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Gender Equality in Early Warning Systems

VIEWS: 102 PAGES: 70

									Gender Equality and Early
Warning Broadcast System




                            1
                             Table of Content

Abstract

      Objectives                                                               3
      Recommendations to media                                                 4

Chapter 1: Gender equality in disaster risk reduction

      1.1    Gender equality defined                                            5
      1.2    Where Asia-Pacific stands on gender equality                       5
      1.3    Gender equality in disaster risk reduction                         6
      1.4    Challenges in mainstreaming gender into disaster risk reduction    8
      1.5    Media in promoting gender equality in disaster risk reduction      9
             1.5.1 Phases in reporting                                         11
             1.5.2 Possible programming format                                 12

Chapter 2: Gender equality in early warning broadcast system

      2.1    Introduction                                                      19
      2.2    Early warning broadcast system defined                            19
      2.3    Media in promoting gender equality in early warning broadcast
             system development                                                21
             2.3.1 Possible media content to promote gender-based risk
                    Assessment                                                 23
             2.3.2 Possible media content to promote gender-based
                    monitoring and warning service                             29
             2.3.3 Possible media content to promote gender-based
                    dissemination and communication of early warning           30
             2.3.4 Possible media content to promote gender-based
                    response system                                            33
      2.4    How do we build gender-based early warning broadcast system       34

Chapter 3:   Early warning broadcast system development (country specific)

      3.1    Cambodia                                                          37
      3.2    China                                                             41
      3.3    Malaysia                                                          45
      3.4    Philippines                                                       49
      3.5    Thailand                                                          56
      3.6    Vietnam                                                           61

Chapter 4:   Conclusion                                                        65

Source                                                                         67

References                                                                     68
                                                                                    2
Gender Equality and Early Warning
Broadcast System

Abstract

It is undeniable that everyone can be equally exposed to a hazard, but women and
men have different levels of vulnerability and access to resources, and have therefore
developed different coping skills.

The purpose of this paper is to review gender equalities in early warning broadcast
system and how gender analysis and perspective can be integrated into the
formulation of response particularly in the creation of broadcast media content. The
report aims to identify women‟s needs, how women are impacted and how these
analyses can be incorporated in broadcast media production to promote gender
equality in the development of early warning broadcast system.

The last section of the report comprises an update on the development of the
emergency warning system in Cambodia, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, and
Vietnam, which were summarized from national progress report on the implementation
of the Hyogo Framework for Action and/or recorded by the stakeholders involved in the
implementation of emergency warning system in the country. The section includes
selected examples of disaster related disaster effects and good practices in five focus
countries above. Media is encouraged to obtain extensive updated information on
examples of disaster related disaster effects and good practices from local
government, disaster and gender agencies in their country.

Objectives

Specifically the report aims to:

      Increase understanding of gender issue in disaster risk reduction;

      Underline importance of gender-sensitive early warning broadcast system;

      Review gender issue in early warning broadcast system information and
       communication; and

      Identify media programming content to promote gender equality in early
       warning broadcast system.


                                                                                      3
                                         Chapter 1
                           Gender equality in disaster risk reduction

1.1       Gender equality defined

Gender equality means that women and men have equal conditions for realizing their
full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from, economic, social, cultural
and political development. Gender equality is the equal valuing by society of the
similarities and the differences of men and women, and the roles they play. It is based
on women and men being full partners in their home, their community and their society
(ILO, 2000)1. To understand gender equality, gender analysis is conducted to study the
relations that govern social, cultural and economic exchanges between women and
men in different arenas from the household to the community (UNEP, 20052).

1.2       Where Asia-Pacific stands on gender equality

A recent gender report by United Nations Development Programme3 notes that in the
region as a whole, women now live longer and are better educated. In a few countries,
girls are outperforming boys in education and the gap in labour force participation is
narrowing as a higher percentage of women go to work. A handful of countries are
also above global averages in women‟s political participation. Of equal importance,
discriminatory laws have been discarded in some cases and national policies adapted
to systematically pursue gender equality. Despite these achievements, Asia-Pacific lags
on some aspects of gender equality in relation to other developing regions of the world.
Women in the region were found to be more vulnerable to poverty than men, not
simply because they have lower incomes, but also because their ability to access
economic opportunities is constrained by discriminatory attitudes that restrict their
mobility, limit employment choices and hinder control over assets.

