnancy                                                          periodontitis and preterm birth
                 outcomes: a prospective cohort

Amabile N        Severity of periodontal disease        J Int Med             2008 Jan 16              "...patients might benefit from an intensive
                 correlates to inflammatory                                                            periodontal therapy to prevent Coronary Artery
                 systemic status and independently                                                     Disease progression.
                 predicts the presence and

Amar S           Periodontal disease is associated      Arterioscler Thromb   2003 Jul 1;23(7):1245-9 "Subjects with advanced periodontal disease
                 with brachial artery endothelial       Vasc Biol.                                    exhibit endothelial dysfunction and evidence of
                 dysfunction and systemic                                                             systemic inflammation, possibly placing them at
                 inflammation                                                                         increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

Amar S           The impact of periodontal infection    Med Sci Monit.        2003 Dec;9(12):RA291-    These findings place oral health in the perspective
                 on systemic diseases                                         9                        of systemic health, and they suggest that the dental
                                                                                                       and medical professions should develop even
                                                                                                       closer ties in the future.

Andriankaja OM Periodontal disease and risk of          Eur J Epidemiol       2007 Sep 8               This study provides evidence of an association
               myocardial infarction: the role of                                                      between PD and incident MI in both genders. This
               gender and smoking                                                                      association appears to be independent from the
                                                                                                       possible confounding effect of smoking.

Arbes SJ         Association between extent of         J Dent Res             1999 78(12);1777-82      This study supports findings from previous studies
                 periodontal attachment loss and                                                       of an association between periodontal disease and
                 self-reported history of heart attack                                                 coronary heart disease.

Awano S          Oral health and mortality risk from    J Dent Res.           2008 Apr;87(4):334-9     Therefore, the increase in teeth with periodontal
                 pneumonia in the elderly.                                                             pockets in the elderly may be associated with
                                                                                                       increased mortality from pneumonia GT 10 teeth
                                                                                                       w/4mm pockets= RR 3.9 for pneumonia

Azadani PN       The effect of dental overbite on       Int J Pediatr         2007 Feb;71(2):325-31.   CONCLUSIONS: Children with deep dental
                 eustachian tube dysfunction in         Otorhinolaryngol.                              overbites are at a significantly increased risk for
                 Iranian children                                                                      developing eustachian tube dysfunction.

Azarpazhooh A    Systematic review of the               J Periodontol.         2006 Sep;77(9):1465-    There association of pneumonia with oral
                 association between respiratory                              82.                      health (odds ratio =1.2 to 9.6) Improved oral
                 diseases and oral health.                                                             hygiene and professional oral health care reduces
                                                                                                       occurrence of respiratory diseases among high-risk
                                                                                                       elderly adults
Barilli AL       Peirodontal disease in patients        Arq Bras Cariol.      2006                     Periodontal disease was very prevalent in the
                 with ischemic coronary                                                                groups studied with a higher degree of severity in
                 aterhosclerosis at a University                                                       those with ischemic heart disease. The elevated
                 Hospital                                                                              prevalence of risk factors found, indicates that
                                                                                                       intervention strategies are required.

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                           Page 1 of 18
Name                   Title                          Journal                Date                      Conclusions
Beck           Periodontal disease and coronary        Circulation           2005 Jul 5;112(1):19-24
               heart disease: a reappraisal of the

Beck J         Periodontal Disease and                 J Periodontol;        1996; 67:1123-1137         Levels of bone loss and cumulative incidence of
               Cardiovascular Disease                                                                  total CHD and fatal CHD indicated a biologic
                                                                                                       gradient between severity of exposure and
                                                                                                       occurrence of disease.

Behle JH       Periodontal infections and              Int Dent J            2006 Aug 56 (4 Supp)
               atherosclerotic vascular disease:                             256-62
               an update.

Betleja-       Anaerobic bacteria of periodontal       Med Dosw Mikrobiol.   2008;60(1):71-8.          A significantly higher incidence of preterm low birth
Gromada K      pockets in course of periodontitis                                                      weight cases in patiens with periodontitis was
               and premature labor                                                                     documented. a higher variety of anaerobic bacteria
                                                                                                       of periodontal pockets in mothers with preterm low
                                                                                                       birth weight infants was observed.
Bimstein E;    Serum antibody levels to oral           Pediatr Dent;         1991 Sept;13(5):267-      1
               microorganisms in chldren and                                 272
               young adults with relation to the
               severity of gingival disease.

Blum A         Periodontal care may improve            Eur J Intern Med      2007 Jul;18(4):295-8      Periodontitis may be an insidious cause of
               enodthelial function                                                                    endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events.
                                                                                                       Treating periodontitis can improve enothelial
                                                                                                       function and be an important preventive tool for
                                                                                                       cardiovascular disease.
Boggess KA     Maternal periodontal disease in         Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May;194(5):1316-      CONCLUSION: Moderate or severe periodontal
               early pregnancy and risk for a                               22                         disease early in pregnancy is associated with
               small-for-gestational-age infant.                                                       delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant..

Boggess KA     Maternal periodontal disease is         Obstet Gynecol.       2003 Feb;101(2):227-31 active maternal periodontal disease during
               associated with an increased risk                                                    pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for
               for preeclampsia                                                                     the development of preeclampsia

Bokhari SA     The relationship of periodontal         J Pak Med Assoc.      2006 Apr;56(4):177-81
               disease to cardiovascular
               diseases--review of literature.

Brown TT       The effect of dental care on            Health Econ.          2010 Sep 29               This suggests that women who receive dental care
               cardiovascular disease outcomes:                                                        may reduce their risk of future CVD events by at
               an application of instrumental                                                          least one-third.
               variables in the presence of

Buhlin K       Periodontal treatment influences        Atherosclerosis.      2009 Apr 5                In conclusion, this study indicates that standard
               risk markers for atherosclerosis in                                                     treatment for periodontal disease induces systemic
               patients with severe periodontitis.                                                     changes in several biochemical markers that reflect
                                                                                                       the risk for atherosclerosis.

Cairo F        Severe periodontitis in young            J Clin Periodontol   2008 Apr 9                "Conclusion: Severe periodontitis is associated with
               adults is associated with sub-                                                          sub-clinical atherosclerosis in young systemically
               clinical atherosclerosis.                                                               healthy patients."

Carroll GC     Dental flossing and its relationship    J Periodontol         1980 Dec; 51(12):691-     1
               to transient bacteremia.                                      692

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                           Page 2 of 18
Name                     Title                          Journal                Date                     Conclusions
Chen YW          Periodontitis may increase the risk     Eur J Vasc            2008 Feb;35(2):153-8     "...periodontitis may be associated with an
                 of peripheral arterial disease.         Endovasc Surg                                  increased risk of periperal arterial disease."
                                                                                                        (cause:increased concentration of serum
                                                                                                        inflammatory cytokines)

Chong PH         Periodontal disease and                 Pharmacotherapy       2000 20(7):805-18
                 atherosclerotic cardiovascular
                 disease: Confounding Effects or

Clothier B       Periodontal disease and                 Best Pract Res Clin   2007 Jun;21(3):451-66    "Of 31 published studies, 22 show a positive
                 pregnancy outcomes: exposure,           Obstet Gynaecol                                association between premature birth and
                 risk and intervention                                                                  periodontal disease."

Conde-           Maternal infection and risk of          Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;198(1):7-22.     Urinary tract infection and periodontal disease
Agudelo A        preeclampsia: systematic review                                                        during pregnancy are associated with an increased
                 and metaanalysis.                                                                      risk of preeclampsia.

