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					                                  STAYING POWER
                                       Work-Life Balance Initiatives
                                       for Retaining Young Lawyers




NORTH CAROLINA YOUNG LAWYERS DIVISION
LAWYER EFFECTIVENESS AND QUALITY OF LIFE COMMITTEE

This publication made possible by a grant from the
North Carolina Bar Association Foundation Endowment.
North Carolina lawyers serving the public and their profession.
                                   STAYING POWER
                                    Work-Life Balance Initiatives
                                    for Retaining Young Lawyers




PREPARED FOR THE YLD LAWYER EFFECTIVENESS
AND QUALITY OF LIFE COMMITTEE

By

Dr.Tomi W. Bryan
FedLinx, Inc.
2311 West Cone Blvd., Suite 228
Greensboro, North Carolina 27408
336.379.0442

To obtain additional copies of this Report, please contact
Amie Flowers Carmack at acarmack@kennedycovington.com or (919) 743-7318.
                                          ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The North Carolina Bar Association’s Young Lawyer’s Division Lawyer Effectiveness and Quality of Life
Committee gratefully acknowledges the valuable contributions of former Committee Co-chairs Neil A.
Riemann and Judson A. Welborn to the production and distribution of the survey and collection of
preliminary information.

The YLD extends special thanks to Jack Huskey and Tom Purdy at the North Carolina Bar Association for
their valuable assistance with the technical implementation of the survey and the management of the raw data.

The YLD expresses appreciation to Erik Moledor, the statistician who worked countless hours to analyze and
organize the raw data and to answer our many questions.

The YLD expresses its most heart-felt thanks to Dr. Tomi W. Bryan for her invaluable assistance in drafting
and refining this Report, and for the great energy she brought to this project.

The YLD is grateful for the assistance of the North Carolina Bar Association’s Lawyer Effectiveness and
Quality of Life Committee for its support of this endeavor.

Finally, the YLD wishes to express its appreciation to the North Carolina Bar Foundation for its generosity
in awarding the endowment grant that made this project possible.




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                               Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                              PREFACE BY THE YLD LAWYER EFFECTIVENESS
                                AND QUALITY OF LIFE COMMITTEE CHAIR

Bar Association Members, Leaders and Friends,

          This Report represents the culmination of approximately three years of collaboration among members of the
North Carolina Young Lawyer's Division Lawyer Effectiveness and Quality of Life Committee. The idea for the YLD
work-life balance survey grew out of a NCBA YLD Leadership Conference where work-life balance was identified as
one of the most serious challenges facing young lawyers, indeed lawyers of all ages, in the fast-paced, information-intense
world in which we practice today.
          The time commitment required for economic viability in the legal profession has escalated at alarming
proportions in recent years, as the electronic age has produced greater demand from clients for lightning turn-around of
information, and rising costs have driven up billable hour expectations within law firms. At the same time, work-life
balance is increasingly more important to young lawyers entering the profession, who lack the old-school mentality of one
career, one employer. Thus, work-life imbalance leads to another of the most serious challenges facing the legal profession
today: ATTRITION.
          As the economic pressures associated with advancement in the legal marketplace have taken on new definitions,
young lawyers have chosen to change employers or leave the practice of law at an alarming rate. This attrition costs legal
employers both the hard and soft costs invested in the departing attorney, as well as the cost of waning morale caused by
departures, transition losses, and the cost of training replacements. In addition, the profession suffers losses, both in terms
of human capital and depleted energy, undermining the integrity and long-term prosperity of the legal profession.
          The issue of attrition is a difficult one because each case seems to stand on its own merits, with its own special
set of circumstances – a new baby, a spouse's job transfer, pursuit of a lifelong interest. Yet, trends have emerged and they
point directly to work-life balance issues. Both women and men are making decisions about their employment based upon
the competing responsibilities associated with balancing work and life. Even more young lawyers juggle those
responsibilities while their productivity and economic viability suffers.
          Other professions have reacted to similar stimuli by formulating creative ways to address work-life balance
issues. We followed their lead in initiating a comprehensive study of the criteria that lead to work-life imbalance and
identification of some potential solutions—best practices, if you will—that may help empower young lawyers to give their
best, and keep giving their best, to their employers and the profession for years to come.
          The survey was distributed electronically to the entire membership of the NCBA Young Lawyers Division, and
by U.S. Mail to members without email addresses registered with the NCBA. Young lawyers across North Carolina
responded to the survey at a record rate and provided a tremendous amount of feedback regarding existing practices and
insight as to policies that may improve work-life balance for young lawyers, and thus their productivity, economic
viability, and loyalty to their employers and to the profession.
          This Report is intended to open a dialogue among members of our profession of all ages and stages, with regard
to ways that legal employers may address attrition and empower the success of their young talent. None of us has all the
answers to the work-life balance question, but hopefully together we can develop some tools that will cost-effectively
improve the work-life balance of North Carolina’s lawyers, for the benefit of young lawyers, their employers, and the
profession as a whole.

With best personal regards I am

Very truly yours,



Amie Flowers Carmack
Ms. Carmack is a partner with Kennedy, Covington, Lobdell & Hickman in Raleigh, North Carolina.

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                                         Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
   THE NORTH CAROLINA YOUNG LAWYERS DIVISION
LAWYER EFFECTIVENESS AND QUALITY OF LIFE COMMITTEE


                                  Chair
                          Amie Flowers Carmack

                                      Members
                             Dalton G. Blair
                         Wendy Michelle Congleton
                            Beverly C. Eckard
                              Amy L. Elliott
                             Jason D. Evans
                             Caroline R. Heil
                             J. Mark Herring
                             Craig M. Janak
                           Leigh Redd Johnson
                          Christopher M. Kindel
                            Donald E. Martin
                            Mitchell A. Meyers
                             Melissa Minton
                             Kelly Ann Perry
                               Nicolle Phair
                           Brian K. Plemmons
                          Ashley Matlock Poole
                              Stacy M. Race
                            Faison G. Sutton
                          Bambi Faivre Walters
                           Judson A. Welborn
                           John W. Welch, Jr.
                           Steven Blair Wilson




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           Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Preface by the YLD Lawyer Effectiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
and Quality of Life Committee Chair
YLD Lawyer Effectiveness and Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
of Life Committee Members
About the NCBA’s Young Lawyers Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
and its Lawyer Effectiveness and Quality of Life Committee


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
The Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
The Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Work Factors that Impact Work-Life Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
            Data analysis: Personal Dimension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
            Data analysis: Organizational Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Non-work Factors that Impact Work-life Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
            Data analysis: Personal Dimension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
            Data analysis: Organizational Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Factors Impacting Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
            Data analysis: Personal Dimension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
            Data analysis: Organizational Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Factors That Improve Work-life Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Factors that are Perceived as Improving Work-life Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Factors, Real and Perceived, That Improve Work-life Balance. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
            Data analysis: Personal Dimension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
            Data analysis: Organizational Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Future Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


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                              Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
      ABOUT THE NORTH CAROLINA BAR ASSOCIATION’S YOUNG LAWYERS
          DIVISION AND ITS LAWYER EFFECTIVENESS AND QUALITY
                           OF LIFE COMMITTEE

The North Carolina Bar Association’s Young Lawyers Division (NCBA YLD) has as its purpose the
promotion of the general welfare of the community and public service, the advancement of the professional
education and welfare of young lawyers, provision of a more effective means for young lawyers to participate
in the activities of the NCBA, the American Bar Association (ABA) and the North Carolina State Bar,
promotion of fellowship among all members of the bar, advancement of the standards of the legal profession
and the administration of justice.

The NCBA YLD’s Lawyer Effectiveness and Quality of Life Committee was originally named the Quality of
Life Committee. In July 1996, in order to mirror the changes implemented by the ABA and the NCBA
Committees, the NCBA YLD Quality of Life Committee was renamed the Lawyer Effectiveness and Quality
of Life Committee. The purpose of the Committee is to identify quality of life, professionalism, and effectiveness
issues that young lawyers face and implement projects to address those issues.

The NCBA YLD publishes a quarterly newsletter called The Advocate. The Chair of the NCBA YLD publishes
a quarterly column in the NCBA’s publication North Carolina Lawyer. Additional information about the NCBA
YLD may be found at its website: http://younglawyersdivision.ncbar.org/.




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                                Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                    INTRODUCTION

         In evaluating the current state of the legal profession, it is evident that the profession is in transition:
“Globalization, a shortage of talent, and high turnover costs portend a need to evaluate the way law firms and
other legal employers conduct their business” (Catalyst, 2001, p. 2). Evolutions in the legal profession and in
our society have led to a constant struggle between the personal and family commitments of the individual
attorney and the demands of the profession. The Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional Challenges
and Family Needs (1999) offered a synopsis of the conflict:

         The legal profession, and private law firms in particular, are on a collision course in which the
         pursuit of objectified measures of success is colliding with lawyers’ and their families’ needs for
         meaningful participation in families’ daily lives. On the one hand, single-minded devotion to the
         workplace, one’s clients, and revenue production is viewed as the key to success. On the other
         hand, non-workplace relationships which provide meaning and satisfaction require ongoing
         attention, care, and engagement. The convergence of these goals is at the core of work-family
         conflict. (p. 5)

Interestingly, a recent study by Catalyst (2001) documented that work-life balance is not a gender issue but a
professional issue.
         Attrition is a manifestation of work-life imbalance in the legal profession. Organizational change experts
explain that the alignment between employees and their workplace environment affect job satisfaction and
retention (Caldwell, Herold & Fedor, 2004). Because misalignment between the young lawyer and the legal
profession exists, associate attorneys are abandoning law firms and the legal profession in record numbers.
According to research conducted by the Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional Challenges and
Family Needs (1999), 43% of new associates leave their firms in the first three years of practice. Turnover rates
are even higher in the following categories:
     • Women
     • Minorities
     • Associates in larger firms (Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional Challenges and Family
     Needs, 1999).
A primary reason for the high attrition rate is work-life balance concerns (Boston Bar Association Task Force
on Professional Challenges and Family Needs, 1999). Sadly, most firms do not recognize the very real costs
associated with attrition. The price tag for losing an associate has been estimated at between $200,000.00 and
$500,000.00 (The Project for Attorney Retention, 2001). However this cost of attrition does not account for soft
costs.

         The level of attrition that many law firms of all sizes now experience is: (1) extremely
         uneconomical; (2) impairs client service and client relationships; (3) disrupts collegial
         relationships within the firm; (4) breeds cynicism and discouragement regarding the possibility
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                                  Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
         of real work-family balance for those remaining in the workplace; and (5) promotes further
         attrition. (Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional Challenges and Family Needs,
         1999, p. 7)

Because law firms have typically directed their attention at revenue generation instead of bottom line
profitability, the true cost of attrition has most likely not drawn attention (The Project for Attorney Retention,
2001).
         This NCBA YLD Report is not a shocking revelation that the profession is changing and that
maintaining balance between work and life is progressively more difficult while becoming increasingly
important. Many commission reports, studies, and articles have preceded this Report and conclusively
document unprecedented changes in the profession. The Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional
Fulfillment (1997) captured the tension posed by this unprecedented change:

         The nature of the experience of practicing law has not only changed dramatically in recent
         years, but the rate of such change appears to be accelerating. Some of the changes are quite
         positive, such as the use of technology to reduce research and document preparation time, the
         increase of women and people of color in the profession, the emergence of new and exciting
         specialties, the use of alternative dispute resolution, and generally the increase in lawyer’s
         incomes. Other changes, however, are not as positive, such as the increased pressures for more
         personal productivity and for much faster response times, the commercialization and
         commoditization of the practice of law, the loss of collegiality and the breakdown in civility
         among lawyers as part of a growing feeling of isolation and alienation, the loss of de facto tenure
         for partners and the decreased likelihood of associates, particularly in large firms, becoming
         partners. (p. 8)

         The troubling revelation is that the legal profession continues to study how the profession is changing
and its effect on work-life balance without offering solutions on how to address these changes. The NCBA, a
leader in the initiative to understand quality of life issues, has struggled with implementing positive change in
the profession. In July 1989, under the direction of then President Larry McDevitt, the NBCA formed The
Quality of Life Task Force (now known as the Lawyer Effectiveness and Quality of Life Committee). Twenty-
two different goals were generated by the task force as recommendations for improving the quality of life of
lawyers. Fifteen years later, the NCBA’s Lawyer Effectiveness and Quality of Life Committee continues to
grapple with the same issues. This observation is not made with disdain or resentment but for the purposes of
emphasizing the depth and the breadth of the struggle that is taking place within the profession in an attempt
to achieve balance between every lawyer’s professional and personal lives.
         The NCBA and the NCBA YLD are not alone in this struggle. One aspect of the American Bar
Association’s Young Lawyers Division’s Member Service Project for 2002-2003 was to create a compilation of