Asia-Pacific is behind the curve on gender equality because the efforts of individual
countries have not yet been broad, deep, sustained or serious enough to undercut the
severe forms of discrimination that persist4. In particular, sufficient focus has not been
given to the systemic economic, political and legal changes that could make progress
take root. In many countries, women may have literacy rates on par with those of men,
but they may not be aware of their rights or, for various reasons, cannot exercise those
rights. Many policy decisions also are still made by men. Unquestioned attitudes shape


1 ABC of Women Worker‟s Rights and Gender Equality, ILO, Geneva, 2000 accessed on 13 March 2010 at
http://www.unescobkk.org/education/appeal/programme-themes/gender/what-is-gender-equality-in-education/definitions-of-gender-
concepts/
2 Mainstreaming Gender in Environmental Assessment and Early Warning, 2005, United Nations Environmental Programme
3 Power, Voice and Rights. A Turning Point of Gender Equality in Asia and the Pacific, 2010, United Nations Development Programme
4 Power, Voice and Rights. A Turning Point of Gender Equality in Asia and the Pacific, 2010, United Nations Development Programme, Pg

22
                                                                                                                                        4
laws, policies, public institutions and their operation. The notions of women‟s second-
class status remain deep-rooted and they become a steep barrier to change, despite
public policy measures and commitments.

Thus, Asia-Pacific has persistent gender deficits in both capabilities and opportunities.
Women acquire fewer capabilities than men across much of the region; they still have
less education and much poorer health, for example. But even when they do have
capabilities, they face shortfalls in opportunities; such as when well-educated women
end up in jobs that do not use their skills, as is often the case. In the region, gender is
conventionally perceived as being „just about women‟, failing to regard that gender
concerns not only women, but also men and people with other gender identities and
sexual orientations.

1.3         Gender equality in disaster risk reduction

The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction states that “disaster-
reduction policies and measures need to be implemented with a two-fold aim: to
enable societies to be resilient to natural hazards, while ensuring that development
efforts decrease the vulnerability to these hazards” (UNISDR, 20025). A recent UNISDR,
UNDP and IUCN report (2009) stress that gender analysis is central to these goals and
that gender relations need to be taken into consideration at all stages of assessment,
planning, warning and relief – an argument consistent with broad-based international
agreement that gender equality is a pre-condition for sustainable development.

Essentially, gender equality in disasters reflects gender relations in society. Owing to
different life experiences, women and men differ in how they experience, respond to,
and recover from disasters. When disaster strikes, men and women have different
abilities and ways of responding, and, in the end, the impacts are different. It has been
widely observed, researched and documented that women are more vulnerable than
their male counterparts of the same social classes, races, ethnic and age groups during
all phases of a disaster (UNISDR, 2009).

Compared with men, more than 70 percent of the world‟s poor are women. Women
have less ownership of assets and property. They have fewer decision-making
possibilities within the family and in the public sphere, and they earn less – women all
over the world are paid less than men for equal work. Also, women are less skilled and
have fewer opportunities to develop skills. Women are socially and economically
weaker than men, unequal to their male counterparts and hold a lower status within
their communities.




5   Women, Disaster Reduction and Sustainable Development, 2002, UNISDR. Pg 1
                                                                                          5
Gender-based inequalities and vulnerabilities place women at greater degrees of risk
to disasters, including less access to disaster early warning, to policy and decision
making in risk reduction and disaster management, to knowledge and information, to
relief assistance, in addition to higher level of illiteracy, poverty and risk of sexual and
domestic violence and sexual abuse. Disaster situations, with the breakdown of family,
community and institutional security and protection, generally make prevailing gender-
based disparities surface to a greater degree than in normal situations, putting already
vulnerable groups at higher risk. Women, in this context, can be identified as among the
most vulnerable groups in most societies.