Cruz SS          Periodontal therapy for pregnant        Pediatr Int.          2009 May 14              "...periodontal therapy is a protective factor for birth
                 women and cases of low birth            (Pediatrics                                    weight."
                 weight: an intervention study.          International)

D'Aiuto F        Periodontal infections cause            Am Heart J.           2006 May;151(5):977-84 ..intensive periodontal treatment reduces systmic
                 changes in traditional and novel                                                     inflammatory markers and systolic BP, and
                 cardiovascular risk factors: results                                                 improves lipid profiles with subsequent changes in
                 from a randomized controlled                                                         cardiovascular risk."

D'Aiuto F        Periodontal disease and C-               J Periodontal Res.   2004 Aug;39(4):236-41
                 reactive protein-associated
                 cardiovascular risk.

Darré L          Efficacy of periodontal treatment       Diabetes Metab.        2008 Nov;34(5):497-     CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis
                 on glycaemic control in diabetic                              506                      represents the best information available to date
                 patients: A meta-analysis of                                                           that addresses this issue, and suggests that
                 interventional studies.                                                                periodontal treatment could improve glycaemic
Dasanayake       Maternal periodontal disease,           MCN Am J Matern       2008 Jan-Feb;33(1):45-   Maternal periodontal disease is linked to preterm
AP,              pregnancy, and neonatal                 Child Nurs.           9                        birth, low birthweight, and preterm low birthweight,
                 outcomes.                                                                              ... treatment of periodontal disease during
                                                                                                        pregnancy has been shown to be safe and effective.

de Oliveira C    Toothbrushing, inflammation, and        BMJ. 2010 May         2010 May 27;340          CONCLUSIONS: Poor oral hygiene is associated
                 risk of cardiovascular disease:         27;340                                         with higher levels of risk of cardiovascular disease
                 results from Scottish Health                                                           and low grade inflammation

de Oliveira C    Toothbrushing, inflammation, and        BMJ.                   2010 May                CONCLUSIONS: Poor oral hygiene is associated
                 risk of cardiovascular disease:                               27;340:c2451. doi:       with higher levels of risk of cardiovascular disease
                 results from Scottish Health                                  10.1136/bmj.c2451.       and low grade inflammation,

Deliargyris EN   Periodontal disease in patients         Am Heart J.           2004 Jun;147(6):1005-
                 with acute myocardial infarction:                             9.
                 prevalence and contribution to
                 elevated C-reactive protein levels

Demmer RT        Periodontal disease and incident        Diabetes Care.        2008 Jul;31(7):1373-9    Baseline periodontal disease is an independent
                 type 2 diabetes: results from the                                                      predictor of incident diabetes in the nationally
                 First National Health and Nutrition                                                    representative sample of NHANES I
                 Examination Survey and its

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                            Page 3 of 18
Name                    Title                         Journal                Date                     Conclusions
Demmer RT       Periodontal infections and              J Am Dent Assoc.     2006 Oct;137             Evidence continues to support an association
                cardiovascular disease: the heart                            Suppl:14S-20S            among periodontal infections, atherosclerosis and
                of the matter                                                                         vascular disease

DeStefano F;    Dental disease and risk of              Br Med J             1993 March               "CONCLUSION--Dental disease is associated with
                coronary heart disease and                                   13;306(6879):688-691     an increased risk of coronary heart disease,
                mortality.                                                                            particularly in young men."

Desvarieux M    Periodontal bacteria and                J Hypertens. 2010    2010 Jul;28(7):1413-21. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence of a
                hypertension: the oral infections       Jul;28(7):1413-21.                           direct relationship between the levels of subgingival
                and vascular disease                                                                 periodontal bacteria and both SBP and DBP
                epidemiology study (INVEST).                                                         [Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure] as well as
                                                                                                     hypertension prevalence.
Desvarieux M    Periodontal Microbiota and carotid      Circulation (J Am    2005 111;576-582         CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence of a
                intima-media thickness: The oral        Heart Assn)                                   direct relationship between periodontal
                infections and vascular disease                                                       microbiology and subclinical atherosclerosis. This
                epidemiology study (INVEST)                                                           relationship exists independent of C-reactive
Desvarieux M    Relationship between periodontal        Stroke               2003 Sep;34(9):2120-5
                disease, tooth loss, and carotid
                artery plaque: the Oral Infections
                and Vascular Disease

DiCorleto PE    Participation of the endothelium in     Prog Lipid Res       1986;25(1-4):365-4       1
                the development of the
                atherosclerotic plaque;

Dietrich T      Age-dependent associations           Circulation.            2008 Apr                 CONCLUSIONS: Chronic periodontitis is
                between chronic                                              1;117(13):1668-74        associated with incidence of CHD among younger
                periodontitis/edentulism and risk of                                                  men, independent of established cardiovascular
                coronary heart disease.                                                               risk factors

DiGiulio DB     Microbial prevalence, diversity and     PLoS ONE.            2008 Aug 26;3(8):        Undiagnosed infections may be causing a
                abundance in amniotic fluid during                                                    significant number of premature births.
                preterm labor: a molecular and
                culture-based investigation.

Duan JY         Effect of periodontal initial therapy   Beijing Da Xue Xue   2009 Feb 18;41(1):36-9    Our observation indicated that periodontal initial
                on the serum level of lipid in the      Bao                                           therapy could reduce the serum lipid levels of
                patients with both periodontitis and                                                  patients with both periodontitis and hyperlipidemia,
                hyperlipidemia.]                                                                      which might be helpful for decreasing risk of
                                                                                                      cardiovascular disease such as coronary heart
Dumitrescu AL. Influence of periodontal disease         Rom J Intern Med.    2005;43(1-2):9-21        "Periodontal diseases may be risk factors for
               on cardiovascular diseases.                                                            cardiovascular diseases."

Durand R        A pilot study of the association        Oral Dis.            2009 Sep;15(6):400-6.    CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of our study,
                between cariogenic oral bacteria                             Epub 2009 Apr 8.         low levels of Lactobacilli in saliva were found to be
                and preterm birth.                                                                    associated with preterm birth.

El Fadl KA      Periodontitis and Cardiovascular        Angiology.           2010 Aug 3               This study suggests that periodontitis is a potential
                Disease: Floss and Reduce a                                                           modifiable risk factor for CVD.
                Potential Risk Factor for CVD.

Elter JR        The effects of periodontal therapy      Am Heart J.          2006 Jan;151(1):47        results represent proof that improvement in
                on vascular endothelial function: a                                                   endothelial function, may be possible through near-
                pilot trial.                                                                          elimination of chronic oral infection and suggest
                                                                                                      that the conduct of a larger controlled trial is justified

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                          Page 4 of 18
Name                    Title                          Journal              Date                      Conclusions
Engebretson     Radiographic measures of chronic        Stroke              2005 Mar;36(3):561-6      Severe periodntal bone loss is associated
SP              periodontitis and carotid artery                                                      independently with carotid atherosclerosis.

Faria-Almeida   Clinical and metabolic changes          J Periodontol       2006 Apr;77(4):591-8      The diabetic patients showed improved metabolic
R               after conventional treatment of                                                       control at 3 and 6 months after periodontal
                type 2 diabetic patients with                                                         treatment.
                chronic periodontitis

Fisher MA       Periodontal disease and other           Am J Kidney Dis.    2008 Jan;51(1):45-52.     CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal disease [is]
                nontraditional risk factors for CKD                                                   independently associated with chronic kidney
                [chronic kidney disease]                                                              disease. This model could contribute to identifying
                                                                                                      individuals at risk of chronic kidney disease and
                                                                                                      reduce its burden.
Fisher MA       Periodontal disease and other           Am J Kidney Dis.    2008 Jan;51(1):45-52      Periodontal disease and its severe consequence,
                nontraditional risk factors for CKD                                                   edentulism, were independently associated with
                                                                                                      chronic kidney disease after adjusting for other
                                                                                                      traditional and nontraditional risk factors.