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                                  Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
“projects, events and articles relating to balance that have been implemented by young lawyer affiliates and
other bar associations and committees” (American Bar Association Young Lawyers Division, 2003, p. 3). In this
Compilation there are over 20 pages of references to projects, events and articles for
    • Balance and Quality of Life
    • Physical and Mental Health, Stress, Depression, Addictions, Meditation, Spirituality, Nutrition
    • Personal and Family Relationships
    • Financial Planning, Debt Management, Insurance, Retirement
    • Professional and Career Development Survival Guides
    • Work Schedules, Alternative Work Arrangements
    • Social Events and Other Fun Activities (American Bar Association Young Lawyers Division, 2003).
Some of these reports offer best practices for work-life balance that have been implemented in the profession
and shown to be successful. More about best practices will be offered in this Report.
        What is self-evident is that there is a definitive clash between the choice of a balanced life and the
practice of law. The legal profession is not the only service profession to have been confronted by this issue.
As will be discussed in the Best Practices section, accountants have also engaged in the work-life balance
struggle. The path they have forged offers the legal profession some lessons-learned and best practices from
which to draw.
        A primary stumbling block to work-life balance is that the individual attorney, for the most part, is
not in control of half of the issue. While the life-style choice rests with the individual, the organizational
design to accommodate that life-style choice rests with the profession’s leadership. The Report of the Boston
Bar Association Task Force on Work-Life Balance (2000) best summarized the challenge before us:

        Support for work-life balance programs and initiatives must come from the highest levels of
        firm management, from the partners and associates within law firms, and from people outside
        law firms. Work-family and work-life balance values become self-sustaining and integral to
        organizational culture only when: (1) there is unambiguous commitment by management; (2)
        principles and policies are clearly articulated and consistently applied throughout organizations;
        and (3) initiatives and strategies are responsive to the internal and external factors that
        influence organizational decision making and lawyers’ lives. (p. 7)

No single report will resolve the tension between work and life. The objective of this Report is to contribute
to the dialogue, and to encourage movement of the profession’s leadership and management to implement
proven, cost-effective work-life balance practices in their own organizations today, before we lose
tomorrow’s leaders.
        The first section of this Report will explain the purpose of the survey and the methodology for
analyzing the survey data. Next, the survey data will be presented and analyzed. This Report will conclude
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                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
with ideas for best practices and future research that could assist the legal profession to retain young lawyers
and also assist young lawyers to better manage their work-life balance.


THE SURVEY
        Although many useful surveys, commission reports, and journal articles are available on the topic of
work-life balance, the NCBA YLD was convinced that in order to understand the needs of the North Carolina
young lawyer, a comprehensive survey of North Carolina young lawyers was an appropriate approach for
addressing attrition rates caused by work-life imbalance. Powerful conversations: How high impact leaders
communicate, Harkins (1999), analyzed a change tool just for situations like that in which the legal profession
now finds itself. The tool requires the following steps to create an improvement model: (a) describe the future
state, (b) evaluate the current state, (c) analyze the gap, (d) determine specific actions that will result in
progress toward the future state, and (e) identify metrics for measuring success. This survey moved the NCBA
YLD one step closer to describing the target future state where work-life balance is not an insurmountable
challenge.
        The survey that is the basis for this Report created a tool that would allow North Carolina young
lawyers the opportunity to express, in a confidential and non-threatening forum, ideas and suggestions
regarding the factors that contribute to work-life imbalance and potential solutions to those issues. The survey
questions are set forth in Appendix A.
        The NCBA YLD distributed the survey to 3,358 participants electronically and to 190 participants
by U.S. mail. Participants were young lawyers who were members of the NCBA at the time of distribution. Of
the 3,358 surveys distributed, 930 responses were returned. Of the 930 responses, 912 surveys were selected as
the data set for analysis. Eighteen respondents’ surveys were excluded because the respondents indicated that
they had not been employed or were not employed in a legal setting in approximately the last twelve months.
        The response rate to this survey was the best experienced by an NCBA survey. This high response rate
indicates that the issues raised by the survey are timely, relevant and important to North Carolina young
lawyers.


THE ANALYSIS
        The data collected for this survey was analyzed by a statistician. The statistician’s methodology included
organizing all of the survey responses according to demographic information. This survey was exploratory in
nature and design, so a straightforward approach was taken to identify the overall most important response
areas and investigate demographic subgroup deviations from the overall response pattern. More specifically,
for each question on the survey, the statistician identified the group of respondents who answered the question

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                                Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
and calculated response percentages based on that group.                              Similar calculations were made for each
demographic subgroup.        To identify important differences among subgroups, the statistician calculated
differences between overall and subgroup response rates, and ranked the response rates for each question. To
further facilitate this investigation, the statistician used color-coding to identify the most important responses
for all groups. Due to the exploratory nature of this survey, it was neither suitable nor necessary to perform
statistical hypothesis testing.
        Once the statistician analyzed and organized the data, the data was provided to an organizational design
consultant for interpretation and preparation of this Report. The consultant organized this Report to reflect the
statistician’s analysis, reporting data according to 5 broad categories of factors: (a) work factors that impact
work-life balance, (b) non-work factors that impact work-life balance, (c) factors that impact retention, (d)
factors that have improved work-life balance, and (e) suggested factors that would improve work-life balance.
In some instances the data was further filtered across the two dimensions of personal and organizational
characteristics. When these two dimensions were utilized, data were further stratified by demographic
information using the specific categories of Gender, Marital status, Family status, Employer type, Employer
size, Billable hours, Hours worked, and Supervisory responsibilities. Prior to discussion of the results of the
survey, an overview of the sample population is provided.


DEMOGRAPHICS:
    The demographics reflect the diversity of the young lawyers responding to the survey. The demographic
classifications used to filter the data were Gender, Marital status, Family status, Employment Status, Type of
employer, Size of employer, Billable hours worked in 2003, Total hours worked in 2003, and Supervisory
responsibilities. To cull the difference between personal and organizational influences on work-life balance, the
nine demographic classifications were divided into one of two dimensions: personal demographics and
organizational demographics. The personal demographic classifications were Gender, Marital status, and
Family status. The organizational demographics included Employment Status, Type of employer, Size of
employer, Billable hours worked in 2003, Total hours worked in 2003, and Supervisory responsibilities. The
purpose of evaluating the data across these dimensions is to enhance the ability of the profession’s leadership
and management to understand the data in relationship to their own organization.
    First, of the surveys received, just slightly more than half were received from females:
     Gender
        • Female: 52%
        • Male: 48%
    The sample population featured a diverse marital status mix. Almost half of the respondents were married

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                                  Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
with a spouse who works full-time outside the home while slightly more than a quarter of the respondents were
single:
      Marital Status
           • Married –Spouse works full-time outside home: 48.5%
           • Single: 26.3%
           • Married –Spouse does not work outside home: 12.0%
           • Married –Spouse works part-time outside home: 8.2%
           • Monogamous, non-marital, living together relationship: 5.0%
For the purposes of this Report, the data for the different marital status categories were combined into two
categories of married and not married.
     More than half of the sample population had no children while just over 36% of the population had children
in the 0 to 5 age range:
      Family Status3
           • No children: 58.8%
           • Young children: (0-5): 36.3%
           • Older children (6-11): 8.9%
           • Teenagers (12-18): 2.9%
           • Grown children (19+): 1.3%
For the purposes of this Report, these five categories were condensed into two categories of No children and
Children.
     Just slightly more than 60% of the respondents did not have to address child care while 18% percent of the
sample population had child care provided by someone other than their spouse:
      Childcare3
           • Not applicable: 60.5%
           • Full-time child care provided by someone other than spouse: 18.1%
           • Spouse provides full-time child care: 11%
           • Spouse provides part-time child care (remainder provided by others): 5.5%
           • Part-time child care for school age children: 5.3%
           • You provide child care (in part or in whole): 5.1%
     Over 80% of the surveys received were from attorneys engaged in the practice of law in a law firm setting.
Of those in private practice, the majority of surveys were received from associates with less than 4 years of

2
 Respondents with children in different age categories responded twice to this survey question, resulting in the response rate exceeding 100%.
3
 Respondents with children in different age categories responded twice to this survey question, resulting in the response rate exceeding 100%.


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                                            Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
practice who practice in firms of 10 attorneys or less or in firms with more than 60 lawyers:
      Employment Status
          • Associate (less than 4 years of practice): 37.8%
          • Associate (4 or more years of practice): 23.2%
                                           4
          • Other (please specify) : 15.6%
          • Partner or Member (less than 4 years as a partner/member): 15.5%
          • Partner or Member (4-7 years as a partner/member): 4.9%
          • Special Counsel: 2.0%
          • Partner or Member (more than 7 years as a partner/member): 1.0%
      Type of Employer
          • Law Firm: 83.9%
          • Corporation or Other Non-Legal Business Form: 5.5%
          • Other (please specify): 2.9%
          • State Government: 2.7%
          • Public Interest Group: 2.1%
          • Federal Government: 1.5%
          • Local Government: 1.0%
          • Educational Institution: 0.4%
For the purposes of this Report, these eight classifications were combined to form Law firm and Other.
      Size of Employer
          • 10 or fewer: 43.7%
          • 61 or more: 33.0%
          • 11 – 20: 10.4%
          • 21 – 35: 8.8%
          • 36 – 60: 4.1%
For data interpretation, these five classifications were condensed into three classifications: 1 to 10 lawyers, 11
to 60 lawyers, and 60+ lawyers.
     Almost 36% of respondents indicated that their hours were not tracked as billable/nonbillable while the
remaining 64% of respondents indicated billing a specific number of hours annually:




4
 Respondents who selected this category indicated various non-law-firm employment, including in-house counsel, educational institution, and
government attorney employment, among others.


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                                           Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
    Hours Billed in 2003
        • Hours not tracked as Billable/Nonbillable: 35.7%
        • 1701 – 1850 hours: 12.2%
        • 1401 – 1700 hours: 11.4%
        • 1851 – 1950 hours: 10.3%
        • 1951 – 2050 hours: 8.3%
        • 2051 or more hours: 8.2%
        • Less than 1000 hours: 7.8%
        • 1001 – 1400 hours: 6.1%
For the purposes of this Report, these 8 segments of the sample population were combined into the following
three categories: Less than 1851 billable hours, More than 1851 billable hours, and Not applicable.
    Over 40% of the respondents worked more than 2051 hours in 2003 while just over 29% of the sample
population logged between 1851 and 2050 hours:
    Total Hours Worked in 2003
        • 2051 or more hours: 40.8%
        • 1951 – 2050 hours: 18.3%
        • 1851 – 1950 hours: 10.9%
        • Less than 1000 hours: 9.7%
        • 1701 – 1850 hours: 8.5%
        • 1401 – 1700 hours: 7.6%
        • 1001 – 1400 hours: 4.3%
When interpreting the data, these eight classifications were condensed to form three demographic groups: Less
than 1851 hours, 1851 to 2050 hours, and More than 2050 hours.
    Over 68% of the young lawyers who responded to the survey supervise at least one person:
    Number of Attorneys/Staff Supervised
        • Not applicable: 31.4%
        • 2-4 people: 31.4%
        • 1 person: 28.6%
        • >4 people: 8.6%
These four categories were condensed to create two categories of Supervisory responsibilities and No
supervisory responsibilities.
        With this understanding of the sample population demographics, this Report now directs attention to
understanding the data and its significance.

                                                                   8

                                Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
WORK FACTORS THAT IMPACT WORK-LIFE BALANCE
        The data indicate that a multitude of work factors contribute to a sense of imbalance for North Carolina
young lawyers. In this survey, young lawyers were asked whether specific factors impacted their ability to
balance life and work. Thirty seven factors were on the list and are set forth in Appendix A. This section
provides the overall rank of factors that impact work-life balance without accounting for the personal or
organizational dimensions. Those factors that at least 10% of respondents cited as affecting work-life balance
are presented in Table 1.


TABLE 1: Work Factors That Have The Most Impact On Work-Life Balance

             Percentage of young lawyers who perceive
 Rank                                                                                                        Factor
              that the factor impacts work-life balance
   1                          40.4%                                                       Client expectations and demands
   2                          35.7%                                                                   Billable hours
   3                          26.7%                                                                   Compensation
   4                          26.3%                                                      Inadequate control over workload
   5                          24.1%                                             Inadequate ability to take time away from work
   6                          23.4%                                                                    Inexperience
   7                          22.1%                                                      Revenue production expectations
   8                          19.4%                                                   Supervisor’s expectations and demands
   9                          17.2%                                                   Inadequate control over work schedule
   10                          16%                                        Business development/client entertainment requirements
   11                         15.6%                                                        Inadequate or unfulfilling work
   12                         12.6%                                                        Inadequate secretarial support
   13                         11.6%                                         Inadequate civility/professionalism of other attorneys
   14                         11.3%                                                         Inadequate paralegal support
   15                         11.2%                                                           Accessibility expectations



Those work factors that impacted work-life balance the least are set forth in Table 2.