Men, too, can be harmed by gender-based social expectations, especially in the
aftermath of disasters. Socially and culturally, they are expected to deal with their own
losses and grieve alone. The formal aspects of psychosocial support bypass men, since,
according to stereotypical views, they are expected to be strong and face the crisis in
a manly manner. While there may be specific interventions to help widows and female-
headed households recover, the concerns of widowers who are left with the
responsibility of raising young families are often not addressed. Furthermore, gender-
based social conditioning does not give men the necessary resources to develop skills
in domestic chores and care giving. This situation often goes overlooked in gender-blind
disaster recovery interventions. As a result, gaps in men‟s coping capacities in such
circumstances can victimize them in the recovery process (UNISDR, 2009).

Although women are often more vulnerable than men, the continuous focus on
women‟s vulnerabilities alone can be contentious, as this promotes the perception of
women as victims, rather than as capable and equal actors. This contributes to the
current situation where men‟s roles and responsibilities in DRR and disaster
management are highly recognized, whereas women‟s skills, capabilities and
contributions to DRR remain invisible. As a result, women are isolated from planning and
decision making processes. Such results deepened vulnerability and dependency, and
denied women the opportunities to learn and grow and provide leadership and
contribute to DRR efforts. Consequently, cycles of gender-biased unequal power
relations are further intensified and conditions are created for the perpetuation of the
status quo. This situation constitutes a tremendous loss to women as individuals and a
loss of resource to their families, communities and nations. Because of their different role
definitions and life experiences, men and women can complement each other when
contributing to risk reduction and disaster management. Good practices of gender-
inclusive DRR observed across the globe are evidence of this.

An effective gender strategy in disaster risk reduction brings women into positions where
they can take part on an equitable basis with men in determining the values, directions



                                                                                          6
and allocation of resources (UNEP, 20056). Only when all members of society are
engaged and considered, disaster management can be effective to reduce
vulnerability and promote development. Effective gender mainstreaming goes beyond
simply ensuring the participation of women in equal numbers – it extends to facilitating
a form of participation that enables women as well as men to influence the entire
agenda and priorities of the organization.

Mainstreaming gender into disaster risk reduction strategy offers an opportunity for re-
examining gender relations in society from different angles and enhancing gender
equality in socioeconomic development. It also makes it possible for nations and
communities to achieve disaster resilience, and a win-win option for governments and
organizations to achieve sustainable development.

1.4          Challenges in mainstreaming gender into disaster risk reduction

UNISDR Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (2009) reported progress in
mainstreaming gender into DRR as inadequate and slow. Gender considerations still
remain largely marginalized from the DRR process and promoting gender equality in
DRR remains a big challenge to the international community. Below are the key factors
of hindrance in this path7:

             a) Poor understanding of gender-DRR linkages at conceptual and practice
                levels, especially at national level

             Poor understanding of gender aspects in DRR at the policy and practitioner
             levels is a major obstacle. Gender equality in DRR does not mean merely
             addressing women‟s humanitarian issues - it means addressing the concerns of
             men and women, the relations between them and the root causes of
             imbalances. Often, gender equality is incorrectly perceived as „women‟s
             equality‟. A large majority of professionals and decision makers in the
             development and disaster fields lack sufficient awareness of gender issues. This
             causes the issue to become de-prioritized as „women‟s concerns‟ and results in
             stereotypical women‟s programmes.

             Furthermore, gender continues to be identified as an „add on‟ aspect, rather
             than an integral component in development and DRR. The development and
             DRR fields now contain relatively new dimensions, such as climate change issues,
             that compete for donors and to be considered programme priorities. This means
             that gender issues become de-prioritized to some extent. This trend further takes
             attention away from the gender and DRR issue and highlights that many people


6   Mainstreaming Gender in Environmental Assessment and Early Warning, 2005, United Nations Environmental Programme
7   The Disaster Risk Reduction Process: A Gender Perspective, 2009. UNISDR Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Pg 12
                                                                                                                                         7
      fail to understand that gender needs to be considered as a central and cross-
      cutting issue in all aspects of development.

      b) Lack of genuine political accountability and financial resources for global
         advocacy and action on gender and DRR