Ford PJ         Cardiovascular and Oral Disease         Prim Dent Care.     2007 Apr;14(2):59-66
                Interactions: What is the

Ford PJ         Inflammation, heat shock proteins       Oral Microbiol      2006 Aug;21(4):206-11     the present study shows that maintenance of
                and periodontal pathogens in            Immunol.                                      inflammation may be enhanced by the presence of
                atherosclerosis: an                                                                   periodontopathic bacteria
                immunohistologic study.

Franek E        Chronic periodontitis in                J Nephrol.          2006 May-                 CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation of the periodontal
                hemodialysis patients with chronic                          Jun;19(3):346-51          tissue in patients with CKD is associated with
                kidney disease is associated with                                                     increased serum CRP concentration and greater
                elevated serum C-reactive protein                                                     IMT. It is possible that periodontitis may induce a
                                                                                                      systemic process that may exacerbate
Friedewald VE   The American Journal of                 Am J Cardiol.       2009 July 1; 104(1):59-   Periodontal disease is a risk factor for Coronary
                Cardiology and Journal of                                   68                        Artery Disease with a relative risk of 1.24 to 1.35.
                Periodontology Editors'
                Consensus: periodontitis and

Gaetti-Jardim E Quantitative detection of               J Med Microbiol.     2009 Dec;58(Pt           the presence of these micro-organisms
                periodontopathic bacteria in                                12):1568-75.              [periodontopathic bacteria] in coronary lesions is
                atherosclerotic plaques from                                                          not coincidental and that they may in fact contribute
                coronary arteries.                                                                    to the development of vascular diseases.

Gani DK         Evaluation of C-reactive protein        J Indian Soc         2009 May;13(2):69-74.    Periodontitis results in higher systemic levels of
                and interleukin-6 in the peripheral     Periodontol.                                  CRP and IL-6. These elevated inflammatory factors
                blood of patients with chronic                                                        may increase inflammatory activity in
                periodontitis.                                                                        atherosclerotic lesions and potentially increasing
                                                                                                      the risk for cardiovascular events.
Glickman LT     Evaluation of the risk of               J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Feb                  The findings of this observational study, similar to
                endocarditis and other                                      15;234(4):486-94          epidemiologic studies in humans, suggested that
                cardiovascular events on the basis                                                    periodontal disease was associated with
                of the severity of periodontal                                                        cardiovascular-related conditions, such as
                                                                                                      endocarditis and cardiomyopathy.
Goldenberg RL   Epidemiology and causes of              Lancet.             2008 Jan                  Risk factors for spontaneous preterm births include
                preterm birth.                                              5;371(9606):75-84.        a previous preterm birth, black race, periodontal
                                                                                                      disease, and low maternal body-mass index.

Grau AJ         Recent bacterial and viral infection    Neruology           1998 jan;50(1):196-203    1
                is a risk factor for cerebrovascular
                ischemia: clinical and biochemical

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                          Page 5 of 18
Name                    Title                          Journal                Date                     Conclusions
Grau AJ        Associaiton between acute                Stroke                1997 Sep;28(9):1724-     1
               crebrovascular ischemia and                                    1729
               chronic and recurrent infection.

Grau AJ        Recent infection as a risk factor        Stroke                1995 Mar;26(3):373-379 1
               for cerebrovascular ischemia.

Grayston JT    Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) in Circulation                     1995 Dec 15;             1
               atherosclerosis of the carotid                                 92(12):3397-3400

Grayston JT    Chlamydia pneumoniae- strain             Eur Heart J           1993 Dec;14 Suppl        1
               TWAR and atherosclerosis.                                      K:661-71

Guha N         Oral health and risk of squamous         Am J Epidemiol.       2007 Nove                Periodontal disease isindependent cause of cancer
               cell carcinoma of the head and                                 15;166(10):1159-73       of the head, neck, esophagus
               neck and esophagus: results of
               two multicentric case-control

Guiglia R      Periodontal disease and                  Recenti Prog Med.     2007 Jul-Aug;98(7-       "...the prevention and the treatment of periodontitis
               cardiovascular disease: correlation      [Italian]             8):426-32                should be considered as factors able to avoid or
               or simple coincidence?                                                                  reduce the onset and/or evolution of cardiovascular

Han YW         Transmission of an uncultivated          J Clin Microbiol.     2006 Apr;44(4):1475-83. Uncultivated species may be overlooked
               Bergeyella strain from the oral                                                        opportunistic pathogens in preterm birth. This study
               cavity to amniotic fluid in a case of                                                  sheds new light on the implication of oral bacteria
               preterm birth.                                                                         in preterm birth.

Heimonen A     Oral inflammatory burden and             J Periodontol.        2009 Jun;80(6):884-91    Conclusion: The combined effects of multiple oral
               preterm birth.                                                                          infections were significantly associated with
                                                                                                       preterm birth

Herrera JA     Periodontal disease severity is          J Hypertens.          2007 Jul;25(7):1459-64   CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that
               related to high levels of C-reactive                                                    chronic periodontitis may increase hs-CRP levels in
               protein in pre-eclampsia                                                                pregnant women and lead to complications such as

Herzberg MC    Effects of oral flora on platelets:      J Peiodontol          1996; 67:1138-1142       1
               possible consequences in
               cardiovascular disease.

Higashi Y      Oral infection-inflammatory              Atherosclerosis.      2009 Apr 5               CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that
               pathway, periodontitis, is a risk                                                       periodontitis is associated with endothelial
               factor for endothelial dysfunction                                                      dysfunction in patients with CAD through a
               in patients with coronary artery                                                        decrease in nitric oxide bioavailability

Higashi Y      Periodontal infection is associated      Hypertension          2008 Feb;51(2):446-53    "periodontitis is associated with endothelial
               with endothelial dysfunction in                                                         dysfunction..." "inflammation may be, at least in
               healthy subjects and hypertensive                                                       part, a cause of endothelial dysfunction, leading to
               patients.                                                                               cardiovascular disease.

Holmlund A     Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) a          Int J Cardiol. 2009   2009 Nov 12              CONCLUSION: Patients with MI had an impaired
               possible link between impaired           Nov 12                                         oral health compared to controls. Furthermore, IgG
               oral health and acute myocardial                                                        levels against Pg were related to both MI and oral
               infarction.                                                                             health, suggesting this pathogen as a possible link
                                                                                                       between oral health and CVD

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                           Page 6 of 18
Name                   Title                         Journal                  Date                     Conclusions
Hujoel P       Periodontal disease and coronary       JAMA                    2000 ;284:1406-1410      while conclusion was negative; Found RR=1.05
               heart disease risk                                                                      and RR=1.14

Humphrey LL    Periodontal disease and coronary        J Gen Intern Med.      2008 Dec;23(12):2079-    CONCLUSION: Periodontal disease is a risk factor
               heart disease incidence: a                                     86                       or marker for CHD that is independent of traditional
               systematic review and meta-                                                             CHD risk factors RR: 1.24 to 1.34

Hung H         The association between tooth          J Pub Health Dent       2004 Fall;64(4)          0
               loss and coronary heart disease in
               men and women

Hung H         Oral health and peripheral arterial    Circulation (J Am       2003 107;1152-1157       1
               disease                                Heart Assn)

Hung HC        The Association between tooth          J Pub Health Dent       2004 Vol 64 No. 4 209-
               loss and coronary heart disease in                             15
               men and women

Jackson LA     Specificity of detection of            Am J Pathol             1997 May; 150(5):1785- 1
               Chlamydia pneumoniae in                                        1790
               cardiovascular atheroma:
               evaluation of the innocent

Jeffcoat M     Periodontal infection and preterm      BJOG. An                2010 Sep 14.             Conclusions  A beneficial effect on PTB may be
               birth: successful periodontal          International Journal                            dependent on the success of periodontal treatment.
               therapy reduces the risk of            of Obstetrics and
               preterm birth.                         Gynaecology

Jimenez M      Periodontitis and incidence of         Ann Neurol.             2009 Oct;66(4):505-12.   These results support an association between
               cerebrovascular disease in men.                                                         history of periodontitis and incidence of
                                                                                                       cerebrovascular disease in men, independent of
                                                                                                       established cardiovascular risk factors, particularly
                                                                                                       among men aged <65 years.
Jin LJ         Are periodontal diseases risk           Hong Kong Med J.       2003 Feb;9(1):31-7       Periodontal diseases may be risk factors for
               factors for certain systemic                                                            cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, adverse
               disorders--what matters to medical                                                      pregnancy outcomes, and pulmonary infections.
               practitioners?                                                                          Dental and medical practitioners should be aware
                                                                                                       of the clinical implications of these inter-
Joshipura KJ   Periodontal disease, tooth loss,       Stroke.                 2003 Jan;34(1):47-52
               and incidence of ischemic stroke.

