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Argumentative Writing

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					Argumentative Writing

          LISA MULKA
           WRIT 122
  LANSING COMMUNITY COLLEGE
                          Objective

 To learn specific argumentative writing elements,
 recognize argumentative structures, and be able to
 apply the concepts to writing.

 This STAIR meets the following standards for WRIT
 122 outlined in the course description:
    “Builds upon the writing skills developed in WRIT 121 to help
     students write argumentative essays which use logical
     support and appropriate documentation. Emphasizes
     research techniques and use of sources, and the development,
     structure, and style of the research paper”
                  Introduction

 This STAIR is designed for WRIT 122 students at
    Lansing Community College to work through
 individually at the beginning of the semester. Click
    the forward or back arrow to move within the
presentation. At the end of the presentation, you will
    be asked to demonstrate your comprehension
      through an assessment quiz and practice.

               Enjoy and Have Fun!
Argumentative Elements           Argumentative Structures



 Overview—Read                           Overview—Read
      First!                                  First!

     Claim         Click on each term       Toulmin
                     to learn more.        Argument
    Reasons          When you have
                   read through each
                   term, quiz yourself     Classical
    Evidence        and complete the       Argument
                        practice!
   Opposition                              Rogerian
                                           Argument
    Appeals
                                          Quiz Yourself
  Quiz Yourself
                                            Practice
    Practice
    Overview of Argumentative Elements

 When writing any type of argument, there are certain
 elements that will always be important to
 incorporate in order to successfully present your
 argument. The following few slides will outline the
 most important argumentative elements to include:
 claim, reasons, evidence and opposition.

                      Reasons &
          Claim                      Opposition
                      Evidence
                        Claim

 Expresses your position or stand on the issue
 States precisely what you believe (and perhaps WHY
  you believe it)
 This is the viewpoint you want readers to accept or
  the action you want readers to take
 The claim is in essence your thesis statement
                      Reasons

 The explanation and justification of your claim
 Reasons answer the “Why” and the “How Come?”
 Logical and rational reasons win arguments
 Reasons must ALWAYS be supported with evidence
 or examples
                            Evidence

 Proof that your reasons and claim are accurate and
  believable
 Evidence often includes: statistics, interviews,
  quotes, examples, anecdotes, etc.
 Credibility is ESSENTIAL in finding appropriate
  evidence. Evidence should be:
    Relevant to the topic
    Provided by a credible source (an expert in the field)
    Reputable (i.e. contact information is available, up-to-date source,
     etc.)
                 Opposition & Rebuttal

 Opposition:
   Recognizes and addresses opinions that may oppose your
    claim
   Understands differing viewpoints

 Rebuttal
   Refutes differing viewpoints with logical evidence and reasons

   Uses the opposition’s reasons to win your own argument (i.e
    finding areas of weakness or irrational logic in their argument
    to strengthen your own)
   Get them to see your side!
               Appeals to Audience

 Aristotle developed three appeals to audience that
 are often utilized in arguments. The appeals offer
 ways for the writer to reach the audience and help
 the audience understand their argument. Click on
 each term to learn more.
                               Ethos-Credibility



                               Pathos-Emotions


                                 Logos-Logic
   Ethos
Authoritative
Trustworthy
Knowledgeable
Experienced
Fair and
evenhanded
Shared values
Respect             Ethos is often built through honesty
Goes hand-in-hand
with logos
   Pathos
Descriptive/figurative
language
Pulls on the
heartstrings
Often used to
persuade/take action

Can be used to
enhance logical
appeals
Don’t go overboard—
be honest                This drunk driving advertisement
                         uses the appeal of pathos to reach
                                 its target audience
     Logos
Logic
Facts/hard evidence
Statistics

Credible testimony
Examples
Logical Reasons

Ethos is linked to
Logos


                      Take a look at the logic in the comic above.
                         Are penguins really old TV shows??
     Quiz—Argumentative Elements



     Now it’s time to test your
            knowledge!

See if you can answer the following
    questions on argumentative
             elements…
                    Question One

The purpose of a claim in an argument is to…

A) Explain a solution
B) Define the author’s position on a topic
C) Defend an opinion
D) Offer Evidence
                   Try Again!



Remember that the claim usually means the equivalent
  of a thesis statement. What purpose does a thesis
                        serve?

                 Back to Questions
                      Correct!



A claim is provided so that the author can state clearly
  for the audience what their position on the topic is.
                    Excellent work!
                  Question Two

 What are the three things evidence should be?


A) Relevant, reputable and credible
B) Relevant, refutable and credible
C) Credible, dated and reputable
D) Refutable, updated and credible
                  Try Again!



You’re so close! Some of these elements apply, but
       look closely at each part of the answer.

              Go back to Question
                      Correct!



That’s right! Evidence must be not only relevant to the
   topic but also highly credible and reputable from
                  experts on the topic.

                      Nice Job!
                  Question Three

 Pathos is…


A) An appeal of logic
B) An appeal of credibility
C) An appeal of emotions
                    Try Again!



That’s close! What are the differences between ethos,
                  pathos and logos?

                Return to Question
                      Correct



Pathos is an emotional appeal—it often helps connect
 readers to the argument by eliciting strong emotions.

                     Great Job!
                   Question Four

 Why is it important to refute opposition in an
 argument? (often called a rebuttal)

A) To strengthen your argument
B) To tease the people who disagree with you
C) To manipulate your readers
D) To pretend the opposition is right
                    Try Again!



While addressing opposition is important, you want to
             avoid tricking your readers.

                 Return to Question
                      Correct!


Refuting opposition is a great technique that can help
           strengthen your own argument!