      The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
      (CEDAW), signed by 185 countries, provides a legal framework for gender
      equality in DRR. The HFA, endorsed by 168 countries, provides a policy
      environment for gender mainstreaming into DRR. However, the gap between
      political commitment and financial resources remains considerable and
      consistent long-term commitment to mainstreaming gender perspectives into
      DRR is lacking. Presently, most global events promoting gender perspectives are
      organized by gender experts who are not fully engaged in that capacity within
      their institutions, so a visible gap in institutional commitment exists. Also, there is a
      clear lack of commitment with regard to resources for both gender and DRR. This
      forces the organizers of these events to adjust to what resources and
      opportunities become available. Lastly, gender and DRR events have not really
      been linked with inter-governmental DRR processes in recent years. Due to this
      disconnect, recommendations produced regarding gender at these events
      have a limited impact because they are not been considered or implemented
      by national governments and UN agencies.

      c) Lack of institutional and individual capacity and tools to mainstream gender
         and DRR

      The progress made on highlighting gender issues in DRR does not seem to have
      triggered significant changes at the national and community levels. Gender and
      DRR knowledge and capacity are still possessed by only a relatively small group
      of professionals and practitioners working in these respective two areas. The
      majority of disaster managers and professionals often lack the knowledge
      required to address gender issues in DRR.

1.5   Media in promoting gender equality in disaster risk reduction

Broadcasting media, because of its speed and ability to cover a wide area, is an
important mass media for providing disaster information. It plays a pivotal role in
educating the public about gender issues in disaster preparedness, mitigation, and
emergency response/recovery. Among the most obvious contribution broadcast media
could make to a worldwide mitigation effort is to highlight women‟s and men‟s specific
needs and problems in prevention, response, recovery/reconstruction stages. Together
with risk communicators and field experts‟, media can create broadcast content that
showcase vulnerabilities clearly by identifying physical, social and economic needs of
                                                                                             8
women and men. By addressing these vulnerabilities media can play a part in
designing strategies to address these particular needs. Media can provide people with
access to the information, advice and analysis that would enable them to know their
rights and claim them effectively.

Poor understanding of gender aspects in disaster risk reduction at the policy and
practitioner levels has been identified as a major obstacle in mainstreaming gender in
disaster management. Gender issue has always been associated with „women‟s
equality‟. Here the media has an ability to draw public attention to gender issues and
correct the perception of gender equality as „women‟s equality‟ and address concern
of both women and men. Media can provide the widest possible range of information,
interpretation and debate on gender issues and possibly attract government and
political leaders to firm up their commitment and financial resources to mainstreaming
gender perspectives into national legislation and policies disaster reduction and
development policies.

Mohanty (1991) cross-cultural survey found that news values still define most women
and their problems as un-newsworthy and, when women are included, their portrayals
are predictably sexual or confined to the private sphere of home. Stereotyping women
as dependent, weak and subordinate is a barrier that isolates them from planning and
decision making processes. Their skills and life experiences are not identified as
resources, therefore not incorporated into risk reduction and disaster preparedness,
relief or recovery efforts. Here the media have the definitive opportunity to play a
leadership role in the transition of thinking. Women are an asset and a resource which is
under-utilised. Experience on the ground suggests that technological and managerial
skills women use to run their households and families can be used in disaster
management and such contribution can greatly help a community response and
effort. Media through its broadcast content can be a powerful instrument to promote
women empowerment in the society.

They could showcase women and men effectively participating in preparedness and
other activities that improve disaster resilience. Media can identify women involved in
early warning as role models to advocate for gender sensitive early warning broadcast
systems and promote its benefits. For example, by covering success stories of women
defying barriers of culture to help saves life - such as the story of Sabiha Khatun from
Bangladesh who led her community to safer areas during the 1991 cyclone - media
can empower women to take charge of their own lives and inspire them to playing a
part in their community response efforts.

 Defying Convention



 Sabiha Khatun is a 76-year old widow from the island of Hatiya in Bangladesh. This island is frequently
                                                                                                      9
    affected by floods and cyclones. She lost her husband to a cyclone in 1970, and that incident
    encouraged her to take action to prepare her community to face natural hazards of this nature. She has
    educated herself about preparedness measures, discussing them with local authorities and shared her
    knowledge with her community. She formed a women‟s organisation in 1985 to empower women with
    knowledge and skills in income generation and savings, health and rehabilitation of disaster victims. The
    organisation was the driving force behind women moving to safer areas during the 1991 cyclone.