                                                                     9

                                  Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
TABLE 2: Work Factors That Have the Least Impact on Work-Life Balance

        Percentage of young lawyers who perceive that the
 Rank                                                                                                       Factor
                 factor impacts work-life balance
   1                          .7%                                                             Pro Bono expectations
   2                          2.6%                                                             Preferential treatment
   3                          2.8%                                                            Competitive colleagues
   4                          3.0%                                                    Inadequate professional evaluation
   5                          3.3%                                                    Lack of authority to delegate work
   6                          4.6%                                                            Inadequate technology
   7                          4.8%                                                 Service to Bar/Profession/Community


DATA ANALYSIS: PERSONAL DIMENSION
        North Carolina young lawyers left no doubt about the four work factors that most impact work-life
balance from a personal viewpoint. Regardless of Gender, Marital status, or Family status, the factors of Billable
hours, Client expectations and demands, Compensation, and Inadequate control over workload were ranked in
the top five in every personal characteristic demographic (Refer to Table 3). Billable hours and Client
expectations and demands were ranked either one or two in every personal dimension while the factors of
Compensation and Inadequate control over workload appeared across the personal dimension in either third,
fourth or fifth place. This data offers a clear picture of the challenges that currently limit North Carolina young
lawyers’ ability to find work-life balance, across all personal demographics.


DATA ANALYSIS: ORGANIZATIONAL DIMENSION
        When accounting for the organizational dimension, the pattern offered some consistency but was
scattered (Refer to Table 4). A pattern that is scattered indicates that different organizational characteristics
resulted in different requirements for young lawyers to balance work-life demands.
        Two factors emerged in the top five responses as impacting work-life balance regardless of organizational
demographic: Client expectations and demands and Inadequate control over workload. What these results
convey to the legal profession’s leadership and management is that regardless of organizational design, all young
lawyers perceive that Client expectations and demands and Inadequate control over workload affect their ability
to strike a balance between work and life. Within the legal profession, organizational leadership and management
need to establish programs and practices that manage client demands and workloads, and provide young lawyers
the tools necessary to cope with client expectations and to gain control over their workloads.

                                                                   10

                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                       Demographic   Demographic      Demographic   Factor Ranked 1 Factor Ranked 2 Factor Ranked 3 Factor Ranked 4 Factor Ranked 5
                                                                                                                         Client expectations                                       Inadequate ability
                                                                                                      Billable hours                                            Inadequate control
                                                                                                                            and demands        Compensation                         to take time away
                                                                                        Female         (Ranked 2                                                  over workload
                                                                                                                             (Ranked 1       (Ranked 3 overall)                         from work
                                                                                                         overall)                                               (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                               overall)                                            (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                        Gender
                                                                                                    Client expectations                                       Inadequate control




                                                                                                                                                                                                             Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                                                                          Billable hours     Compensation                          Inexperience
                                                                                         Male          and demands                                              over workload
                                                                                                                        (Ranked 2 overall) (Ranked 3 overall)                    (Ranked 6 overall)
                                                                                                    (Ranked 1 overall)                                        (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                      Revenue
                                                                                                                                                                                     production
                                                                                                    Client expectations                                                             expectations
                                                                                                                          Billable hours     Compensation       Inexperience
                                                                                      Not Married      and demands                                                               (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                                                        (Ranked 2 overall) (Ranked 3 overall) (Ranked 6 overall)
TABLE 3: Top Five Work Factors by Personal Dimension




                                                                                                    (Ranked 1 overall)                                                           Inadequate control
                                                                                                                                                                                   over work load




                                                                                                                                                                                                        11
                                                         Personal    Marital Status
                                                        Dimension                                                                                                                (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                              Inadequate ability
                                                                                                    Client expectations                    Inadequate control
                                                                                                                          Billable hours                       to take time away   Compensation
                                                                                        Married        and demands                           over workload
                                                                                                                        (Ranked 2 overall)                         from work     (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                    (Ranked 1 overall)                     (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                              (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                         Client expectations                                       Inadequate control
                                                                                                      Billable hours                           Inexperience       Compensation
                                                                                      No Children                           and demands                                              over workload
                                                                                                    (Ranked 2 overall)                       (Ranked 6 overall) (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                         (Ranked 1 overall)                                        (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                           Inadequate control
                                                                     Family Status                                                            over workload
                                                                                                    Client expectations                    (Ranked 4 overall)                        Compensation
                                                                                                                          Billable hours
                                                                                        Children       and demands                         Inadequate ability                      (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                        (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                    (Ranked 1 overall)                      to take time away
                                                                                                                                                from work
                                                                                                                                           (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Factor Ranked 5
                                                             Demographic         Demographic       Demographic        Factor Ranked 1      Factor Ranked 2    Factor Ranked 3      Factor Ranked 4
                                                                                                                                                                                 Inadequate ability      Revenue
                                                                                                                                          Client expectations Inadequate control
                                                                                                   Organization:       Billable hours                                             to take time away     production
                                                                                                                                             and demands        over workload
                                                                                                    Law Firm         (Ranked 2 overall)                                               from work        expectations
                                                                                                                                          (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 5 overall) (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Inadequate
                                                                                                                                                                                                     administrative
                                                                                   Employer                                                                                                          support (word
                                                                                                                                                                                                       processing,
                                                                                                                                        Client expectations                    Inadequate control
                                                                                                   Organization:       Compensation                           Inexperience                         technical support,
                                                                                                                                           and demands                           over workload
                                                                                                      Other          (Ranked 3 overall)                     (Ranked 6 overall)                       etc.) (Ranked
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)                     (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       18 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Inadequate control




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                                                                                                                                                  over work schedule
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Ranked 9 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                               Inadequate ability
                                                                                                                     Client expectations                                                          Inadequate control
                                                                                                   Organization:                           Compensation       Inexperience      to take time away
                                                                                                                        and demands                                                                 over workload
                                                                                                   1-10 Lawyers                          (Ranked 3 overall) (Ranked 6 overall)      from work
TABLE 4: Top Five Work Factors by Organizational Dimension




                                                                                                                     (Ranked 1 overall)                                                           (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                               (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                        Revenue
                                                                                                                                                             Client expectations                      Inadequate control
                                                                                                   Organization:       Billable hours     Compensation                                 production
                                                                                                                                                                and demands                             over workload




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12
                                                             Organizational                        11-60 Lawyers     (Ranked 2 overall) (Ranked 3 overall)                            expectations
                                                                                   Size of                                                                   (Ranked 1 overall)                       (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                             Characteristics                                                                                                       (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                 Organization
                                                                                                                                                                                 Supervisor’s
                                                                                                                                                                               expectations and
                                                                                                                                              Client
                                                                                                                                                           Inadequate control      demands
                                                                                                   Organization:       Billable hours      expectations
                                                                                                                                                             over workload    (Ranked 8 overall)
                                                                                                   60+ Lawyers       (Ranked 2 overall)   and demands
                                                                                                                                                           (Ranked 4 overall) Inadequate control
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                              over work schedule
                                                                                                                                                                              (Ranked 9 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Revenue produc-
                                                                                                   Billable hours:                        Client expectations                    Inadequate control
                                                                                                                       Billable hours                           Inexperience                         tion expectations
                                                                                                        <1851                                and demands                           over workload
                                                                                                                     (Ranked 2 overall)                       (Ranked 6 overall)                    (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                                                                          (Ranked 1 overall)                     (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                Annual Billable
                                                                               Hour Requirements
                                                                                                                                                              Inadequate ability                       Supervisor’s
                                                                                                                                          Client expectations                    Inadequate control
                                                                                                   Billable Hours:     Billable hours                          to take time away                       expectations
                                                                                                                                             and demands                           over workload
                                                                                                        1851+        (Ranked 2 overall)                            from work                          and demands
                                                                                                                                          (Ranked 1 overall)                     (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                              (Ranked 5 overall)                    (Ranked 8 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                   continues on next page
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Factor Ranked 5
                                                                     Demographic        Demographic       Demographic      Factor Ranked 1      Factor Ranked 2    Factor Ranked 3      Factor Ranked 4
                                                                                                                                                                                    Inadequate ability
                                                                                                                                                                                     to take time away
                                                                                       Annual Billable                    Client expectations                                            from work
                                                                                                                                                Compensation       Inexperience
                                                                                           Hour               N/A            and demands                                            (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                              (Ranked 3 overall) (Ranked 6 overall)
                                                                                       Requirements                       (Ranked 1 overall)                                        Inadequate control
                                                                                                                                                                                       over workload
                                                                                                                                                                                    (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                     Billable hours                       Inadequate control
                                                                                                                                               Client expectations
                                                                                                          Hours Worked:     Inexperience                           (Ranked 2 overall)                       over workload
                                                                                                                                                  and demands
                                                                                                             <1851        (Ranked 6 overall)                         Compensation                         (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                               (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                   (Ranked 3 overall)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
TABLE 4: Top Five Work Factors by Organizational Dimension (cont.)




                                                                                       Hours Worked                                                                                                    Supervisor’s expec-
                                                                                         Annually                         Client expectations                                       Inadequate control    tations and
                                                                                                          Hours Worked:                         Billable hours     Compensation
                                                                                                                             and demands                                              over workload demands (Ranked 8
                                                                                                            1851-2050                         (Ranked 2 overall) (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                          (Ranked 1 overall)                                        (Ranked 4 overall)      overall)
                                                                                                                                                                 Inadequate ability                     Revenue produc-
                                                                                                                          Client expectations                                       Inadequate control
                                                                                                          Hours Worked:                         Billable hours    to take time away                     tion expectations
                                                                                                                             and demands                                              over workload




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               13
                                                                     Organizational                          2051+                            (Ranked 2 overall)      from work                        (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                                                          (Ranked 1 overall)                                        (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                     Characteristics                                                                             (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                Client expectations
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Inadequate control
                                                                                                                                                                   and demands
                                                                                                                            Inexperience       Compensation                                                 over workload
                                                                                                           Supervise: 0                                         (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                          (Ranked 6 overall) (Ranked 3 overall)                                           (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                  Billable hours
                                                                                                                                                                (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Inadequate ability
                                                                                        Supervisory                                            Client expectations Inadequate control                     to take time away
                                                                                                                            Billable hours                                              Compensation
                                                                                       Responsibilities    Supervise: 1                           and demands        over workload                            from work
                                                                                                                          (Ranked 2 overall)                                          (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                               (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 4 overall)                     (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                  Revenue produc-
                                                                                                                                                                  tion expectations
                                                                                                                          Client expectations                    (Ranked 7 overall)                       Inadequate control
                                                                                                                                                Billable hours
                                                                                                          Supervise: 2+      and demands                         Inadequate ability                         over workload
                                                                                                                                              (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                          (Ranked 1 overall)                      to take time away                       (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                      from work
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 5 overall)
        Billable hours was another widely held concern among young lawyers who work in law firm settings.
For the non-law firm employer demographic, on the other hand, Billable hours ranked 32 out of the 37 factors
considered. For the Billable hours not applicable category, Billable hours ranked 34 out of the 37 factors
considered. This data offers guidance to the legal profession in two important ways. First, law firms need to
address the billable hour issue to assist young lawyers in finding work-life balance. Non-law firm employers, on
the other hand, do not need to address the billable hour issue in designing a work-life balance program.
        Compensation was the next common factor from an organizational perspective that was perceived as
impacting work-life balance. Compensation appeared on the top five list in seven of the fourteen organizational
demographic categories. It did not appear as a factor for young lawyers when data were filtered based on the
following demographic categories: Young lawyers who were employed by law firms, Young lawyers who were
employed by law firms with more than 60 attorneys, Billable hours, Young lawyers working more than 2051
hours, and Young lawyers supervising two or more people. Conclusions that can be drawn form this data
include the understanding that compensation may be a primary issue for lawyers employed in smaller firms or
in non-law firm settings. These organizations are the ones that should rely upon this data to design new
programs or practices within the company to address this concern.
        Another factor that presented an interesting scatter pattern was the Inexperience factor. This factor
appeared five times in the top five, but was the most important work-life balance consideration for Young lawyers
who billed less than 1851 hours and who had No supervisory responsibilities. It can be discerned from these
responses that less seasoned attorneys would benefit from establishment of mentoring and training programs.
        Other factors that rounded out the top five when examining the data by organizational demographic
included Revenue production expectations, Supervisor’s expectations and demands, and Inadequate control
over work schedule. It is noteworthy that Inadequate administrative support (word processing, technical
support, etc.), which was ranked 18 overall, appeared once in the top five as a concern for those young lawyers
working in a non-law firm setting. Non-law firm employers of young lawyers should take note of this result so
that this work factor that contributes to work-life imbalance can be addressed.


NON-WORK FACTORS THAT IMPACT WORK-LIFE BALANCE
        The results of the data indicated that a range of non-work factors contribute to a sense of imbalance for
North Carolina young lawyers. In this survey, young lawyers were asked whether specific non-work factors
impacted their ability to balance life and work. The twenty-two factors included in the survey are set forth in
Appendix A.
        At least 10% of respondents (without regard to demographics) cited the non-work factors set forth in
Table 5 as contributing to work-life imbalance.