Kaisare S      Periodontal disease as a risk          B Dent J                2007 Aug 11;203(3):E5    CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate
               factor for acute myocardial                                                             that periodontal disease may be associated with
               infarction.                                                                             acute myocardial infarction.

Karnoutsos K   Periodontitis as a risk factor for     Hippokratia.            2008 Jul;12(3):144-9     antibodies could be associated to increased risk for
               cardiovascular disease: The role                                                        stroke and atherosclerosis in patients with
               of anti-phosphorylcholine and anti-                                            is likely that periodontal disease
               cardiolipin antibodies.                                                                 may be onr of the factors to assess patients' risk
                                                                                                       profile for coronary heart disease
Kavoussi SK    Periodontal disease and                Fertility & Sterilit    2009 Feb;91(2):335-42    CONCLUSION(S): The results of this study
               endometriosis: analysis of the                                                          suggest a possible association between
               National Health and Nutrition                                                           endometriosis and periodontal disease. Adjusted
               Examination Survey.                                                                     odds ratio, 1.57

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                           Page 7 of 18
Name                     Title                          Journal                Date                     Conclusions
Khader Y        Maternal periodontal status and          Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Feb;279(2):165-9.    CONCLUSION: The extent and severity of
                preterm low birth weight delivery: a                                                    periodontal diseases appeared to be associated
                case-control study.                                                                     with increased odds of PLBW delivery.

Kiechl S        Chronic infections and the risk of       Circulation (J Am     2001 103;1064-1070       1
                carotid atherosclerosis:                 Heart Assn)
                Prospective results from a large
                population study

Kiran M         The effect of improved periodontal       J Clin Periodontol.   2005 Mar;32(3):266-72    "...non-surgical periodontal treatment is associated
                health on metabolic control in type                                                     with improved glycaemic control in type 2
                2 diabetes mellitus                                                                     patients..."

Kshirsagar AV   Periodontal disease adversely            Kidney Int.           2009 Jan 21              A mortality study was conducted among
                affects the survival of patients with                                                   outpatients on hemodialysis . Compared with mild
                end-stage renal disease.                                                                or no periodontal disease, moderate-to-severe
                                                                                                        disease was significantly associated with death
                                                                                                        from cardiovascular causes.
Kshirsagar AV   Antibodies to periodontal                Blood Purif.          2007;25(1):125-32        CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgG to periodontal
                organisms are associated with                                                           pathogens is significantly associated with impaired
                decreased kidney function. The                                                          kidney function, independent of traditional risk
                Dental Atherosclerosis Risk In                                                          factors.

Kshirsagar AV   Periodontal disease is associated        Am J Kidney Dis.      2005 Apr;45(4):650-7.    This is the first study to show an association of
                with renal insufficiency in the                                                         periodontal disease with prevalent renal
                Atherosclerosis Risk In                                                                 insufficiency.
                Communities (ARIC) study.

Kuo CC          Detection of Chlamydia                   J Vasc Surg           1997 Jul;26(1):29-31     1
                pneumoniae in atherosclerotic
                plaques in the walls of arteries of
                lower extremities from patients

Kuo CC          Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR).             Clin Microbiol Rev    1995 Oct;8(4):451-461    1

Kuo CC          Chlamydia pneumoniae in                  Proc Natl Acad Sci    1995 Jul 18;             1
                coronary arteries of young adults.       USA                   92(15):6911-6914

Kuo CC          Detection of Chlamydia                   Arterioscler Thromb   1993 Oct;13(10):1501-    1
                pneumoniae in aortic lesions of                                1504
                atherosclerosis by
                immunocytochemical stain.

Kuo LC          Associations between periodontal         Public Health.        2008 Apr;122(4):417-33   The aim of this article is to provide an overall
                diseases and systemic diseases:                                                         understanding and general concepts of these
                a review of the inter-relationships                                                     issues in a concise and inter-related manner
                and interactions with diabetes,

Kweider M       Dental disease- fibrinogen and           Scott Med J           1993 Jun; 38(3):73-74    1
                white cell count; links with
                myocardial infarction?

Laitinen K      Chlamydia pneumoniae infection           Infect Immun          1997 Nov; 65(11):4832-   1
                induces inflammatory changes in                                5
                the aortas of rabbits

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                            Page 8 of 18
Name                    Title                          Journal                 Date                     Conclusions
Lakio L         Pro-atherogenic properties of            J Endotoxin Res.      2006;12(1):57-64.        An association between cardiovascular and
                lipopolysaccharide from the                                                             periodontal disease may be due to
                periodontal pathogen                                                                    lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-promoted release of
                Actinobacillus                                                                          inflammatory mediators, adverse alterations of the
                                                                                                        lipoprotein profile, and an imbalance in cholesterol
Larsson B       Cardiovascular disease risk             Acta Paediatr          1997 Jan. 86:63-71       1
                factors and dental caries in
                adolescents: effect of a preventive
                program in Northern Sweden

Latronico M     Periodontal disease and coronary        New Microbiol.         2007 Jul;30(3):221-8     This study supports the existence of an
                hearet disease: an epidemiological                                                      epidemiologic association between periodontal
                and microbiological study.                                                              disease and coronary heart disease.

Liao W          Endotoxin: Possible roles in            J Lab Clin Med         1996;128:452-60          1
                initiation and development of

Lim J           Periodontal disease among               Rev Med Chil.          2005 Feb;133(2):183-9    Severe periodontal disease was associated with a
                patients with acute coronary                                                            higher number of acute coronary plasques and a
                syndrome                                                                                higher extension of coronary artery disease, in
                                                                                                        patients with acute coronary syndromes.

Loesche W       Assessing the Relationship              JADA                   1998 Mar 129: 301-311 The oral parameters in these subjects were
                Between Dental Disease and                                                           independent of and more strongly associated with
                Coronary Heart Disease in Elderly                                                    coronary heart disease than were recognized risk
                U.S. Veterans                                                                        factors, such as serum cholesterol levels, body
                                                                                                     mass index, diabetes and smoking status.
Loesche WJ      Anaerobic Periodontal Infections        Curr Infect Dis Rep.   1999 Apr;1(1):33-38      If periodontal disease is a risk factor for
                as Risk Factors for Medical                                                             cardiovascular disease, then it is a modifiable risk
                Diseases                                                                                factor, as periodontal disease is treatable

Loesche WJ      Periodontal disease as a risk           Compend Contin         1994- Vol XV- No8 976-   1
                factor for heart disease                Educ Dent              92

Lopes-Virella   Atherosclerosisi and autoimmunity       Clin Immunol           1994 Nov;73(2):155-67    1
MF                                                      Immunopathol

Lopes-Virella   Interactions between bacterial          Eur Heart J            1993 Dec;14 Suppl K:     1
MF              lipopolysaccharides and serum                                  118-124
                lipoproteins and their possible role
                in coronary heart disease.