    The normal practice is for women to remain inside the house even I the face of impending disasters since
    to leave is a violation of „purda‟. Women moving out of their homes to go to the cyclone shelters was
    opposed initially by the male members of the community, but was endorsed soon after, when they had
    seen the effects. Sabiha Khatun has defied the barriers of culture and age to ensure a more secure way of
    life for her community (Duryong Nivaran, 1998)8.




In developing as well as developed countries, one of the most effective ways in
improving gender sensitivity in disaster preparedness and response is to tell people
about true cases where similar gender barriers were successfully overcome (Anna
Dimitríjevics, the World Bank Institute). The broadcast media could be a partner in
disseminating such true stories, which have news value as well as longer lasting social
value. On receiving this information, men and women are motivated to take action.
The role of media here is to trigger and assist this social action.

1.5.1 Phases in reporting

In a nutshell, media‟s role in promoting gender equality in disaster risk reduction can be
divided into three phases9:

      1. Non-disaster phase

          In this phase, media can discuss policy issues in their content, conduct interviews
          or initiate debate on issues of legislation, consequently aide policy makers and
          the public to realize that this is the time for integrating gender equality into long
          term disaster planning. This phase allows broadcast journalists to undertake
          research and enhance his or her capacity to understand the dynamics of the
          issue. In the non-disaster phase, stories can be developed about what
          government and non-government organizations are engaged in. Are they
          developing a strategy sensitive to gender issueof have they become apathetic
          towards the issue? How are communities interacting with the forces of nature? Is
          there any community preparedness campaign being implemented? Stories can
          also be developed about women‟s social network and how women can assist in
          community preparedness, mitigation campaign and grassroots vulnerability
          assessments.

8Durgong Nivaran, South Asian Women: Facing Disasters, Securing Life. Video. Durgong Nivaran Clombo, 1998
Bhatti, A and Ariyabandu MM (2002) Disaster Communication, A Resource Kit for Media, Duryog Nivaran Publication 9 Pg 75
                                                                                                                          10
   2. Pre-disaster phase

      In this phase media can collect and disseminate information related to early
      warnings and communicate weather forecast to communities at risk. During
      these periods, the media can also report on how government departments,
      disaster related organizations and communities are preparing for potential risk.
      Are men and women needs in the face of natural hazards being addressed?
      What are the counter-disaster arrangements at the disposal of government and
      people living in hazardous areas? Is there enough coordination between and
      within responsible departments and has the public been informed about
      measures undertaken to cope with any eventuality. Media can assess and report
      vulnerability issue and can explain to the audience which sections of society are
      vulnerable and who should be given priority in response. The media can review
      structural and non-structural inputs, investigate whether disaster measures are
      according to demands, and most importantly broadcast pre-disaster education
      and awareness advice and ensure that the messages are understandable to
      both men and women.

   3. Post-disaster phase

      The media has a more crucial role to play when a disaster has struck and
      entered the emergency phase. In the post-disaster phase journalists can focus
      on immediate issues of recovery and rehabilitation, and indicators of
      accessibility, equity, efficiency, quality, transparency and accountability of relief
      distribution activities. In an emergency the media can play the

      a) news and information role;

      b) disaster control assistance role: the transmission of information from the
         field/spot and instructions from the authorities to the risk prone community;
         and

      c) disaster information input role: the transmission of relevant information from
         the community to the authorities, which contributes to their decision making
         capability.

1.5.2 Possible programming formats

Apart from written or audio-visual spot reporting of occurrence of a disaster and tips
regarding actions people need to take before, during and after natural disaster, the
flowing forms can help to develop further reports and follow-up stories on gender issues
in disaster management.

   a) Investigative features
                                                                                         11
Investigative features can include probes into the policy and administrative cause
that increases women‟s vulnerability during disaster. It can inform citizens and
people at risk about factors and gaps in policy and practice that contributed to the
failure of mainstreaming gender in disaster risk reduction measures. It can also
investigate people‟s problems and needs pre, during and post disaster.