                                                                  14

                                Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
TABLE 5: Non-Work Factors That Impact Work-Life Balance

                    Percentage of young lawyers who perceive
    Rank:                                                                                                     Factor
                     that the factor impacts work-life balance

      1                                62.3%                                                Household maintenance and chores

      2                                45.3%                                               Family activities/'quality' family time

      3                                44.7%                                                              Sports/exercise

      4                                34.5%                                                 Financial issues/business interests

      5                                33.7%                                      Building and maintaining relationships (social life)

      6                                28.5%                                                              Care of children

      7                                28.1%                                               Management of family commitments

      8                                25.8%                                                      Personal interests/hobbies

      9                                22.1%                                                                 Vacation

      10                               18.1%                                                       Spouse's work schedule

      11                               17.2%                                                              Civic activities

      12                               14.8%                                                                Care of pets

      13                               13.8%                                                        Personal development

      14                               11.3%                                                                  Dating


      Those non-work factors viewed as having the least effect on work-life balance are set forth in Table 6.

TABLE 6: Non-Work Factors That Have the Least Impact on Work-Life Balance

                    Percentage of young lawyers who perceive
    Rank:                                                                                                     Factor
                     that the factor impacts work-life balance

      1                                1.2%                                     Alcohol/drug dependency (personal or family member)

      2                                2.0%                                                         Non-supportive spouse

      3                                2.4%                                                         Other (please specify)

      4                                5.8%                                                Care of parents/adult family member

      5                                6.4%                                                           Medical issues (self)




                                                                 15

                               Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
DATA ANALYSIS: PERSONAL DIMENSION
        North Carolina young lawyers spoke loudly and clearly on the number one factor that most impacts
their work-life balance from a personal perspective. Regardless of Gender, Marital status, or Family status,
Household maintenance and chores appeared in every demographic category, and four times in the number one
slot. Only those who were not married or who had no children ranked this factor as something other than the
most important factor affecting work-life balance (Refer to Table 7).
        Sports and exercise is another factor that pervasively impacts work-life balance. This factor materialized as
two or three in significance in every demographic category except the With children category. While this factor was
not in the top five for the With children category, it was ranked 6 out of the 22 factors for this demographic category.
        Another important non-work factor that repeatedly made the top 5, showing up in four of the six
personal characteristic categories, was Family activities/'quality' family time. This non-work factor did not
surface at all in the top five list for Not married and No children categories. It is logical that those respondents
who were not married or who did not have children would view this non-work factor as of lower significance
in the work-life balance challenge.
        These results are important to the profession’s leadership and management. The vigor and
pervasiveness of young lawyers’ feelings about how Household maintenance and chores, Sports and exercise,
and Family activities/'quality' family time affect life balance is a signal to leadership and management that
designing policies or providing services to address these three non-work factors would be a practical move with
long term positive implications. Unfortunately, it appears that young lawyers feel compelled to spend “personal
time” that may otherwise have been used for maintaining a household, exercising or spending quality time with
family on billing hours or other firm investment activities. Implementing policies or providing services that work
to reduce these three primary concerns is a way to expeditiously implement positive change across the board
for young lawyers trying to attain work-life balance.
        Another non-work factor that appeared four times in the top five was Building and maintaining
relationships (social life). While this factor did not make the top five for married respondents and respondents
with children, it was ranked 7 and 8 respectively, making it a top ten factor for every demographic.
        The Care of children was important to specific segments of the sample population responding to the
survey. While this non-work factor ranked sixth overall, Females, Married couples, and Couples with children
perceived the Care of children as more important, ranking it among their top five. In fact, those respondents in
the Married with children category ranked this non-work factor as the most significant. The information that
can be culled from this data is that Child care is a factor that alters work-life balance only for those people who
have children. Thus, when designing policies and practices for improving work-life balance, a component of the
plan should address the needs of young lawyers with children.

                                                                    16

                                  Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                  Demographic       Demographic      Demographic    Factor Ranked 1     Factor Ranked 2     Factor Ranked 3      Factor Ranked 4     Factor Ranked 5
                                                                                                                                                                   Building and
                                                                                                      Household                                 Family
                                                                                                                                                                    maintaining
                                                                                                     maintenance        Sports/exercise   activities/'quality'                       Care of children
                                                                                       Female                                                                      relationships
                                                                                                      and chores      (Ranked 3 overall)     family time                            (Ranked 6 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                    (social life)
                                                                                                   (Ranked 1 overall)                    (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                       Gender
                                                                                                                                                                                      Building and
                                                                                                      Household              Family                                 Financial
                                                                                                                                                                                       maintaining
                                                                                                     maintenance       activities/'quality'   Sports/exercise    issues/business
                                                                                        Male                                                                                          relationships
                                                                                                      and chores          family time       (Ranked 3 overall)       interests
                                                                                                                                                                                       (social life)
                                                                                                   (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 2 overall)                       (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                    (Ranked 5 overall)




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                                                     Building and
                                                                                                                         Household
                                                                                                      maintaining                                                     Dating             Personal
                                                                                                                        maintenance        Sports/exercise
                                                                                     Not Married     relationships                                                  (Ranked 14       interests/hobbies
                                                                                                                         and chores      (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                      (social life)                                                   overall)      (Ranked 8 overall)
                                                                                                                      (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                   (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                   Management of
                                                                    Marital Status




                                                                                                                                                                                                         17
                                                                                                                                                                                         family
TABLE 7: Non-Work Factors by Personal Dimension




                                                    Personal
                                                  Characteristics                                     Household              Family                                                  commitments
                                                                                                     maintenance       activities/'quality'   Sports/exercise   Care of children (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                       Married
                                                                                                      and chores          family time       (Ranked 3 overall) (Ranked 6 overall)      Financial
                                                                                                   (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 2 overall)                                            issues/business
                                                                                                                                                                                        interests
                                                                                                                                                                                  (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                              Building and
                                                                                                      Household                                                     Financial
                                                                                                                                               maintaining                             Personal
                                                                                                     maintenance        Sports/exercise                          issues/business
                                                                                     No Children                                              relationships                        interests/hobbies
                                                                                                      and chores      (Overall rank of 3)                            interests
                                                                                                                                               (social life)                      (Ranked 8 overall)
                                                                                                   (Ranked 1 overall)                                          (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                            (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                    Family Status
                                                                                                                           Family           Household        Management of          Financial
                                                                                                    Care of children activities/'quality'  maintenance           family          issues/business
                                                                                      Children
                                                                                                   (Ranked 6 overall)    family time        and chores        commitments            interests
                                                                                                                      (Ranked 2 overall) (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 7 overall) (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                        Demographic       Demographic     Demographic        Factor Ranked 1     Factor Ranked 2     Factor Ranked 3       Factor Ranked 4    Factor Ranked 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Building and
                                                                                                               Household              Family                                    Financial
                                                                                                                                                                                                 maintaining
                                                                                          Organization:       maintenance       activities/'quality'   Sports/exercise       issues/business
                                                                                                                                                                                                 relationships
                                                                                           Law Firm            and chores          family time       (Ranked 3 overall)          interests
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (social life)
                                                                                                            (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 2 overall)                          (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                              (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                           Employer
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Building and
                                                                                                               Household                                    Family              Financial
                                                                                                                                                                                                 maintaining
                                                                                          Organization:       maintenance        Sports/exercise      activities/'quality'   issues/business
                                                                                                                                                                                                 relationships
                                                                                             Other             and chores      (Ranked 3 overall)        family time             interests
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (social life)
                                                                                                            (Ranked 1 overall)                        (Overall rank 2) (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                              (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Building and
                                                                                                               Household            Financial                               Family
                                                                                                                                                                                                 maintaining
                                                                                          Organization:       maintenance        issues/business    Sports/exercise   activities/'quality'




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                                                                                                                                                 relationships
                                                                                          1-10 Lawyers         and chores            interests    (Ranked 3 overall)     family time
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (social life)
                                                                                                            (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 4 overall)                    (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                              (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                               Household              Family                                 Financial
                                                                                          Organization:       maintenance       activities/'quality'   Sports/exercise    issues/business   Care of children
                                                                            Size of       11-60 Lawyers        and chores          family time       (Ranked 3 overall)       interests    (Ranked 6 overall)
TABLE 8: Non-Work Factors by Organizational Dimension




                                                                          Organization                      (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 2 overall)                       (Ranked 4 overall)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   18
                                                        Organizational                                                                                                      Building and
                                                                                                               Household              Family
                                                        Characteristics                                                                                                      maintaining          Personal
                                                                                          Organization:       maintenance       activities/'quality'   Sports/exercise
                                                                                                                                                                            relationships     interests/hobbies
                                                                                          60+ Lawyers          and chores          family time       (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                             (social life)   (Ranked 8 overall)
                                                                                                            (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                          (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                Building and
                                                                                                               Household              Family                                 Financial
                                                                                                                                                                                                maintaining
                                                                                          Billable hours:     maintenance       activities/'quality'   Sports/exercise    issues/business
                                                                                                                                                                                                relationships
                                                                                               <1851           and chores          family time       (Ranked 3 overall)       interests
                                                                                                                                                                                                 (social life)
                                                                                                            (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 2 overall)                       (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                             (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                             Building and
                                                                                                               Household              Family                                                      Financial
                                                                                                                                                                             maintaining
                                                                             Annual       Billable Hours:     maintenance       activities/'quality'   Sports/exercise                         issues/business
                                                                                                                                                                             relationships
                                                                          Billable Hour        1851+           and chores          family time       (Ranked 3 overall)                            interests
                                                                                                                                                                              (social life)
                                                                          Requirements                      (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 2 overall)                                            (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                          (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                Building and
                                                                                                               Household                                Family            Financial
                                                                                                                                                                                                maintaining
                                                                                                              maintenance        Sports/exercise  activities/'quality' issues/business
                                                                                               N/A                                                                                              relationships
                                                                                                               and chores      (Ranked 3 overall)    family time           interests
                                                                                                                                                                                                 (social life)
                                                                                                            (Ranked 1 overall)                    (Overall rank 2) (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                             (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                          continues on next page
                                                                Demographic        Demographic       Demographic      Factor Ranked 1     Factor Ranked 2     Factor Ranked 3       Factor Ranked 4    Factor Ranked 5
                                                                                                                        Household                                 Family            Financial
                                                                                                     Hours Worked:     maintenance        Sports/exercise   activities/'quality' issues/business  Care of children
                                                                                                        <1851           and chores      (Ranked 3 overall)     family time           interests   (Ranked 6 overall)
                                                                                                                     (Ranked 1 overall)                    (Ranked 2 overall) (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                      Building and
                                                                                                                        Household                                 Family                                   Financial
                                                                                                                                                                                      maintaining
                                                                                                     Hours Worked:     maintenance        Sports/exercise   activities/'quality'                        issues/business
                                                                                                                                                                                      relationships
                                                                                                       1851-2050        and chores      (Ranked 3 overall)     family time                                  interests
                                                                                                                                                                                       (social life)
                                                                                                                     (Ranked 1 overall)                    (Ranked 2 overall)                         (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                  Hours worked                                                                                     (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                    Annually




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                                                                                                                                    Building and
                                                                                                                                                                                     maintaining
                                                                                                                                                                                    relationships
TABLE 8: Non-Work Factors by Organizational Dimension (cont.)




                                                                                                                        Household              Family
                                                                                                                                                                                     (social life)
                                                                                                     Hours Worked:     maintenance       activities/'quality'   Sports/exercise
                                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                        2051+           and chores          family time       (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                      Financial
                                                                                                                     (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                   issues/business
                                                                                                                                                                                       interests
                                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 4 overall)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           19
                                                                Organizational
                                                                Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Building and
                                                                                                                        Household                                 Family            Financial
                                                                                                                                                                                                         maintaining
                                                                                                                       maintenance        Sports/exercise   activities/'quality' issues/business
                                                                                                      Supervise: 0                                                                                       relationships
                                                                                                                        and chores      (Ranked 3 overall)     family time           interests
                                                                                                                                                                                                          (social life)
                                                                                                                     (Ranked 1 overall)                    (Ranked 2 overall) (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                    Building and
                                                                                                                                                                                     maintaining
                                                                                                                                                                                    relationships
                                                                                                                        Household                                 Family
                                                                                   Supervisory                                                                                       (social life)
                                                                                                                       maintenance        Sports/exercise   activities/'quality'
                                                                                  Responsibilities    Supervise: 1                                                               (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                        and chores      (Ranked 3 overall)     family time
                                                                                                                                                                                      Financial
                                                                                                                     (Ranked 1 overall)                    (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                   issues/business
                                                                                                                                                                                       interests
                                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                      Building and
                                                                                                                        Household            Family                                                        Financial
                                                                                                                                                                                      maintaining
                                                                                                                      maintenance and activities/'quality'   Sports/exercise                            issues/business
                                                                                                     Supervise: 2+                                                                    relationships
                                                                                                                          chores           family time     (Ranked 3 overall)                               interests
                                                                                                                                                                                       (social life)
                                                                                                                     (Ranked 1 overall) (Ranked 2 overall)                                            (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                   (Ranked 5 overall)
DATA ANALYSIS: ORGANIZATIONAL DIMENSION
        Unlike the work-factor analysis, when accounting for organizational characteristics for the non-work
factor data, a more uniformed pattern appeared among the top ranked non-work factors (Refer to Table 8). In
every organizational category, Household maintenance and chores appeared as the number one non-work
factor affecting work-life balance. Sports/exercise and Family activities/’quality’ family time were in the top five
in every demographic category as well. This information provides the legal community with useful information,
as it indicates that there is uniformity among young lawyers as to the non-work factors that affect their ability
to find a balance between their professional and personal lives.
        Financial issues/business interests appeared in the top five in every category except Law firms with over
60 lawyers. In the Over 60 lawyers demographic, this factor ranked 8, indicating that while it is not a top five
issue for lawyers who work in large firms, it still is a concern.
        At first glance, another organizational deviation appears to be that young lawyers who work in firms of
11-60 lawyers and lawyers who work less than 1851 hours do not rank Building and maintaining relationships
(social life) within the top five factors. However, in both categories this factor ranked 6, making this non-work
factor significant in every category of organizational demographic.
        While Care of children ranked 6 overall, it made it into the top 5 only for organizations with 11 to 60
lawyers and for those respondents who worked less than 1851 hours. However, this non-work factor placed in
the top 10 by every organizational demographic except for the Not married and No children demographics, who
ranked this factor 17 and 22 respectively. These results further validate the assertion that young lawyers who
are married and who have children have different needs when designing an organization-wide program to
address work-life balance.
        The information presented in this section allows organizations to select the demographics that most
mirror their own organization. Using the conclusions drawn from the survey data allows organizations to design
organization-specific work-life balance plans to meet their young lawyers’ specific needs.


