The Pencil by MikeJenny

VIEWS: 19 PAGES: 19

									The Pencil
Pencil Pointers
    History of Pencils
    Pencil grades and Paper
    Method of Sharpening and hand position
    Tips and Techniques
    Eraser selection




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The Pencil as a Tool
    A logical and ready tool for the beginner to
     the advanced artist.
    All artists use the pencil for making
     preliminary sketches and studies before
     completion in other media.
    Freedom of handling, least amount of time to
     use, and easy to find.


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Pencil Factoids
Did you know…
  A pencil can write in zero gravity, upside down and
  underwater.
 --A single pencil can write up to 45,000 words
 --Wooden pencils date back to the 16th century
 --George Washington is said to have used a short
  pencil in surveying the Ohio Territory 1762




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More Pencil Factoids
    --Leonardo da Vinci often sketched in pencil.
    --The writer John Steinbeck used as many as 60
     pencils daily.
    --Thomas Edison kept a three-inch-long pencil in his
     pocket for note taking.
    --Civil War soldiers were issued pencils as standard
     equipment.
    --One pencil draws a line up to 35 miles.



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History of the Pencil
• From the time of the Egyptian Pharaohs, scribing
  instruments helped document man’s history and art.
• The first scribing tools were actually long, thin strips of
  metal that marked light lines and images onto papyrus.
  Later, slim sticks of lead were used which left darker, more
  lasting marks.
• For over a century, lead has not been used in pencils.
  Modern pencils have graphite cores but the term “lead” is
  still the designation of the pencil grade.




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Composition of the Pencil
    Graphite in the core of today’s pencil is a precise
     mixture of clay and graphite, crushed into a fine
     powder to which water is added, then pressed from
     the mixture and air-dried. It is then re-ground,
     forming an ultra -fine powder to which water is
     added to make a soft paste. The paste is then
     formed into long thin pencil length sticks and heated
     in a special oven to 1800 degrees to insure a
     smooth, hard lead with uniformity.



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How the Pencil is Made
  Construction of the wood pencil holder has been
    the same for decades.
  Large blocks of wood are cut into slats. The slats
    are grooved and lead is placed into the slats and
    glued together.
  The exterior profile is shaped. At this point, blades
    slice through the remaining bit of wood that
    remains between the two halves to make
    individual sticks.
  Sanding follows this step and up to eight coats of
    paint are applied.

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Making pencils
     The final step to the traditional pencil is the
     addition of the metal collar, or ferule, that
     holds the eraser.
    Tons of erasers are made for the 2.8 billion
     pencils made each year in the U.S. however
     in Europe most pencils do not have erasers.



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How Pencil Grades are Made
    To create the different grades of pencils, the
     hardness or softness of lead is achieved by adding
     more or less graphite to the mixture.
    Graphite and clay can be combined from the grade
     9H (extra hard) which barely leaves a mark, to grade
     8B (very soft) which creates a jet-black line.




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Sharpening Methods
    Sharpening the pencil is a matter of preference to
     pencil users. Most true pencil devotees would never
     use an electric sharpener, but a hand-crank type
     sharpener would be the preference.
    Most avid pencil devotees prefer the hand- held
     sharpener, which gives the most even point shape
     and most control with least waste.




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Correct Sharpening Method
A pad of fine sandpaper should be on hand to keep a
  sharp point when needed. Using the sanding pad to
  keep the point sharp will save sharpening time
  overall.
A long, round point is the best method of sharpening a
  pencil. Sharpening to a blunt point is not the correct
  process for sharpening.




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Paper Selection
    The drawing surface for best results with a pencil
     will vary greatly.
    A rough surface that is not too hard is best.
    Most artists will prefer one or two papers that give a
     “tooth” or texture on the page best for their style.
    The paper affects the line and shading qualities of
     the pencil.
.



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Paper Selection
     Newsprint to all rag museum papers offer a
     range of options to the artist.
    Smooth surfaces are best for fine detailed
     drawings.
    Heavier textured paper, such as watercolor
     paper are good for abstract or experimental
     drawing.


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Pencil Methods
    Rendering with a pencil is done in two basic
     techniques.
    One method is with lines (crosshatch, angled
     or straight lines, or other techniques similar to
     pen drawing).
    The other method is with flat tones, evenly
     shaded.



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Pencil Shading Exercise
    For rendering pencil drawings, select three
     pencil grades 3B, B, and 3H.
    The soft pencil, 3B, should be used for the
     blackest tones and for accenting.
    The B is for middle tones.
    The 3H is used for light tones.



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Hand Position and Technique
    For making flat tones the pencil should be held on
     the side, working with an even and continual
     pressure without lifting the pencil.
    To shade with the pencil of any grade, press down
     firmly for each stroke, so that a normal tone for the
     pencil is used.
    If a lighter tone is needed, use a pencil grade that
     will give a lighter tone when pressed down firmly,
     such as 3H.



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More technique tips
    It is not desirable to obtain lighter tones by
     pressing down lightly with a soft pencil as this
     will blur and smudge the texture.
    Blend softer pencil tones use a cotton tipped
     swab, not finger-tips—to prevent oils from
     affecting graphite.



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  Erasers
    Pink pearl is a general eraser and used in most
     pencils with a metal ferule.
    White, soft plastic is best for all pencil lines to
     prevent surface damage to the paper caused by
     harder erasers.
    Art Gum eraser used for cleaning all pencil lines and
     smudges.




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