Natural Disasters: Their Impact on Women, BBC radio programme

As described by the producers: "It‟s three months since hurricane Katrina swept
through the southern states of America, nearly a year since the Asian Tsunami, and
the recent earthquake in Pakistan is still taking its toll on the population there. In the
days following hurricane Katrina, reports emerged that women had been raped
during the chaos of the hurricane‟s aftermath, but those reports were subsequently
downplayed. It‟s notoriously difficult to document violence against women during
natural disasters, but there is evidence that women are disproportionately affected.
So what does happen to women during these periods of disorder and
displacement, and what can be done to protect them?

Audio link: BBC Woman‟s Hour: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/womanshour/2005_48_mon_02.shtml


Tsunami 6 month update: Malaysia Fishing Story

A clip produced June 20 2005 by UNICEF featuring women from Kumpulan Ekonomi
Nelayan Wanita (Economic Association of Women Fisherfolk), Langkawi who share
their stories from the tsunami.

For more information: http://www.unicef.org/media/video_27503.html


Living with Disaster

A programme highlighting gender-aware profiles of communities responding to risk
in Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, the Philippines, and Peru and Columbia, produced by
Intermediate Technology and available for purchase through Television Trust for the
Environment, London, UK.

For more information: www.oneworld.org/tve


b) Documentary

Broadcasting documentary programme could be one of the easiest ways to
convey messages, present opinions on gender issues in disaster risk reduction to
audiences. In addition, it can act as a tool suggesting policies to the government
and the whole society. Appropriate target people of the program are those who
are interested in social issues, especially the issues of natural disasters and the
practical ways of disaster risk reduction.

                                                                                            12
        South Asian Women: Facing Disaster, Securing Life.

        A programme featuring women in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka
        responding to armed conflict, displacement, epidemic, and natural disaster,
        produced by Duryog Nivaran, an alternative disaster and development agency in
        Sri Lanka with a strong gender focus, and available for purchase through their
        website.

        For more information: www.adpc.ait.ac.th/duryog


        c) Drama/Soap operas

        Drama is a programme that is able to attract audience who have no interests on
        the disaster risk reduction programmes by TV/radio stations. It can be a powerful
        mechanism for development. Powerful scenes remain embedded deep in an
        audience‟s mind. Ideas, feelings and words in those scenes are etched on their
        memory. Drama can build an emotional connection with target audiences over a
        period of time, while modelling situations or behaviours. Emotion, empathy,
        education and entertainment are all the elements that can be found in dramas.
        Viewers or listeners become attached to characters and share in their experiences,
        sometimes discussing them with people around them, reflecting on their situations
        and actions and how they might respond if it were them. Therefore, the greater
        audience dramas attract, the stronger the messages which producers want to
        present will be received10. Dramas based on true stories may be the best way to
        relay human experiences of disasters.

        A Radio Soap Opera: Promoting a Culture of Prevention

        A number of short soap opera radio show were produced for distribution through
        local communities at risk, especially useful before and during heavy rain and
        hurricane seasons. The stories focus with humor on everyday issues to catch and
        hold audience attention and promote hazard awareness, preparedness and
        mitigation. The project was developed by ISDR, PAHO, and IOM in 2001 for use in
        Central America and expanded with assistance from Association of Caribbean
        States (ACS). The programs are available in Spanish only.

        For more information: http://www.crid.or.cr/crid/CD_EIRD_Informa/ing/No3_2001/Pagina18.htm


        The Rough Season: Caribbean Audio Soap Opera

        10 15-minute episodes depicting commonly encountered situations in the region,
        based on the two successful radio soap operas used to highlight risk reduction in
        Latin America. "The Rough Season" (focuses on vulnerable communities in the

10   Know Disaster, Tell Disaster Risk Reduction, UNISDR, EU & Seeds Asia, 2009
                                                                                                     13
English speaking Caribbean. It was produced by the International Federation of Red
Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Association of Caribbean States (ACS),
International Strategy for Risk Reduction (ISDR) and Pan American Health
Organisation.