FACTORS IMPACTING RETENTION
        As part of the survey, young lawyers were asked what factors would most likely cause them to leave
their current place of employment. The results from the data are summarized in Table 9.




                                                                   20

                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
TABLE 9: Factors Impacting Retention
                                                   Percentage of Young Lawyers for whom
                     Rank:                                                                                                    Factor
                                                        this factor impacts retention
                       1                                                 24.2%                                Family/home management/care issue

                       2                                                 24.0%                                            Financial issue

                       3                                                 15.1%                                      Personal development issue

                       4                                                 13.0%                               Employer expectations/demands issue

                       5                                                 11.9%                                        Other (please specify)
                                                                                                                     Inadequacy of employer
                       6                                                 8.8%
                                                                                                                     support/policies/benefits
                       7                                                 3.2%                                   Client expectations/demands issue


DATA ANALYSIS BY PERSONAL DIMENSION
        Filtering the data by personal demographics revealed that young lawyers are fairly united in what will
make them leave a position (Refer to Table 10).

TABLE 10: Factors Impacting Retention by Personal Dimension


   Demographic               Demographic              Demographic               Factor Ranked 1             Factor Ranked 2         Factor Ranked 3


                                                                                  Family/home                                       Employer
                                                                                 management/care             Financial issue  expectations/demands
                                                          Female
                                                                                      issue                (Ranked 2 overall)         issue
                                                                                (Ranked 1 overall)                             (Ranked 4 overall)
                                Gender
                                                                                                                                   amily/home
                                                                                                                Personal
                                                                                  Financial issue                               management/care
                                                           Male                                            Development issue
                                                                                (Ranked 2 overall)                                    issue
                                                                                                           (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                    Employer
                                                                                                                Personal
                                                                                  Financial issue                             expectations/demands
                                                      Not Married                                          Development issue
                                                                                (Ranked 2 overall)                                    issue
                                                                                                           (Ranked 3 overall)
     Personal                                                                                                                  (Ranked 1 overall)
                             Marital Status
   Characteristics                                                                Family/home
                                                                                                                                       Personal
                                                                                 management/care             Financial issue
                                                         Married                                                                   Development issue
                                                                                      issue                (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                   (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                             Family/home
                                                                                                                                       Personal
                                                                                  Financial issue           management/care
                                                      No Children                                                                  Development issue
                                                                                (Ranked 2 overall)               issue
                                                                                                                                   (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                           (Ranked 1 overall)
                             Family Status
                                                                                  Family/home
                                                                                                                                       Personal
                                                                                management/care              Financial issue
                                                         Children                                                                  Development issue
                                                                                issue (Ranked 1            (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                   (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                    overall)

                                                                           21

                                         Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
        Consistently, across demographic categories, Financial issues appeared among the top three reasons
why young lawyers would leave a position. Family/home management/care issues were in the top three for every
category except the Non-married category. This segment of the sample population ranked this issue as 6 in
importance. Personal development issues were in the top three for every demographic category except for
Females, who ranked that issue as a fourth reason for leaving.


DATA ANALYSIS BY ORGANIZATIONAL DIMENSION
        Filtering the data by organizational dimension showed similar trends to that of the data when filtered
by personal dimension (Refer to Table 11). While the initial impression may be that personal factors impacting
work-life balance are not an organizational problem or not readily addressable by the organization, such an
impression simply is not true. Legal employers can leverage this data to their benefit by designing organizational
policies and procedures that account for these concerns and offer flexibility when personal factors challenge
young lawyers’ work-life balance, thereby empowering their young lawyers for success, engendering
loyalty and reducing attrition in their organizations.
        In examining the data from an organizational dimension, Family/home management/care issues
emerged as the number one or number two reason why a young lawyer would feel compelled to leave
employment. Financial issues was a top three reason to leave for every category except for firms with more than
60 lawyers. For that category, it was the number four reason. Personal development issues was in the top three
for every demographic category except for organizations with 10 or fewer attorneys and for those attorneys who
billed more than 1851 hours annually. Both of these categories rated Personal development issues as their fourth
reason for leaving a legal position.


FACTORS THAT IMPROVE WORK-LIFE BALANCE
        The survey offered young lawyers a list of perquisites (“perqs”) and asked several questions regarding
them. The data results are summarized in Table 12.
        Young lawyers were asked by the survey if their organization offered the perquisite listed. If the
perquisite was available, then they were asked if the perquisite improved work-life balance. Analyses of the
data indicate that all of the perquisites improved work-life balance with some perquisites improving work-
life balance more dramatically than others.
        The most obvious conclusion to be drawn from this data is that every perquisite cited offered significant
improvement to young lawyer work-life balance. For instance, designing an internal policy that allows young
lawyers Protected vacation time has an extremely high rate of return for improving work-life balance while
offering something as simple as a Nap/relaxation room offers an almost 40% approval rate. This information

                                                                   22

                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                    Demographic           Demographic             Demographic            Factor Ranked 1          Factor Ranked 2            Factor Ranked 3
                                                                                                                                           Family/home
                                                                                                                                                                   Financial issue         Personal Development
                                                                                                              Organization: Law Firm   management/care issue
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 2 overall)       issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                            Employer
                                                                                                                                                                   Family/home
                                                                                                                                          Financial issue                                 Personal Development
                                                                                                               Organization: Other                             management/care issue
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 2 overall)                                issu (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                   Family/home
                                                                                                                Organization: 1-10        Financial issue                                        Other
                                                                                                                                                               management/care issue
                                                                                                                    Lawyers             (Ranked 2 overall)                                  (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 1 overall
                                                                                                                                           Family/home
                                                                                                               Organization: 11-60                                 Financial issue         Personal Development
                                                                                       Size of Organization                            management/care issue
                                                                                                                   Lawyers                                       (Ranked 2 overall)       issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
TABLE 11: Factors Impacting Retention by Organizational Dimension




                                                                                                                                           Family/home                Employer
                                                                                                                Organization: 60+                                                          Personal Development
                                                                                                                                       management/care issue     expectations/demands
                                                                                                                    Lawyers                                                               issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)     issue (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                           Family/home
                                                                                                                                                                   Financial issue         Personal Development
                                                                                                               Billable hours: <1851   management/care issue
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 2 overall)       issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                           Family/home                Employer
                                                                                       Annual Billable Hour                                                                                   Financial issue
                                                                                                               Billable Hours: 1851+   management/care issue     expectations/demands
                                                                                          Requirements                                                                                      (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)     issue (Ranked 4 overall)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     23
                                                                    Organizational                                                                                   Family/home
                                                                                                                                          Financial issue                                  Personal Development
                                                                    Characteristics                                    N/A                                      management/care issue
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 2 overall)                                issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                  (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                           Family/home
                                                                                                                                                                   Financial issue          Personal Development
                                                                                                              Hours Worked: <1851      management/care issue
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 2 overall)       issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                           Personal Development
                                                                                                                                                                   Family/home            issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                 Hours Worked:            Financial issue
                                                                                      Hours worked Annually                                                    management/care issue             Employer
                                                                                                                   1851-2050            (Ranked 2 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                (Ranked 1 overall)          expectations/demands
                                                                                                                                                                                          issue (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                           Family/home
                                                                                                                                                                   Financial issue         Personal Development
                                                                                                              Hours Worked: 2051+      management/care issue
                                                                                                                                                                  (Ranked 2 overall       issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                   Family/home
                                                                                                                                          Financial issue                                  Personal Development
                                                                                                                   Supervise: 0                                management/care issue
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 2 overall)                                issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                           Family/home
                                                                                          Supervisory                                                              Financial issue          Personal Development
                                                                                                                   Supervise: 1        management/care issue
                                                                                         Responsibilities                                                        (Ranked 2 overall)       issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)
                                                                                                                                           Family/home
                                                                                                                                                                   Financial issue          Personal Development
                                                                                                                   Supervise: 2+       management/care issue
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 2 overall)       issue (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                        (Ranked 1 overall)
TABLE 12: Factors That Improve Work-Life Balance
                                     Of those Young Lawyers who
     Rank: Improved balance        have the perq, the percentage who                                                   Perq
                                    believe it has improved balance5
                                                                                      Protected vacation time (i.e., no required canceling, no
                  1                               91.4%
                                                                                                           interruptions)
                  2                               87.5%                                      Competent, accessible paralegal support
                  3                               86.3%                                       Competent, accessible secretarial support
                  4                               84.4%                      Sufficient administrative staff support (technical, word processing, etc.)

                  5                               83.8%                                                 Employer-stocked kitchen

                  6                               81.5%                        Play room for children who must come to the office for short periods.
                                                                              Option to phase back in to work after leave for birth or adoption of
                  7                               77.9%
                                                                                                           a child
                  8                               77.6%                              Employment Culture Supportive of Fewer billable hours
                                                                             Recognition of contributions of individual attorneys (including part-
                  9                               75.4%
                                                                                                       time attorneys)
                 10                               72.3%                                              Remote connection technology
                 11                               72.2%                                 No (officially or unofficially) required 'office' hours
                 12                               68.4%                                                   Control over workload
                 13                               66.2%                            Compressed work weeks (i.e., longer, fewer days per week)
                 14                               65.5%                               Paid Leave to care for sick or disabled family members

                 15                               65.0%                                                    Paid Maternity Leave
                 16                               61.4%                                                    Paid Paternity Leave
                                                                              Employer-sponsored 'Concierge' Services (for errands like getting lunch,
                 17                               60.3%
                                                                                       dry cleaning, grocery shopping/meal planning, etc.)
                 18                               60.0%                        A cap on the number of non-collectible hours requested annually
                                                                             Flexible (nontraditional) work/salary/partnership track combination
                 19                               58.9%
                                                                                                        arrangements
                 20                               58.4%                              Flexible (nontraditional) partnership/membership track
                 21                               56.4%                                         Employer-sponsored training programs
                 22                               55.3%                                      Regular Employer-sponsored social events
                 23                               53.2%                                              An official mentoring program

                 24                               47.7%                                  Employer-sponsored gym/health club membership

                 25                               44.0%                         Sabbaticals (i.e., one month or longer leaves at periodic points)

                 26                               42.9%                                         Employer-sponsored charitable events
                 27                               41.2%                                              Employer-sponsored childcare
                 28                               39.6%                                                    Nap/Relaxation room
                                                                             360 degree reviews (Opportunity to review and be reviewed by everyone
                 29                               39.1%
                                                                                      you work with, both peers and supervising attorneys.)

5
    Respondents were allowed to select more than one perq so percentages exceed 100%.

                                                                              24

                                            Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
offers important insight into the small but high impact perquisite offerings can make to improve work-life
balance for young lawyers.


FACTORS PERCEIVED AS IMPROVING WORK-LIFE BALANCE
       Respondents were asked to rate the perquisites that they did not have which they believe would most
likely improve their work-life balance. Based on the data, there was a tie between an Employment culture
supportive of fewer billable hours and Employer-sponsored gym/health club membership for the number one
overall ranking. The survey results are set forth in Table 13. Compressed workweeks along with Employer-
sponsored concierge services were also popular with respondents. Rounding out the top ten most popular
factors for improving work-life balance were Control over workload; Protected vacation time; No required
office hours; Sabbaticals; Competent, accessible secretarial support; and Employer-sponsored childcare. This
ranking of perquisites that improve work-life balance according to North Carolina young lawyers offers
employers a starting point for designing improvement programs for work-life balance for young lawyers.