Lopes-Virella   Immunological and microbiological       Clin Immunol           1985 Dec;37(3):377-86    1
MF              factors in the pathogenesis of          Immunopathol

López NJ        Periodontal therapy may reduce          J Periodontol.         2002 Aug;73(8):911-24    Periodontal disease appears to be an independent
                the risk of preterm low birth weight                                                    risk factor for preterm low birth weight
                in women with periodontal
                disease: a randomized controlled

López R         Periodontal disease and adverse         Evid Based Dent.       2008;9(2):48             This study found a modest association between
                pregnancy outcomes.                                                                     periodontitis and preterm birth

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                            Page 9 of 18
Name                    Title                         Journal                 Date                     Conclusions
Lu B           Relationship of periodontal             Atherosclerosis.        2008 Sep;200(1):199-    CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a cross-
               attachment loss to peripheral                                  205                      sectional relationship between PAL and PVD.
               vascular disease: an analysis of                                                        Inflammation may be one possible pathway to link
               NHANES 1999-2002 data.                                                                  PVD with periodontal disease.

Mager DL       The salivary microbiota as a            J Tranl Med            2005 Jun 29,3(1):27      Poor oral hygine leads to increased mouth bacteria
               diagnostic indicator of oral cancer:                                                    to increased cancer
               a descriptive,non-randomized
               study of cancer-free and oral

Marakoglu I,   Periodontitis as a risk factor for       Yonsei Med J.         2008 Apr;49(2):200-3     "Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it is
               preterm low birth weight.                                                               concluded that a poor periodontal health status of
                                                                                                       the mother may be a potential risk factor for a
                                                                                                       preterm low birth weight."

Marcelino SL   Presence of periodontopathic            Anaerobe.              2010 Sep 8.               Our results indicate a significant association
               bacteria in coronary arteries from                                                      between the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis
               patients with chronic periodontitis.                                                    and atheromas, and the periodontal bacteria in oral
                                                                                                       biofilm may find a way to reach arteries.

Mason M        Are heart attacks contagious?           Hippocrates            1997 11(12):42-45 49     1

Mattila KJ     Role of infection as a risk factor      Clin Infect Dis        1998 Mar; 26(3):719-     1
               for atherosclerosis- myocardial                                734
               infarction and stroke.

Mattila KJ     Dental infections and the risk of       Clin Infect Dis        1995 Mar; 20(3):588-92   1
               new coronary events: prospective
               study of patients with documented
               coronary artery disease.

Mattila KJ     Dental infections and coronary          Atherosclerosis        1993 Nov;103(2):205-     1
               atherosclerosis.                                               211

Mattila KJ     Dental infections as a risk factor      Eur Heart J            1993 Dec; 14 Suppl K:    1
               for acute myocardial infarction                                51-53

Mattila KJ     Viral and bacterial infections in       J Intern Med           1989 May; 225(5):293-    1
               patients with acute myocardial                                 296

Mattila KJ     Association between dental health       BJM                    1989 March 25 Vol        1
               and acute myocardial infarction.                               298:779-81

Mayeux PR      Pathobiology of lipopolysaccharide      J Toxicology Environ   1997 Aug 8;51(5):415-    1
                                                       Health                 435

McDonnell JP   The relationship between dental          Laryngoscope.         2001 Feb;111(2):310-6    CONCLUSIONS: Children with deep dental
               overbite and eustachian tube                                                            overbites are at a significantly increased risk for
               dysfunction.                                                                            developing ETD

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                          Page 10 of 18
Name                    Title                        Journal                Date                     Conclusions
Mealey BL       Diabetes mellitus and              Curr Opin Endocrinol     2008 Apr;15(2):135-41    SUMMARY: Recognition of the bilateral
                inflammatory periodontal diseases. Diabetes Obes.                                    relationships between oral and systemic health will
                                                                                                     challenge physicians and dentists to work together
                                                                                                     closely in the future when managing patients with
                                                                                                     diabetes and periodontal disease.
Mealey BL       Diabetes mellitus and              Curr Opin Endocrinol     2008 Apr;15(2):135-41    Evidence suggests that periodontal therapy is
                inflammatory periodontal diseases. Diabetes Obes.                                    associated with improved glycemic control in many
                                                                                                     patients with both diabetes and periodontal

Meier CR        Acute respiratory-tract infections    Lancet                1998; 351:1467-71        1
                and risk of first-time acute
                myocardial infarction

Meskin LH       Focal infection: back with a bang!    JADA                  1998 January Vol 129     1

Meurman JH      Oral health, atherosclerosis, and     Crit Rev Oral Biol    2004 Nov 1;15(6):403-    resultant relative risks among individuals with
                cardiovascular disease.               Med.                  13                       periodontitis were 1.41 (CI 1.12-1.77) and 2.27 (CI
                                                                                                     1.32-3.90), respectively. Overall, it appears that
                                                                                                     periodontal disease may indeed contribute to the
                                                                                                     pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease
Meurman JH      Dental infections and general         Quintessence          1997; 28: 807-811        1
                health                                International

Meyer MS        A review of the relationship          Cancer Causes         2008 May 14.             Several studies have reported associations
                between tooth loss, periodontal       Control.                                       between periodontal disease or tooth loss and risk
                disease, and cancer.                                                                 of oral, upper gastrointestinal, lung, and pancreatic
                                                                                                     cancer in different populations.

Michalowicz BS Treatment of periodontal disease       N Engl J Med.         2006 Nov
               and the risk of preterm birth.                               2;355(18):1885-94

Michaud DS      Periodontal disease, tooth loss,      Lancet Oncol.         2008 Jun;9(6):550-8.     Periodontal disease was associated with a small,
                and cancer risk in male health                                                       but significant, increase in overall cancer risk
                professionals: a prospective
                cohort study.

Michaud DS      A prospective study of periodontal    J Natl Cancer Inst.   2007 Jan 17;99(2):171-   high periodontal disease goes to increased
                disease and pancreatic cancer in                            5                        pancreatic cancer
                US male health professionals.

Mobeen N        Periodontal disease and adverse       Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 May;198(5):514       CONCLUSION: Pregnant Pakistani women have
                birth outcomes: a study from                                                         high levels of moderate-to-severe dental disease.
                Pakistan.                                                                            Stillbirth and neonatal and perinatal deaths
                                                                                                     increased with the severity of periodontal disease.

Moutsopoulos    Low-grade inflammation in chronic     Ann N Y Acad Sci.     2006 Nov;1088:251-64     periodontal therapy may improve surrogate
NM              infectious diseases: paradigm of                                                     cardiovascular outcomes, such as endothelial
                periodontal infections.                                                              function, and may reduce four- to fivefold the
                                                                                                     incidence of premature birth

Nakamura N      Extended exposure of                  Atherosclerosis       2008 Jan; 196(1):59-67   Periodontal disease with p.gingivalis causes
                lipopolysaccharide fraction from                                                     change in endothelium
                Porphyromonas gingivalis
                facilitates mononuclear cell

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                       Page 11 of 18
Name                    Title                         Journal               Date                     Conclusions
Nicu EA         Elevated platelet and leukocyte        J Thromb Haemost.    2009 Jan;7(1):162-70     In periodontitis, increased platelet response to oral
                response to oral bacteria in                                                         bacteria is paralleled by increased formation of
                periodontitis.                                                                       platelet-leukocyte complexes. We speculate that
                                                                                                     activated platelets and leukocytes might contribute
                                                                                                     to increased atherothrombotic activity.
Nieminen MS     Infection and inflammation as risk     Eur Heart J          1993 14 12-16            1
                factors for myocardial infarction

Noack B         Periodontal infections contribute to   J Periodontol        2001 Sep;72(9):1221-7
                elevated systemic C-reactive
                protein level.