                   Excellent Job!
    Overview of Argumentative Structures

 While there are certain argumentative elements that
 must be in place in order to have a success argument,
 there are numerous ways to structure these
 elements. The following slides outline three
 common structures. The three provided here will
 explain the Toulmin argument, the Classical
 argument and the Rogerian argument.
                Toulmin Structure

     Claim                       State the position being argued for

                         Specification to limits of a claim—look up the list of
    Qualifier            qualifiers on page 161 of Everything’s An Argument



    Reasons                 Sound and logical reasons in support of claim

                          The chain of reasoning that connects the claim to
    Warrants                                  the data

                            Support, justification and reasons to back up
Evidence/Backing                               warrants

                         Exceptions to the claim, description and rebuttal of
Rebuttal/Response                        counterarguments.
                  Classical Structure

                                Capture the reader’s attention and interest.
     Introduction           Establish qualifications, credibility and build initial
                             common ground with audience. State your claim,
                               but demonstrate a fair and evenhanded style.
Statement of Background     Supply the reader with any necessary information
                               in order to understand the context of your
                                               argument.
                            Provide a more in-depth look at your position and
       Position                 outline the major points that will follow.

                              Present good reasons, logical and emotional
         Proof             appeals and evidence to support claim. Explain and
                                          justify assumptions.
                           Anticipate and refute opposing arguments. Explain
      Refutation           why your view is superior and demonstrate that you
                             have considered the issue thoroughly and have
                                 reached the only reasonable conclusion.
      Conclusion            Summarize primary points, extend the implications
                               of your claim and reinforce your credibility.
                Rogerian Structure

                            Provide the audience with the problem you hope to
     Introduction         resolve. Present the issue as a problem helps raise the
                                      possibility of positive change.
                           In an accurate and neutral tone, present the views of
    Opposing Views         opposition in order to demonstrate you are willing to
                             listen without judgment to all sides of the issue.
                           Show that the opposition’s concerns may be valid in
    Understanding           some situations. Maintain a level of understanding
                           with the audience. Under what conditions might you
                                            share these views?
                          Now that you have fully considered the opposition, go
   Position Statement       into detail on your own position providing clear
                                          evidence and reasons.
                           Describe situations in which you hope your views will
  Statement of Context    be recognized. By showing that your position has merit
                            in certain contexts, you recognize that people won’t
                            always agree with you but there is room to establish
                                             common ground.
                           Appeal to the opposition by showing how they would
Statement of Compromise   benefit from accepting your position. Determine how a
                                  compromise would benefit the audience.
     Quiz—Argumentative Structure



     Now it’s time to test your
            knowledge!

See if you can answer the following
    questions on argumentative
             structure…
     In the Toulmin argumentative
T    structure, when does the
     opposition get addressed the
O    rebuttal take place?

U
L            Beginning
M             Middle
               End
I
N
                  Beginning

                   Try Again!

The Toulmin argument first presents the author’s
position or claim supported by logical evidence and
                     reasons.

               Return to Question
                 Middle

                Try Again!

If you look back at the chart on the Toulmin
 Argument, the middle encompasses reasons,
            warrants and evidence.

            Return to Question
                   Correct!


The Toulmin argument first presents the author’s
position supported by logical evidence and reasons
 THEN addresses the opposition at the end of the
                    argument.

                   Great Job!
     Which of the following is not an
T     example of a qualifier?

O
                       Few
U                  Perhaps
                     Many
L                 Sometimes
                  All the time
M
                   It seems
I
N
                        Few

                     Try Again!

Remember a qualifier are words and phrases that place
                  limits on claims.

                 Return to Question
                       Correct!



A qualifier serves as a word or phrase that places limits
    on a claim. All the time extends the claim rather
                      than limiting it.

                      Great Job!
     In the classical argument, what is
C
     the role of the introduction?
L
A   1. To address the opposition
S
    2. To provide evidence on the claim
S
I   3. To grab the reader’s attention
      and draw them into the argument
C
A
L
                    Try Again!



You’re very close, but remember that the introduction
   is the first piece of the argument readers will see.
  How can you spark their interest in the argument
                         right away?

                 Return to Question
                    Correct!

                  You’ve got it!

The Classical structure “hooks” the reader into the
 argument in the introduction then leads into the
                       claim.

                    Great Job!
     What is a common feature of a
R        Rogerian argument?
O
G   1. “I’m right, you’re wrong”
E      attitude
    2. A search for compromise
R   3. Nobody wins
I
A
N
                    Try Again!



While other argument aim to have a clear winner and
loser, Rogerian arguments offer a different structure.
 Take a look back at the charts to see the differences.

                 Return to Question
                  Return to Charts
                   Correct!

           That’s right! You’ve got it!

Compromise IS a big part of a Rogerian argument.
  Some consider it a “polite” argument because it
   strives to understand and empathize with the
                    opposition.

                   Great Job!
        Practice—Argumentative Elements

 Now that you’ve got the hang of argumentative
  elements, write a 2 page practice argument using all
  four elements—claim, reasons, evidence and
  opposition.
 Choose one of the topics below to write on and turn
  in your sample argument on Angel.
     Keeping animals in zoos is animal cruelty
    Absences should not effect a college student’s final grade in a
     course
    Euthanasia or assisted suicide is murder
      Practice—Argumentative Structure

 Now that you’ve mastered the differences between
 the argumentative structures, write your own
 definition of the three argumentative structures and
 explain the major differences between the three and
 how you will use these structures in your own
 writing. Turn in your assignment in the appropriate
 drop box in Angel.
                         Toulmin

                        Classical

                        Rogerian

				
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