FACTORS, REAL AND PERCEIVED,THAT IMPROVE WORK-LIFE BALANCE
       The survey results for the percentage of respondents who think a policy has improved work life balance
(Table 12) and the survey results for the percentage of respondents who think a policy would improve work life
balance if they had it (Table 13) were combined to determine full perceived impact of the various factors. The
combined data were filtered by personal and organizational dimensions. The results from this analysis are
discussed below with a summary of the results appearing in Tables 14 and 15.

DATA ANALYSIS BY PERSONAL DIMENSION
       The factors that improve and are perceived as improving work-life balance were further sorted by
personal demographic and are presented in Table 14. Two factors were common to all of the personal
characteristic demographic categories: Compressed workweek, ranking two, three or four across the
categories, and Employer-sponsored concierge services, ranking three, four and five across the categories. and
Employer-sponsored concierge services, ranking three, four and five across the categories. When assessing
these results, it is evident that North Carolina young lawyers are searching for ways to increase personal
time. By working a compressed workweek like 4 ten-hour days, a young lawyer frees up a whole business
day to attend to Household maintenance and chores, Exercise or play sports, spend Quality time on family
activities, or engage in other important non-work activities. Offering Concierge services, for example, may
allow young lawyers to avoid investing all of their limited free time on errands. The time normally spent on
such activities can be directed to more important concerns—concerns that if not addressed, lead to attrition.
       The factor tied for overall first, Employment culture supportive of fewer billable hours, was in the top
                                                                  25

                                Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
TABLE 13: Factors Perceived as Improving Work-Life Balance

                                     Percentage of Young Lawyers
       Rank: Would Improve            who believe the perq would
                                                                                                                       Perq
             balance                improve work-life balance if they
                                                had it

                  1                               29.5%                               Employment culture supportive of fewer billable hours
                  1                               29.5%                                  Employer-sponsored gym/health club membership
                  3                               28.8%                                                  Compressed work weeks
                  4                               27.4%                                         Employer-sponsored concierge services
                  5                               25.0%                                                   Control over workload
                  6                               23.5%                                                  Protected vacation time
                  7                               23.2%                                 No (officially or unofficially) required 'office' hours
                  8                               22.2%                                                          Sabbaticals
                  9                               19.3%                                       Competent, accessible secretarial support
                  10                              18.8%                                              Employer-sponsored childcare
                  11                              18.6%                        Flexible work/salary/partnership track combination arrangements
                  12                              17.8%                                        Competent, accessible paralegal support
                  13                              15.9%                                              An official mentoring program
                  14                              14.6%                            Playroom for children who come to office for short periods
                  15                              12.2%                                             Sufficient administrative support
                  16                              12.0%                                                    Nap/relaxation room
                  17                              11.0%                                                 Employer-stocked kitchen
                  18                              10.9%                       Option to phase back into work after leave for birth or adoption of a child

                  19                              10.4%                      A cap on the number of non-collectible hours requested of attorneys annually

                  19                              10.4%                                              Remote connection technology
                  21                              10.0%                                                     360 degree reviews
                  22                               9.6%                                   Flexible partnership/membership track available
                  23                               8.4%                                                    Paid Maternity leave
                  24                               7.9%                                 Recognition of contributions of individual attorneys
                  25                               7.8%                                                    Paid Paternity Leave
                  26                               5.8%                                       Regular employer-sponsored social events
                  27                               5.3%                                         Employer-sponsored training programs
                  28                               4.4%                              Paid Leave to care for a sick or disabled family member
                  29                               2.4%                                         Employer-sponsored charitable events

5
    Respondents were allowed to select more than one perq so percentages exceed 100%.

                                                                              26

                                            Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                                            Demographic       Demographic      Demographic    Factor Ranked 1     Factor Ranked 2       Factor Ranked 3     Factor Ranked 4     Factor Ranked 5
                                                                                                                                                                                         Employer-
TABLE 14: Factors that are Perceived as Improving Work-Life Balance by Personal Dimension




                                                                                                                                                                                         sponsored
                                                                                                                                                Employer-                                                                       No (officially or
                                                                                                                                                                                     concierge services
                                                                                                                                                 sponsored       Compressed work                                                  unofficially)
                                                                                                                                                                                    (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                 Female       gym/health club         weeks                                                     required 'office'
                                                                                                                                                                                        Employment
                                                                                                                                                membership       (Ranked 3 overall)                                                  hours
                                                                                                                                                                                     culture supportive
                                                                                                                                               (Tied for 1st)                                                                  (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                      of fewer billable
                                                                                                                                                                                    hours (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                 Gender
                                                                                                                                                                                          Employer-
                                                                                                                                                 Employment                                                                      Employer-
                                                                                                                                                                    Control over           sponsored       Compressed work




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                                                                                              culture supportive                                                                 sponsored
                                                                                                                                  Male                                workload          gym/health club         weeks
                                                                                                                                               of fewer billable                                                              concierge services
                                                                                                                                                                  (Ranked 5 overall)      membership       (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                             hours (Tied for 1st)                                                             (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                         (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                                                Employer-            Competent,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Employer-
                                                                                                                                                 sponsored       accessible paralegal   Control over     Compressed work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               sponsored
                                                                                                                               Not Married    gym/health club          support            workload            weeks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            concierge services
                                                                                                                                                membership           (Ranked 12       (Ranked 5 overall) (Ranked 3 overall)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     27
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                              Personal                                         (Tied for 1st)          overall)
                                                                                            Characteristics
                                                                                                              Marital Status
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Employer-
                                                                                                                                                 Employment                             Employer-                                 Employer-
                                                                                                                                                                  Compressed work                              sponsored
                                                                                                                                              culture supportive                        sponsored                             sponsored childcare
                                                                                                                                 Married                               weeks                                gym/health club
                                                                                                                                               of fewer billable                     concierge services                          (Ranked 10
                                                                                                                                                                  (Ranked 3 overall)                          membership
                                                                                                                                             hours (Tied for 1st)                    (Ranked 4 overall)                            overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                                                Employer-
                                                                                                                                                                     Employment                             Employer-
                                                                                                                                                 sponsored                            Compressed work                         Control over
                                                                                                                                                                  culture supportive                        sponsored
                                                                                                                               No Children    gym/health club                              weeks                                workload
                                                                                                                                                                   of fewer billable                     concierge services
                                                                                                                                                membership                            (Ranked 3 overall)                    (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                 hours (Tied for 1st)                    (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                               (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                              Family Status                                         Playroom for
                                                                                                                                                                 children who come                                                Employment
                                                                                                                                                 Employer-        to office for short                         Employer-        culture supportive
                                                                                                                                             sponsored childcare        periods                               sponsored         of fewer billable
                                                                                                                                Children
                                                                                                                                                (Ranked 10       (ranked 14 overall)                       concierge services hours (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                                                  overall)        Compressed work                          (Ranked 4 overall)      Sabbaticals
                                                                                                                                                                        weeks                                                  (ranked 8 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 3 overall)
five in every demographic except for those lawyers who were not married. In that category, having an
Employment culture supportive of fewer billable hours ranked seventh. The same trend occurred for an
Employer-sponsored gym/health club membership. This factor was in the top five for every category except the
family status With children category. In that category, having an Employer-sponsored gym/health club
membership ranked 7.
        Two important deviations were indicated by the data provided by those young lawyers who are married
and/or have children. These young lawyers ranked Employer-sponsored childcare among the top five factors that
would improve their work-life balance. In fact, those young lawyers who have children ranked Employer-
sponsored childcare first. Those who are married (including both those who do and those who do not have
children) still ranked this factor fifth. Another deviation arose in the young lawyers who have children
demographic, as they ranked second the Need for a playroom for children who come to the office for short periods.


DATA ANALYSIS BY ORGANIZATIONAL DIMENSION
        The factors that improved and are perceived as improving work-life balance were also filtered according
to organizational dimension. Analysis of this data indicated that there is no consensus on any one factor, i.e.
there is no one factor that appears in every organizational category. In fact, there is great scatter among the
demographics. A summary of the results are presented in Table 15.
        Of the fourteen organizational categories used as filters for the raw data, Employer-sponsored
gym/health club membership appeared in thirteen of the categories, making it the most cited factor for
improving work-life balance. The one category that did not mention Employer-sponsored gym/health club
membership in the top five was young lawyers working in firms of 1 to 10 lawyers. They ranked an Employer-
sponsored gym/health club membership as sixth in importance.
        The next most popular factor young lawyers viewed as having the potential to improve work-life balance was
the Compressed workweek. This factor appeared eleven times across the different organizational demographics.
Young lawyers who work in firms of larger than 60 attorneys, Young lawyers who bill more than 1850 hours and
Young lawyers who worked more than 2050 hours ranked this factor either six or seven in importance.
        Another popular factor was Employer-sponsored concierge services. It appeared ten times among the
fourteen organizational characteristics. The categories that did not include this factor among its top five factors
are Non-law firm employers, Young lawyers working in firms of 1 to 10 lawyers, Young lawyers billing less than
1850 hours, and those Young lawyers who have no supervisory responsibilities. However, this factor ranked six,
seven, or eight, for these demographic categories, showing that it is also important to these groups.
        A final factor that dominates the fourteen different demographic categories is an Employment culture
supportive of fewer billable hours. This factor appears nine times among the different categories.

                                                                   28

                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                         Demographic       Demographic         Demographic       Factor Ranked 1       Factor Ranked 2    Factor Ranked 3     Factor Ranked 4     Factor Ranked 5
                                                                                                                                                        Employer-
                                                                                                                                    Employment                           Employer-
                                                                                                                                                        sponsored                        Compressed work Protected vacation
                                                                                                               Organization:     culture supportive                      sponsored
                                                                                                                                                      gym/health club                         weeks               time
                                                                                                                Law Firm          of fewer billable                   concierge services
                                                                                                                                                     membership (Tied                    (Ranked 3 overall) (Ranked 6 overall)
                                                                                                                                hours (Tied for 1st)                  (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                         for 1st)
                                                                                             Employer
TABLE 15: Factors That are Perceived as Improving Work-Life Balance by




                                                                                                                                                      Employer-      No (officially or    Competent,          Competent,
                                                                                                                                Compressed work       sponsored        unofficially)       accessible     accessible paralegal
                                                                                                               Organization:
                                                                                                                                     weeks          gym/health club  required 'office'    secretarial           support
                                                                                                                  Other
                                                                                                                                (Ranked 3 overall) membership (Tied       hours             support           (Ranked 12




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                                                                                                       for 1st)     (Ranked 7 overall) (Ranked 9 overall)       overall)
                                                                                                                                                                        Competent,
                                                                                                                                                                         accessible
                                                                                                                                                    Competent,       secretarial support
                                                                                                                                Compressed work accessible paralegal (Ranked 9 overall)                             Control over
                                                                                                               Organization:
                                                                                                                                     weeks            suppor          No (officially or                               workload
                                                                                                               1-10 Lawyers
                                                                                                                                (Ranked 3 overall)  (Ranked 12          unofficially)                             (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                      overall)        required 'office'




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       29
                                                                         Organizational                                                                                     hours
                                                                         Characteristics                                                                             (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                              Size of                                                    Employer-
                                                                                                                                    Employment                               Employer-
                                                                                            Organization                                                  sponsored                          Compressed work Protected vacation
                                                                                                              Organization:      culture supportive                          sponsored
          Organizational Dimension




                                                                                                                                                       gym/health club                            weeks               time
                                                                                                              11-60 Lawyers       of fewer billable                       concierge services
                                                                                                                                                         membership                          (Ranked 3 overall) (Ranked 6 overall)
                                                                                                                                hours (Tied for 1st)                      (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                        (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                                                         Employer-                           Protected vacation
                                                                                                                                  Employment                                 Employer-
                                                                                                                                                          sponsored                                 time
                                                                                                             Organization: 60+ culture supportive                            sponsored
                                                                                                                                                       gym/health club                       (Ranked 6 overall)
                                                                                                                 Lawyers        of fewer billable                         concierge services
                                                                                                                                                         membership                             Sabbaticals
                                                                                                                               hours (Tied for 1st)                       (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                        (Tied for 1st)                       (Ranked 8 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Control over
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      workload
                                                                                                                                                                           No (officially or
                                                                                                                                    Employment                                                                     (Rank 5 overall)
                                                                                           Annual Billable                                           Compressed work         unofficially)
                                                                                                              Billable hours:    culture supportive                                             Sabbaticals           Employer-
                                                                                               Hour                                                       weeks            required 'office'
                                                                                                                   <1851          of fewer billable                                          (Ranked 8 overall)       sponsored
                                                                                           Requirements                                              (Ranked 3 overall)         hours
                                                                                                                                hours (Tied for 1st)                                                               gym/health club
                                                                                                                                                                          (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     membership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            continues on next page
                                                                         Demographic          Demographic            Demographic           Factor Ranked 1       Factor Ranked 2        Factor Ranked 3          Factor Ranked 4         Factor Ranked 5
                                                                                                                                          Employment culture                                                   Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                                                                                      Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                                          supportive of fewer Protected vacation time                           gym/health club   Control over workload
                                                                                                                  Billable Hours: 1851+                                                concierge services
                                                                                                                                             billable hours     (Ranked 6 overall)                                membership       (Ranked 5 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                       (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                             (Tied for 1st)                                                      (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                           Annual Billable Hour
                                                                                              Requirements                                                                                                     Competent, accessible
                                                                                                 (cont.)                                  Employer-sponsored                                                      paralegal support
                                                                                                                                                                Compressed work       Competent, accessible
                                                                                                                                           gym/health club                                                      (Ranked 12 overall)
                                                                                                                          N/A                                        weeks             secretarial support
                                                                                                                                             membership                                                        Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                                                                (Ranked 3 overall)     (Ranked 9 overall)
                                                                                                                                            (Tied for 1st)                                                       concierge services
TABLE 15: Factors That are Perceived as Improving Work-Life Balance by