O'Donnell CJ    Antithrombotic therapy for acute       J Am Coll Cardiol    1995 Jun; 25(7           1
                myocardial infarction.                                      Suppl):23S-29S

Oe Y            Significant association between        Heart and Vessels.   2009 Mar;24(2):103-7     Multivariate analyses revealed glucose tolerance
                score of periodontal disease and                                                     and periodontal risk scores were independent and
                coronary artery disease.                                                             significant risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease .
                                                                                                     Composite periodontal risk scores were
                                                                                                     independent and significant predictive factors for
Offenbacher S   Progressive periodontal disease        Obstet Gynecol.      2006 Jan;107(1):29-36    maternal periodontal disease increases risk for
                and risk of very preterm delivery                                                    preterm births. Periodontal disease progression
                                                                                                     during pregnancy was a predictor of the more
                                                                                                     severe adverse pregnancy outcome of very preterm
                                                                                                     birth, independently of traditional risk factors
Offenbacher S   A perspective on the potential         Am Heart J.          2005 Jun;149(6):950-4    "peiodontal disease may represent a modifiable
                cardioprotective benefits of                                                         risk factor that merits further study."
                periodontal therapy.

Ostreicher DO   Brush Your Teeth! and other            Wheatmark            2009                     Periodontal disease is an independent risk factor
                simple ways to stay young and                                                        for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, low
                healthy                                                                              birthweight infants.

Ovalle A        Relationship between periodontal       Rev Med Chil         2009 Apr;137(4):504-     CONCLUSIONS: Generalized periodontal disease
                diseases and ascending bacterial                            14. Epub 2009 Jun 25.    and its association with ascending bacterial
                infection with preterm delivery                                                      infection are related to preterm delivery and
                                                                                                     placental markers of bacterial ascending infection.

Oz SG           Beneficial effects of periodontal      South Med J.         2007 Jul; 100(7):686-91 "..periodontitis causes changes in total and LDL
                treatment on metabolic control of                                                   cholesterol levels and local periodontal treatment
                hypercholesterolemia                                                                resulted in a significant decrease in these markers."

Paju S          Oral biofilms, periodontitis, and      Oral Dis.            2007 Nov;13(6):508-12    It appears that oral colonization by potential
                pulmonary infections.                                                                respiratory pathogens, possibly fostered by
                                                                                                     periodontitis, and possibly by bacteria specific to
                                                                                                     the oral cavity or to periodontal diseases contribute
                                                                                                     to pulmonary infections.
Paju S          Is periodontal infection behind the    Atherosclerosis      2007 Jul;193(1):193-5    "...periodontitis is behind the failure of antibiotics to
                failure of antibiotics to prevent                                                    prevent coronary events."
                coronary events?

Paju S          Is periodontal infection behind the    Atherosclerosis.     2007 Jul;193(1):193-5.   long-term clarithromycin treatment reduces
                failure of antibiotics to prevent                                                    cardiovascular events in subjects without
                coronary events?                                                                     periodontitis, but in subjects with periodontitis, fails
                                                                                                     to show any effect. As a background infection,
                                                                                                     periodontitis may overpower the beneficial effects

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                        Page 12 of 18
Name                     Title                         Journal                Date                     Conclusions
Papapanagioto   Periodontitis is associated with        Atherosclerosis.      2009 Feb;202(2):605-     Since platelet activation contributes to a pro-
uD              platelet activation.                                          11.                      coagulant state and constitutes a risk for
                                                                                                       atherothrombosis, platelet activation in periodontitis
                                                                                                       may partly explain the epidemiological association
                                                                                                       between periodontitis and CVD.
Paunio K        Missing teeth and ischaemic heart       European Heart        1993 14 Supplement k-    1
                disease in men aged 45-64 years.        Journal               54-6

Peng S          Chronic periodontal disease may         Med Hypotheses.       2009 Nov;73(5):859-60    2.1% of people without erectile dysfunction (ED)
                be a sign for erectile dysfunction in                                                  had advanced periodontal disease (defined as
                men.                                                                                   recession of periodontal bone of 6 mm or more) in
                                                                                                       comparison to 9.8% of the mild ED and 15.8% of
                                                                                                       the moderate/severe ED populations, respectively.
Penn MS         Macromolecular transport in the         Am J Physiol          1997 Apr;272:H1560-70 1
                arterial intima: comparison of
                chronic and acute injuries

Picarella E     Descending necrotizing soft tissue       Ann Plast Surg.      2009 Jul;63(1):74-6      Descending necrotizing soft tissue infections
                infection of periodontal origin.                                                       involving the neck and chest are a rare but
                                                                                                       hazardous sequela of periodontal infections.

Piconi S        Treatment of periodontal disease        FASEB J.              2008 Dec 12              Reduction of oral bacterial load results in a
                results in improvements in                                                             modification of an anatomical parameter directly
                endothelial dysfunction and                                                            responsible for atherosclerosis. (FASEB=Fedeation
                reduction of the carotid intima-                                                       of American Societies for Experimental Biology)

Pitiphat W      Maternal periodontitis and adverse      Community Dent        2008 Feb;36(1):3-11      the results suggest that periodontitis is an
                pregnancy outcomes                      Oral Epidemiol.                                independent risk factor for poor pregnancy
                                                                                                       outcome among middle-class women.

Polyzos NP      Effect of periodontal disease           Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009 Marc; 200(3):225-     [Periodontal] treatment resulted in significantly
                treatment during pregnancy on                               32                         lower preterm birth
                preterm birth incidence: a
                metaanalysis of randomized trials.

Promsudthi A    The effect of periodontal therapy       Oral Dis.             2005 Sep;11(5):293-8     the present study indicates that the periodontal
                on uncontrolled type 2 diabetes                                                        condition of uncontrolled diabetes is: (a)
                mellitus in older subjects                                                             significantly improved 3 months after periodontal
                                                                                                       therapy, and (b) rapidly deteriorating without
                                                                                                       periodontal treatment
Pucar A         Correlation between                     J Periodontol         2007 Apr;78(4):677-82    "...periodontal organisms are associated with the
                atherosclerosis and peiodontal                                                         development and progression of atherosclerosis."
                putative pathogenic bacterial
                infections in coronary and internal

Pussinen PJ     Endotoxemia, immune response            Arterioscler Thromb   2007 Jun;27(6):1433-9    "exposure to periodontal pathogens or endotoxin
                to periodontal pathogens, and           Vasc Biol.                                     induces systemic inflammation leading to increased
                systemic inflammation associate                                                        risk for CVD"
                with incident cardiovascular

Pussinen PJ     Systemic exposure to                    Atherosclerosis       2007 Jul;193(1):222-8    "systemic exposure to P. Gingivalis may
                Porphyromonas gingivalis predicts                                                      predispose to stroke"
                incident stroke

Qureshi A       Periodontal infection: a potential      J Pak Med Assoc.      2005 Oct;55(10):448-52 The indication that periodontal disease is a
                risk factor for pre-term delivery of                                                 potential risk factor for the delivery of PLBW;
                low birth weight (PLBW) babies.

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                          Page 13 of 18
Name                    Title                         Journal               Date                      Conclusions
Radnai M       The possible effect of basic            Fogorv Sz.           2008 Oct;101(5):179-85. In the periodontal treated group, which had a
               periodontal treatment on the                                                         statistically suitable number of members, the
               outcome of pregnancy                                                                 periodontal treatment might have contributed to a
                                                                                                    more optimal date of delivery and to achieving a
                                                                                                    larger birth-weight.
Radnai M       The possible effect of baic             Fogorv Sz.           2008 Oct ;101(5):179-85 "In the periodontal treated group...the periodontal
               periodontal treatment on the            [Hungarian]                                  treamtment might have contributed to a more
               outcome of pregnancy                                                                 optimal date of delivery and to achieving a larger

Ramirez-       Periodontitis is associated with        Nutr Metab           2009 Jun 3.               "...the conclusion that there is an inter-relationship
Tortosa MC     altered plasma fatty acids and          Cardiovasc Dis.                                between periodontitis, plasma fatty acids profile
               cardiovascular risk markers.                                                           and the increase in metabolic risk factors for
                                                                                                      cardiovascular diseases."