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                         No (officially or
                                                                                                                                                                                      unofficially) required
                                                                                                                                                                Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                                          Compressed work                                 'office' hours                                Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                                                                 gym/health club
                                                                                                                  Hours Worked: <1851          weeks                                   (Ranked 7 overall)                                concierge services




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                                                                                                                                   membership
                                                                                                                                          (Ranked 3 overall)                          An official mentoring                              (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                  (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                                                                                             program
                                                                                                                                                                                      (Ranked 13 overall)
                                                                                                Hours                                                           Employer-sponsored    Employment culture         No (officially or
                                                                                            Worked Annually                               Compressed work                                                                               Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                  Hours Worked: 1851-                            gym/health club       supportive of fewer     unofficially) required
                                                                         Organizational                                                        weeks                                                                                     concierge services
                                                                                                                         2050                                      membership             billable hours           'office' hours
                                                                         Characteristics                                                  (Ranked 3 overall)                                                                             (Ranked 4 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                  (Tied for 1st)          (Tied for 1st)        (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                                                                          Employment culture                          Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                                                                Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                                          supportive of fewer                          gym/health club   Control over workload Protected vacation time
                                                                                                                  Hours Worked: 2051+                            concierge services
                                                                                                                                             billable hours                              membership       (Ranked 5 overall)     (Ranked 6 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 4 overall)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              30
                                                                                                                                             (Tied for 1st)                             (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                                          Employer-sponsored                            No (officially or                          An official mentoring
          Organizational Dimension (cont.)




                                                                                                                                                                Compressed work
                                                                                                                                           gym/health club                            unofficially) required Control over workload       program
                                                                                                                      Supervise: 0                                   weeks
                                                                                                                                             membership                                   'office' hours      (Ranked 5 overall)   (Ranked 13 overall)
                                                                                                                                                                (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                            (Tied for 1st)                             (Ranked 7 overall)
                                                                                                                                          Employment culture                                                   Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                                                                Employer-sponsored                                                      Compressed work
                                                                                              Supervisory                                 supportive of fewer                       Control over workload       gym/health club
                                                                                                                      Supervise: 1                               concierge services                                                          weeks
                                                                                             Responsibilities                                billable hours                          (Ranked 5 overall)           membership
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 4 overall)                                                     (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                             (Tied for 1st)                                                      (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                                                                                      Compressed work
                                                                                                                                          Employment culture                                                                            Employer-sponsored
                                                                                                                                                                Employer-sponsored          weeks
                                                                                                                                          supportive of fewer                                                                            gym/health club
                                                                                                                      Supervise: 2+                              concierge services   (Ranked 3 overall)
                                                                                                                                             billable hours                                                                                membership
                                                                                                                                                                 (Ranked 4 overall) Protected vacation time
                                                                                                                                             (Tied for 1st)                                                                               (Tied for 1st)
                                                                                                                                                                                      (Ranked 6 overall)
        There are some organizational demographic categories that are sufficiently different enough to warrant
further discussion. They include Young lawyers who work in firms of 1 to 10 lawyers and Young lawyers
working in the non-law firm environment. Young lawyers who work in firms of 1 to 10 lawyers have a different
perception of what factors would improve their work-life balance:

        1. Compressed work weeks (Overall rank of 3)
        2. Competent, accessible secretarial support (Overall rank of 9)
        3. Competent, accessible paralegal support (Overall rank of 12)
        4. No (officially or unofficially) required ‘office’ hours (Ranked 7 overall)
        5. Control over workload (Overall rank of 5)

While lawyers in small firms agreed that Compressed work weeks and Control over workload are important
enough to be in the top five, they also ranked office personnel support and not having strict office hours in their
top five factors viewed as having a positive impact on their ability to balance their work and life.
        Young lawyers working in the non-law firm environment appear to have different work-life balance
concerns than young lawyers working in law firms. In fact, their needs reflected those of young lawyers
working in firms of 10 lawyers or less. They ranked the following as their top five factors:

        1. Compressed work weeks (Overall rank of 3)
        2. Employer-sponsored gym/health club membership (Tied for 1st)
        3. No (officially or unofficially) required ‘office’ hours (Ranked 7 overall)
        4. Competent, accessible secretarial support (Overall rank of 9)
        5. Competent, accessible paralegal support (Overall rank of 12)

It is evident that young lawyers working in non-law firm environments have different requirements then those
young lawyers working in law firms. This demographic indicates that the factors that would improve their
work-life balance include having competent office personnel support and not having strict office hours.


BEST PRACTICES
        A benefit of this Report is that North Carolina legal employers are now equipped with detailed
information in five significant areas: (a) work factors that impact work-life balance, (b) non-work factors that
impact work-life balance, (c) factors that impact retention, (d) factors that have improved work-life balance, and
(e) suggested factors that would improve work-life balance. While the leadership of each organization must
determine how to implement the practices that best meet their needs, there is some consensus among young
lawyers regarding what those practices are. The purpose of this section is to emphasize some existing best practices
for improving work-life balance in the legal profession, and because it is analogous, the accounting profession.


                                                                   31

                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
        The first important factor to consider when examining best practices is that Work-life
        commitment requires both vision and flexibility. Broadly worded mission and value statements,
        by themselves, produce little or no change and often breed cynicism. To be credible and
        effective, an organization’s stated work-life values must be embodied in the daily assumptions,
        actions, and attitudes of the organization and its lawyers. (Boston Bar Association Task Force
        on Work-Life Balance, 2000)

Thus, false piety will not work; leaders must walk the talk for work-life balance policies and procedures to be
successful. Formalized policies and procedures must be firmly anchored in the organization’s culture and
honored by those in leadership and management positions. Doing so takes time and commitment from the
organization, its leadership, its partners, and its associates. The task is not a simple one. With this challenge in
mind, this Report now offers some best practices from groups who have previously confronted the work-life
imbalance issue.
        During its research of quality of life issues, the Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional
Challenges and Family Needs (1999) was able to discern some best practices in the legal profession that
encourage and sustain work-life balance:
          • The legal profession should offer individualized, flexible work-family options
          • The options should offer mutual flexibility
          • Law firms should offer alternatives to equity partnership
          • The legal profession, and more specifically law firms, should exhibit a pledge to a culture where
            work-life balance is a priority
          • Work expectations should be clear
          • Methods for feedback on supervisors should include opportunities to report on the supervisor’s
            work-life balance attitude
          • Leave policies should be more flexible to meet family demands
          • Alternative child care services paid for by the law firm for unusual or emergency situations should
            be offered
        Another professional service field has been more aggressive in its approach to the work-life balance
issue. Accounting firms have instituted individualized work-life programs, measures to improve the quality of
interactions with colleagues, and organizational-wide loyalty to balance and accountability for such practices
(Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional Challenges and Family Needs, 1999). One accounting
firm, in particular, was singled-out for its innovative approach to accommodating individualized work-life
programs. Ernst & Young offers a progressive mechanism for assisting employees with designing specialized
work conditions by having an on-line toolkit. This on-line toolkit allows employees to self-design their work
schedules with the organization. By implementing such forward thinking practices, accounting firms have
                                                                   32

                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
reversed many of their profession’s negative trends with far reaching implications:
            • Attrition rates have been reduced.
            • Employee productivity rates have increased.
            • Work quality has increased.
            • Client satisfaction has increased.
            • Recruiting, replacement, and training costs have been reduced.
            • Morale has increased (Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional Challenges and Family
               Needs, 1999).
         Measuring the success of programs has been an obstacle in implementing work-life balance policies.
The Project for Attorney Retention (PAR) (2001) developed a usability test that was devised to verify whether
a law firm’s reduced-hours policy is useful and productive. The test consists of six basic metrics. Each metric
and its purpose are set forth in Table 16.

TABLE 16: PAR’s Usability Test
                             METRIC                                                                VARIABLES MEASURED

        Usage rate of the program categorized by gender                                           Tests for usability of program


   The median number of hours worked and the length of the
                                                                                                  Tests for usability of program
               balanced hours work schedule


  Schedule creep or the part-timer whose hours keep increasing                    Tests for presence of obstacles to the program’s success

   Evaluation of assignments of attorneys participating in the
reduced hours program before opting for a reduced schedule and                    Tests for presence of obstacles to the program’s success
           after a reduce schedule was implemented

Evaluation of promotion rates of attorneys participating in and not
                                                                                    Tests for whether program is meeting retention goals
             participating in reduced hours program

 Evaluation of attrition rates of attorneys participating in and not
                                                                                    Tests for whether program is meeting retention goals
             participating in reduced hours program


         In addition to offering this benchmarking system, PAR (2001) offered a variety of best practices distilled
from the legal and the accounting professions to assist the legal profession with reducing its attrition rate:

     Design and implement written policies for reduced hour programs that offer proportional pay, benefits,
     bonuses, assignments, billable hours, and advancement.

     Programs should be fair and flexible: offering widespread application but with the capability to be tailored
     to the needs of the individual and flexible in duration.
                                                                         33

                                       Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
    Leadership must be involved in sponsoring and championing the program. This includes publicizing the
    program and training employees on the program’s procedures (PAR, 2001).

PAR (2001) also offers advice on successful implementation of a reduced hours program. Finally, the PAR
Report dispels many of the myths about why reduced hour programs do not work.
        In addition to the best practices offered here, other best practices can be found in the American Bar
Association’s Commission on Women in the Profession’s (2001) Balanced Lives. This publication also offers
sample policies for alternative work schedules, family leave policies, and medical leave policies. Other best
practices can be found in Menkel-Meadow’s (1994) blue-print for improving work-life balance in the legal
profession.
        Regardless of the best practices offered in this Report, the specifics of successful policies and
procedures will differ from organization to organization. While implementation may differ, “the guiding
principals [of] mutual commitment, flexibility, and accountability” remain the same.


FUTURE RESEARCH
        Most legal employers do not track the cost of attrition. Thus, most legal employers do not know nor do
they understand the financial impact of attrition. One important starting point for North Carolina legal
employers in addressing the young lawyer’s struggle for work-life balance, then, may be to understand the true
cost of turnover within the organization (Catalyst, 2001). Legal employers should track turnover and quantify
and measure the hard and soft costs of attrition. The hard costs would include those direct costs of turnover
while the soft costs would include organizational time spent recruiting and training new attorneys and managing
organizational morale in the wake of personnel losses. Gathering this information permits an organization’s
leadership to see the real cost of attrition. Armed with this knowledge, legal employers can make more informed
decisions about weighing the costs of implementing positive changes within the organization to address work-
life balance issues against the continued cost of losing talented young lawyers who leave employment because
of the work-life balance struggle.
        The YLD Lawyer Effectiveness and Quality of Life Committee anticipates further research in the
future to document whether work-life balance initiatives begun by North Carolina legal employers over the next
several years prove to have a positive impact on the work-life balance of young lawyers, empower their success,
and lower attrition rates for employers and the profession.




                                                                  34

                                Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
CONCLUSION
        “Without leadership, purposeful change of any magnitude is almost impossible” (Kotter & Heskett,
1992, p. 99). While young lawyers are ultimately responsible for their own attitudes and well being, widespread
change in the legal profession must be initiated by the profession’s leadership and management.
        In this survey, North Carolina young lawyers described a preferred future state of work-life balance in
the profession – a future state they believe will allow them to more effectively balance the demands of their work
and their personal lives. These young lawyers also offered opinions on the current state of the legal profession.
They revealed the factors they believe cause misalignment between personal and professional lives; and they
also reported on the perquisites that are currently offered by their employer that assist in reducing the
misalignment. The results of this survey can be utilized by the profession’s leadership and management in order
to analyze the gaps within their own organizations, to determine specific actions that will result in progress
toward an ideal future state, and to identify metrics for measuring success. By seriously studying these issues
within their own organizations, and making appropriate changes to address the existing work-life balance
deficit, legal employers will empower their young lawyers for success, and thus ensure their own success, and
the stability of the profession, for the future.




                                                                    35

                                  Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                                 REFERENCES

American Bar Association Young Lawyers Division (2003). Life in the Balance:
       Achieving Equilibrium in Professional and Personal Life. Chicago, IL.

Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional Challenges and Family Needs.
       (1999). Facing the Grail: Confronting the cost of Work-Family Imbalance.
       Boston: MA.