Ridker PM      Inflammation- aspirin and the risk      N Engl J Med         1997 Apr 3-               1
               of cardiovascular disease in                                 336(14):973-979
               apparently healthy men.

Ridker PM      Prospective study of endogenous         Lancet               1994 Apr                  1
               tissue plasminogen activator and                             16;343(8903):940-943
               risk of stroke.

Ridker PM      The effect of chronic platelet          Am Heart J           1991 Dec; 122(6): 1588- 1
               inhibition with low-dose aspirin on                          1592
               atherosclerotic progression and
               acute thrombosis: clinical

Ridker PM      Clinical characteristics of nonfatal    Circulation          1991 Aug;84(2):708-711 1
               myocardial infarction among
               individuals on prophylactic low-
               dose aspirin therapy.

Rodrigues DC   Effect of non-surgical periodontal      J Periodontol.       2003 Sept;74(9):1361-7    Periodontal therapy improved glycemic control in
               therapy on glycemic control in                                                         patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus
               patients with type 2 diabetes

Rosenquist K   Risk factors in oral and                Swed Dent J Suppl.   2005;(179):1-66           Poor oral hygine goes to increased oral cancer
               oropharyngeal squamous cell
               carcinoma: a population-based
               case-control study in southwestern

Rubenfire M    Anaerobic dental flora and the          Coron Artery Dis.    2007 Mar;18(2):111-6      Persons with coronary heart disease, particularly
               acute coronary syndrome                                                                associated with an acute coronary syndrome, have
                                                                                                      anaerobic bacterial dental flora similar to
                                                                                                      individuals seeking periodontal dental care, and
                                                                                                      unlike periodontally healthy individuals.
Ruma M         Maternal periodontal disease,       Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008 Apr;198(4):389            Maternal periodontal disease with systemic
               systemic inflammation, and risk for                                                    inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein is
               preeclampsia.                                                                          associated with an increased risk for preeclampsia.

Sacco G        Periodontal disease and preterm         Minerva Stomatol.    2008 May;57(5):233-46, it would appear that the assessment of the
               birth relationship: a review of the                          246-50.                periodontal status of pregnant women during an
               literature.                                                                         early pregnancy might be useful in providing an
                                                                                                   important indicator of risk for future obstetric
Saini R        Periodontal diseases: a risk factor     Ann Card Anaesth.    2010 May-                 Researchers have found tht people with periodontal
               to cardiovascular disease                                    Aug;13(2):159-61          disease are almost twice as likely to suffer from
                                                                                                      coronary artery disease as those without
                                                                                                      periodontal disease.

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                         Page 14 of 18
Name                    Title                         Journal                   Date                     Conclusions
Scannapieco     Associations between periodontal       Ann Periodontol.         2003 Dec;8(1):54-69      CONCLUSIONS: 1. Oral colonization by respiratory
FA              disease and risk for nosocomial                                                          pathogens, fostered by poor oral hygiene and
                bacterial pneumonia and chronic                                                          periodontal diseases, appears to be associated
                obstructive pulmonary disease. A                                                         with nosocomial pneumonia.


Schillinger T   Dental and periodontal status and      Stroke.                  2006 Sep;37(9):2271-6.   CONCLUSIONS: Dental status, oral hygiene, and
                risk for progression of carotid                                                          particularly tooth loss are associated with the
                atherosclerosis: the inflammation                                                        degree of carotid stenosis and predict future
                and carotid artery risk for                                                              progression of the disease.

Seinost G       Periodontal treatment improves         Am Heart J.              2005 Jun;149(6):1050-4 These results indicate that treatment of severe
                endothelial dysfunction in patients                                                    periodontitis reverses endothelial dysfunction
                with severe periodontitis

Seymour GJ      Relationship between periodontal       Clin Microbiol Infect.   2007 Oct;13 Suppl 4:3-   " si clear that oral infection may represent a
                infections and systemic disease.                                10                       significant risk-factor for systemic disease..."

Seymour RA      Is gum disease killing your patient? Br Dent J.                 2009 May                 There is considerable epidemiological evidence to
                                                                                23;206(10):551-2         support the concept that poor oral health,
                                                                                                         especially the extent and severity of periodontal
                                                                                                         disease, may put patients at a significant risk for a
                                                                                                         variety of systemic conditions
Shultis WA      Effect of periodontitis on overt        Diabetes Care.          2007 Feb;30(2):306-11    Periodontitis predicts development of overt
                nephropathy and end-stage renal                                                          nephropathy and ESRD in individuals with type 2
                disease in type 2 diabetes                                                               diabetes

SladeGD         Relationship between periodontal       Arch Intern Med.         2003 May                 CONCLUSIONS: Extensive periodontal disease
                disease and C-reactive protein                                  26;163(10):1172-9        and BMI are jointly associated with increased CRP
                among adults in the                                                                      levels in otherwise healthy, middle-aged adults,
                Atherosclerosis Risk in

Slavkin H       Does the mouth put the heart at        JADA                     1999 Jan 109-113         0

Soder B         Risk for the development of            Int J Dent Hyg           2007 Aug;5(3):133-8      "...a high amount of dental plaque, severe gingival
                atherosclerosis in women with a                                                          inflammation as well as periodontitis seem to be
                high level of dental plaque and                                                          associated with the development of atherosclerotic
                severe gingival inflammation.                                                            lesions..."

Spahr A         Periodontal infections and             Arch Intern Med          2006 Mar                 "Our findings suggest an association between
                coronary heart disease: role of                                 13;166(5):554-9          periodontitis and presence of CHD."
                periodontal bacteria and
                importance of total pathogen

Stewart JE      The effect of periodontal treatment    J Clin Periodontol.      2001 Apr;28(4):306-10    CONCLUSIONS: We interpret the data in the study
                on glycemic control in patients                                                          to suggest that periodontal therapy was associated
                with type 2 diabetes mellitus                                                            with improved glycemic control in persons with type
                                                                                                         2 DM.

Stolzenberg-    Tooth loss, pancreatic cancer and      Am J Clin Nutr           2003; 78:176-81
Solomon R       Helicobacter pylori

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                            Page 15 of 18
Name                    Title                        Journal                  Date                      Conclusions
Syrjanen J     Infection as a risk factor for         Eur Heart J             1993 Dec; 14 Suppl K:     1
               cerebral infarction                                            17-19

Syrjanen J     Vascular diseases and oral             J Clin Periodontol      1990 Aug: 17(7 Pt         1
               infections                                                     2):497-500

Syrjanen J     Dental infections in association       J Intern Med            1989 Mar; 225(3): 179-    1
               with cerebral infaction in young                               184
               and middle-aged men.

Syrjanen J     Preceding infection as an              Br Med J (Clin Res      1988 Apr 23;              1
               important risk factor for ischaemic    Ed)                     296(6630):1156-1160
               brain infarction in young and
               middle aged patients.

Syrjanen J     Association between cerebral           Acta Neurol Scand       1986 Mar; 73(3):273-      1
               infarction and increased serum                                 278
               bacterial antibody levels in young

Tarannum F     Effect of periodontal therapy on       J Periodontol.          2007 Nov;78(11):2095-     periodontal therapy can reduce the risk for preterm
               pregnancy outcome in women                                     103                       births in mothers who are affected by periodontitis.
               affected by periodontitis

Taylor GW      Impact of oral diseases on             J Public Health Dent.   2000 Fall;60(4):313-20.   there is evidence to support recommending oral
               systemic health in the elderly:                                                          care regimens in protocols for managing type 2
               diabetes mellitus and aspiration                                                         diabetes and preventing aspiration pneumonia.