Boston Bar Association Task Force on Professional Fulfillment. (1997). Expectations,
       Reality and Recommendations for Change. Boston: MA.

Boston Bar Association Task Force on Work-Life Balance. (2000). Facing the
       Grail: Confronting the cost of Work-Family Imbalance, An Implementation Plan for Addressing Work-Life
       Issues in the Legal Profession. Boston: MA.

Caldwell, S.D., Herold, D.M. & Fedor, D.B. (2004) Toward an understanding of the
      relationships among organizational change, individual differences, and changes
      in person-environment fit: A cross-level study. Journal of Applied Psychology,
      89(5) 868-882

Catalyst. (2001). Women in Law: Making the Case (Executive Summary). New York:
        New York.

Harkins (1999). Powerful conversations: How high impact leaders communicate. New
       York: McGraw- Hill.

Kotter, J.P. & Heskett, J.L. (1992). Corporate Culture and Performance. New York:
        The Free Press.

Menkel-Meadow, C. (1994). Culture clash in the quality of life in the law: Changes in
      the economics, diversification and organization of lawyering. Case Western
      Reserve Law Review, 94(44), 621-664.

The American Bar Association’s Commission on Women in the Profession. (2001).
      Balanced Lives: Changing the culture of legal practice. Retrieved November
      15, 2004 from http://womenlaw.stanford.edu/model.policies.html

The Project for Attorney Retention (2001). Balanced hours: Effective part-time
       policies for Washington law firms. Retrieved November 15, 2004 from
       http://www.pardc.org/Final%20Report-second%20edition.pdf




                                                                   36

                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
                                     APPENDIX A:THE SURVEY

The survey questions asked of participants are provided in this section.

Section I: DEMOGRAPHICS

• Employment status
         - Partner or Member (less than 4 years as a partner/member)
         - Partner or Member (4 – 7 years as a partner/member)
         - Partner or Member (more than 7 years as a partner/member)
         - Associate (4 or more years of practice)
         - Associate (less than 4 years of practice)
         - Special Counsel
         - Other (please specify)
• Type of employer
         - Law Firm
         - Corporation or Other Non-Legal Business Form
         - Educational Institution
         - Public Interest Group
         - Local Government
         - State Government
         - Federal Government
         - Other (please specify)
• Size of employer (number of attorneys)
         - 10 or fewer
         - 11 – 20
         - 21 – 35
         - 36 – 60
         - 61 or more
• Billable hours worked in 2003
         - Less than 1000
         - 1001 – 1400
         - 1401 – 1700
         - 1701 – 1850
         - 1851 – 1950
         - 1951 – 2050
         - 2051 or more
         - Hours not tracked as Billable/Nonbillable
• Total Hours Worked in the Legal Profession in 2003 (including non-billable time)
         - Less than 1000
         - 1001 – 1400
         - 1401 – 1700
         - 1701 – 1850
         - 1851 – 1950
         - 1951 – 2050
         - 2051 or more
• Gender
         - Female
         - Male



                                                                     37

                                   Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
• Marital status/Spousal employment
        - Single
        - Married –Spouse works part-time outside home
        - Married –Spouse works full-time outside home
        - Married –Spouse does not work outside home
        - Monogamous, non-marital, living together relationship
• Family status (check all that apply)
        - No children
        - Young children (0-5)
        - Older children (6-11)
        - Teenagers (12-18)
        - Grown children (19+)
• Describe your child care (check all that apply)
        - Not applicable
        - Spouse provides full-time child care
        - Spouse provides part-time child care (remainder provided by others)
        - Full-time child care provided by someone other than spouse
        - Part-time child care for school age children
        - You provide child care (in part or in whole)
• Number of attorneys/staff you supervise
        - Not applicable
        - 1 person
        - 2-4 people
        - >4 people

Section II: FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO WORK/LIFE IMBALANCE

• Please check up to five (5) non-work factors that cause you significant stress when trying to balance your life and work.
         - Care of parents/adult family member
         - Care of children
         - Family activities/”quality” family time
         - Management of family commitments
         - Household maintenance/chores
         - Holidays
         - Vacation
         - Spouse’s work schedule
         - Non-supportive spouse
         - Care of pets
         - Medical issues (self)
         - Medical issues (family)
         - Building and maintaining relationships (social life)
         - Sports/exercise
         - Financial issues/business interests
         - Personal interests/hobbies
         - Personal development
         - Alcohol/drug dependency (personal or family member)
         - Civic activities
         - Spiritual activities
         - Dating
         - Other (please specify)
                                                                     38

                                   Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
• Please check up to five (5) work-related factors that cause you significant stress when trying to balance your life and work.
         - Client expectations and demands
         - Business development/Client entertainment requirements
         - Supervisor’s expectations and demands
         - Accessibility expectations
         - Inadequate Civility/Professionalism of other attorneys
         - Billable hours
         - Revenue production expectations
         - Inadequate control over workload
         - Inadequate control over work schedule
         - Inadequate recognition or appreciation
         - Partnership track
         - Inadequate information regarding status on partnership track
         - Competitive colleagues
         - Pro Bono expectations
         - Job travel
         - Inadequate or unfulfilling work
         - Inadequate vacation time
         - Inadequate ability to take time away from work
         - Compensation
         - Non-billable time expectations
         - “Face time”
         - Inadequate communication from employer management
         - Preferential treatment
         - Organizational barriers to success
         - Lack of authority to delegate work
         - Inadequate junior attorney support
         - Inadequate secretarial support
         - Inadequate paralegal support
         - Inadequate administrative support (word processing, technical support, etc.)
         - Inadequate technology
         - Inefficient policies and procedures
         - Inadequate professional development/training
         - Personality conflicts
         - Service to Bar/profession/community
         - Inexperience
         - Inadequate supervision or support from supervising attorney(s)
         - Inadequate professional evaluation
• Check the factor that would most cause you, under your current circumstances, to consider leaving your place of employment.
         - Family/home management/care issue
         - Personal development issue
         - Financial issue
         - Client expectations/demands issue
         - Employer expectations/demands issue
         - Inadequacy of employer support/policies/benefits
         - Other (please specify)




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                                    Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
Section III: IMPROVING YOUR WORK/LIFE BALANCE

• Employment Culture Supportive of Fewer billable hours
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a culture, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a culture, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a culture, but it would improve my work/life balance if it did.
         - My Employer does not have such a culture, and it would not improve my work/life balance if it did.
• A cap on the number of non-collectible hours requested of attorneys annually
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but it would improve my work/life balance if it did.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and it would not improve my work/life balance if it did.
• No (officially or unofficially) required “office” hours
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but it would improve my work/life balance if it did.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and it would not improve my work/life balance if it did.
• Control over workload
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - I have control over my workload, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - I have control over my workload, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - I do not have control over my workload, but it would improve my work/life balance if I did.
         - I do not have control over my workload, and it would not improve my work/life balance if I did.
Flexible (nontraditional) partnership/membership track
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but such a policy would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and such a policy would not improve my work/life balance.
• Flexible (nontraditional) work/salary/partnership track combination arrangements
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer allows flexible work arrangements, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer allows flexible work arrangements, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not allow flexible work arrangements, but such flexibility would improve my work/life
           balance.
         - My Employer does not allow flexible work arrangements, and such flexibility would not improve my work/life
           balance.
• Compressed work weeks (i.e., longer, fewer days per week)
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but such a policy would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and such a policy would not improve my work/life balance.




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                                 Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
• 360 degree reviews (Opportunity to review and be reviewed by everyone you work with, both peers and supervising
  attorneys.)
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but it would improve my work/life balance if it did.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and it would not improve my work/life balance if it did.
• An official mentoring program
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a program, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a program, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a program, but it would improve my work/life balance, if it did.
         - My Employer does not have such a program, and it would not improve my work/life balance, if it did.
• Employer-sponsored training programs
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer provides such programs, and they have improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer provides such programs, and they have not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide such programs, but such programs would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide such programs, and such programs would not improve my work/life balance.
• Recognition of contributions of individual attorneys (including part-time attorneys)
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer does recognize my contributions, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does recognize my contributions, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not recognize my contributions, but it would improve my work/life balance if it did.
         - My Employer does not recognize my contributions, and it would not improve my work/life balance if it did.
• Regular Employer sponsored social events
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such events, and they have improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such events, and they have not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such events, but having them would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such events, and having them would not improve my work/life balance.
• Employer-sponsored charitable events
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such events, and they have improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such events, and they have not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such events, but having them would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such events, and having them would not improve my work/life balance.
• Protected vacation time (i.e., no required canceling, no interruptions)
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but such a policy would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and such a policy would not improve my work/life balance.
• Sabbaticals (i.e., one month or longer leaves at periodic career points)
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer provides sabbaticals, and this policy has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer provides sabbaticals, and this policy has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide sabbaticals, but such a policy would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide sabbaticals, and such a policy would not improve my work/life balance.

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                                  Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
• Paid Maternity Leave
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but such a policy would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and such a policy would not improve my work/life balance.
• Paid Paternity Leave
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but such a policy would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and such a policy would not improve my work/life balance.
• Paid Leave to care for sick or disabled family members
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but such a policy would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and such a policy would not improve my work/life balance.
• Employer-Sponsored childcare
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has Employer-sponsored childcare, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has Employer-sponsored childcare, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have Employer-sponsored childcare, but having it would improve my work/life
           balance.
         - My Employer does not have Employer-sponsored childcare, and having it would not improve my work/life
           balance.
• Play room for children who must come to the office for short periods.
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a room, and having it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a room, and having it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a room, but one would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a room, and having one would not improve my work/life balance.
• Option to phase back in to work after leave for birth or adoption of a child
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a policy, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, but it would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a policy, and it would not improve my work/life balance.
• Competent, accessible secretarial support
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer provides me sufficient secretarial support, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer provides me sufficient secretarial support, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide me sufficient secretarial support, but it would improve my work/life balance if
           it did.
         - My Employer does not provide me sufficient secretarial support, and it would not improve my work/life
           balance if it did.




                                                                    42

                                  Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
• Competent, accessible paralegal support
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer provides me sufficient paralegal support, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer provides me sufficient paralegal support, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide me sufficient paralegal support, but it would improve my work/life balance if it
           did.
         - My Employer does not provide me sufficient paralegal support, and it would not improve my work/life balance
           if it did.
• Sufficient administrative staff support (technical, word processing, etc.)
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer provides me sufficient staff support, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer provides me sufficient staff support, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide me sufficient staff support, but it would improve my work/life balance if it did.
         - My Employer does not provide me sufficient staff support, and it would not improve my work/life balance if it
           did.
• Nap/Relaxation room
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a room, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a room, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a room, but such a provision would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a room, and such a provision would not improve my work/life balance.
• Remote connection technology
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer provides remote connection technology, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer provides remote connection technology, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide remote connection technology, but it would improve my work/life balance if it
           did.
         - My Employer does not provide remote connection technology, and it would not improve my work/life balance
           if it did.
• Employer-sponsored “Concierge” Services (for errands like getting lunch, dry cleaning, grocery shopping/meal planning, etc.)
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer provides such a service, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer provides such a service, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide such a service, but such a service would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide such a service, and such a service would not improve my work/life balance.
• Employer-sponsored gym/health club membership
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer has such a program, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer has such a program, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not have such a program, but it would improve my work/life balance, if it did.
         - My Employer does not have such a program, and it would not improve my work/life balance, if it did.
• Employer-stocked kitchen
         - No opinion/Not applicable.
         - My Employer provides such a service, and it has improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer provides such a service, and it has not improved my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide such a service, but such a service would improve my work/life balance.
         - My Employer does not provide such a service, and such a service would not improve my work/life balance.



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                                    Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers
• Please check the five (5) factors that your employer does not already provide that would most improve your work/life
  balance.
         - Employment culture supportive of fewer billable hours
         - A cap on the number of non-collectible hours requested of attorneys annually
         - No (officially or unofficially) required “office” hours
         - Control over workload
         - Flexible partnership/membership track available
         - Flexible work/salary/partnership track combination arrangements
         - Compressed work weeks
         - 360 degree reviews
         - An official mentoring program
         - Employer-sponsored training programs
         - Recognition of contributions of individual attorneys
         - Regular employer-sponsored social events
         - Employer-sponsored charitable events
         - Paid Paternity Leave
         - Paid Leave to care for a sick or disabled family member.
         - Protected vacation time
         - Sabbaticals
         - Paid maternity leave
         - Employer-sponsored childcare
         - Playroom for children who come to office for short periods
         - Option to phase back into work after leave for birth or adoption of a child
         - Competent, accessible secretarial support
         - Competent, accessible paralegal support
         - Sufficient administrative support
         - Nap/relaxation room
         - Remote connection technology
         - Employer-sponsored concierge services
         - Employer-sponsored of gym/health club membership
         - Employer-stocked kitchen
• Is there anything else your Employer could reasonably do to assist you in improving your work/life balance?




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                                  Staying Power: Work-Life Balance Initiatives for Retaining Young Lawyers

				
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