Tezal M        Chronic periodontitis and the          Cancer Epidemiol        2009 Sept;18 (9):2406-    Case control study, 473pts. Each mm alveolar
               incidence of head and neck             Biomarkers Prev.        12                        bone loss associated with >4-fold increse risk head
               squamous cell carcinoma                                                                  & neck squamous cell carcinoma. (RR=4.36)
                                                                                                        (adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol)

Tezal M        Chronic periodontitis-human            Arch Otolaryngol        2009 Apr;135(4):391-6     Chronic periodontitis may be a significant factor in
               papillomavirus synergy in base of      Head Neck Surg.                                   the natural history of HPV infection in patients with
               tongue cancers.                                                                          base of tongue cancers

Tezal M        Chronic periodontitis and the risk     Arch Otolaryngol        2007 May;133(5):450-4     CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests an
               of tongue cancer.                      Head Neck Surg.                                   association between chronic periodontitis and the
                                                                                                        risk of tongue cancer in men, independent of
                                                                                                        smoking status, age, race, ethnicity

Tonetti MS     Periodontitis and risk for             J Clin Periodontol.     2009 Jul;36 Suppl         severe generalized periodontitis causes systemic
               atherosclerosis: an update on                                  10:15-9.                  inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.
               intervention trials.                                                                     Periodontitis has effects that go beyond the oral
                                                                                                        cavity and its treatment and prevention may
                                                                                                        contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Tonetti MS     Treatment of periodontitis and         N Eng J Med             2007 Mar 1;356(9):911-    CONCLUSIONS: Intensive periodontal treatment
               endothelial function.                                          20                        resulted in acute, short-term systemic inflammation
                                                                                                        and endothelial dysfunction. However, 6 months
                                                                                                        after therapy, the benefits in oral health were
                                                                                                        associated with improvement in endothelial function.
Tu YK          Associations between tooth loss        Heart                   2007 Sept;93(9): 1098-    .."evidence found to support the relation between
               and mortality patterns in the                                  103 Epub 2006 Dec 12      tooth loss and CVD mortality..."
               Glasgow Alumni Cohort

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                          Page 16 of 18
Name                   Title                          Journal                    Date                     Conclusions
U.S. Dept      Periodontal (Gum) Disease.              US Dept Health & NIH       Prevelence of 80 percent
Health         Causes, symptoms and                    Human Services.           Publication No. 06-1142
               treatments.                             Natl institue of
                                                       health. Nathl institute

Valtonen V     Thrombo-embolic complications in        Eur Heart J;              1993 Dec; 14 Suppl       1
               bacteraemic infections.                                           K:20-23

Valtonen VV    Infection as a risk factor for          Ann Med                   1991; 23(5):539-43       1
               infarction and atherosclerosis

van Gastel J   The relationships between               Aust Orthod J.            2007 Nov;23(2):121-9.    Dental plaque is the primary cause of gingival
               malocclusion, fixed orthodontic                                                            inflammation and periodontitis. Conditions that
               appliances and periodontal                                                                 encourage the growth and retention of dental
               disease. A review of the literature                                                        plaque result in a localised gingivitis

Velly A        Relationship between dental             Oral Oncol.               1998 Jul;34(4):248-91    Poor oral hygine goes to increased oral cancer
               factors and risk of upper
               aerodigestive tract cancer

Vergnes JN     Preterm low birth weight and            Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007                          17 Studies, 7,151 women. Periodontal disease
               maternal periodontal status: a                               Feb;196(2):135.e1-7.          increased risk of preterm birth by 2.27 times (RR).
               meta-analysis.                                                                             Increased risk of low birthweight by more than 4
                                                                                                          times (RR)

Vilkuna-       Serum antibody response to              Int J Epidemiol.          2006 Dec;35(6):1486-
Rautiainen T   periodontal pathogens and herpes                                  94. Epub 2006 Sep 22
               simplex virus in relation to classic
               risk factors of cardiovascular

Wang Q         Role for Porphyromonas gingivalis       Med Hypotheses            . 2009 Jan;72(1):71-3    Given the role of P. gingivalis in the initiation and
               in the progression of                                                                      progression of atherosclerosis, attaching
               atherosclerosis.                                                                           importance to periodontal disease may offer new
                                                                                                          therapeutic options for the management of patients
                                                                                                          with atherosclerosis
Williams RC    The potential impact of periodontal      Curr Med Res Opin.       2008 Apr 30              "health education to encourage better oral health
               disease on general health: a                                                               should be considered as part of current healthy
               consensus view.                                                                            lifestyle messages designed to reduce the
                                                                                                          increasing health burden of obesity, cardiovascular
                                                                                                          disease and diabetes."
Wu T           Periodontal disease and risk of         Archives of Internal      2000; 160:2749-2755      Periodontal disease is a risk factor for
               cerebrovascular disease                 Med                                                cebrovascular accidents CVA

Wu T           Examination of the relation             Am J Epidemiol            2000 Vol 151;3: 273-82
               between periodontal health status
               and cardiovascular risk factors:
               serum total and high density

Xiong X        Periodontal disease and                 Obstet Gynecol            2007 Sep;62(9):605-15.   The authors conclude that periodontal disease may
               pregnancy outcomes: state-of-the-       Surv.                                              be associated with increased risk of adverse
               science.                                                                                   pregnancy outcomes.

Xiong X        Periodontal disease and                 Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;195(4):1086-9. CONCLUSION: We found an association between
               gestational diabetes mellitus.                                                       periodontal disease and GDM.

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                            Page 17 of 18
Name                   Title                          Journal            Date                    Conclusions
Xiong X        Periodontal disease and adverse  BJOG.                    2006 Feb;113(2):135-43 CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal disease may be
               pregnancy outcomes: a systematic                                                 associated with an increased risk of adverse
               review.                                                                          pregnancy outcome.

Yao Z          Periodontal treatment: potential to     Med Hypotheses.   2009 Jul;73(1):33-5     periodontal treatment, along with the prevention of
               reduce cardiovascular morbidity                                                   traditional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases
               and/or mortality.                                                                 (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes,
                                                                                                 obesity and lack of exercise), might reduce
                                                                                                 morbidity and/or mortality of cardiovascular
Yeo BK         Periodontal disease -- the              Ann Acad Med      2005 Jan;34(1):111-6.   Current evidence has pointed to an interest in
               emergence of a risk for systemic        Singapore.                                dental intervention studies to control periodontal
               conditions: pre-term low birth                                                    disease as one of the potential strategies to reduce
               weight.                                                                           pre-term labour.

Zadeh-         Periodontal health in mothers of        Taiwan J Obstet   2007 Jun;46(2):157-61   CONCLUSION: there is a noticeable relationship
Modarres S     preterm and term infants                Gynecol.                                  between periodontal health and duration of
                                                                                                 pregnancy; periodontal disease could be a risk
                                                                                                 factor for preterm labor. Oral hygiene is strongly
                                                                                                 recommended to be included in prenatal care.
Zadik Y        Erectile Dysfunction Might Be           J Sex Med.        2008 Dec 12             In a study of 305 men, ED was associated with
               Associated With Chronic                                                           periodontal disease. The authors conclude “
               Periodontal Disease: Two Ends of                                                  Erectile dysfunction might be associated with
               the Cardiovascular Spectrum                                                       chronic periodontal disease: Two ends of the
                                                                                                 cardiovascular spectrum.”
Zheng TZ       Dentition, oral hygiene, and risk of    Cancer Causes     1990 Nov;1(3):235-41    Poor oral hygiene leads to higher cancer
               oral cancer: a case-control study       Control.
               in Beijing, People's Republic of

Sunday, October 03, 2010                                                                                   Page 18 of 18

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