To preview: http://www.eird.org/eng/educacion/radionovela-caribe/radionovela-caribe-ing.htm


Inamura no Hi

The story focuses on Ansei Nanakai earthquake which struck Japan in 1854. It was
adapted as short tale, which was used for a language textbook in elementary
schools in Japan during 1937-1947. With children as target audience, this picture-
story show tells children about the nature of tsunami and about the importance of
prompt evacuation in case one expects a large tsunami after an earthquake. The
story has endured years thanks to the simple messaging and excellent description
that catch the attention of children.

To preview: http://www.st.hirosaki-u.ac.jp/~tamao/Images/Fireofrice/Ina1.html


d) Discussion Programmes

Discussion programmes including radio phone-ins and television debates, offer great
potential for audience interaction and the opportunity to reflect and expand on a
particular topic.

Feminist International Radio Endeavour Campaign

This first women‟s internet radio program joined and documented the October 2005
“Women to Women with Affected Communities” campaign to channel aid for
women in Guatemala and their communities in the zones affected by Stan and
other disasters. Visit the website to learn more about the campaign, view photos,
and listen to analysis and personal narrative in Spanish with English transcripts
provided.

For more information: http://www.radiofeminista.net/oct05/camp_guate/camp_guate-ing.htm


e) Public service announcements

Public service announcements (PSAs) can be very effective on both radio and
television, as long as the message is clear and simple and the PSA is repeated an
appropriate number of times. PSAs tend to work best in conjunction with other
formats, so that the short, sharp hits can be elucidated elsewhere. Using a range of
formats is highly recommended as they cross-promote one another and reinforce
messages. Additional materials - such as posters and comics - may also be used to


                                                                                              14
echo the messages and stories conveyed by other media outputs. It can include
tips regarding actions which people need to take, before, during and after disasters.

Public Service Advertisement (Persatuan FM, GCD FM, SArwa FM and RWK FM private
radio, Indonesia)

ASB (Arbeiter Samariter Bund, Deutchland), an NGO from Germany produced a
radio programme with disaster risk reduction as the theme. The programme
promotes issues such as how to build an earthquake‐resistant house and how to
deal with earthquakes and other disasters in general. The PSAs were aired at four
private commercial radio stations in Indonesia i.e. Persatuan FM, GCD FM, Sarwa Fm
and RWK FM. These four stations are located in the two districts most affected by the
great earthquakes, which occurred at the end of May 2006 in Yogyakarta and
Central Java, killing more than 5,000 people and destroying more than 100,000
houses. The PSAs were produced in local language with participation by local artists.

Songs and jingles

One of the most attractive ways of broadcasting participatory programmes on
disaster is to produce songs that educates. Songs and jingles are able to naturally
attract people‟s attention through its catchy format. It provides an opportunity to
teach those unaware of disaster risk reduction measures, and especially children
who do not have enough knowledge of disaster management.

Dream-light to the city (FM YY, community radio, Japan)

“Yumehikaru machi wo”(Dream‐light to the city), a song expressing the pain caused
by earthquake and the desire for recovery, composed and sung by a 3‐member
band “Fukkotai” who were victims of the Great Hanshin‐Awaji Earthquake, is
broadcast as the theme song of a daily lunchtime programme.

“Bringing Happiness to All Over the World” (Yomiuri TV, private TV, with Board of
Education Kobe City, Japan)

“Bringing Happiness to All Over the World” was composed after the Great
Hanshin‐Awaji earthquake in 1995. It was meant to encourage the people who
have experienced disasters to live their lives with hope and happiness. It also
enabled those who have never experienced disasters not to forget this earthquake,
by which a large number of people were killed.

It has been translated into English, Chinese, French, Arabic and Persian to help the
people who have been affected in other parts of the world by earthquakes and
other natural disasters.

                                                                                   15
f) Experiences

Audiences who have never experienced disasters may not fully understand the
negative impact of disasters, such as the loss of lives, livelihoods, disruption of
lifestyle, and destruction of property, thus the best way to reach them is to invite
men, women, children who have experienced natural disasters to share their
experiences. Media professionals need to use “real voices” of people who have
experienced disasters, and explain how disasters have threatened people‟s lives
and how people have coped with difficulties and have cooperated with each
other in order to recover their livelihoods.

Talking about “The Preciousness of Life” (FM YY, community radio, Japan)

In order to prevent the experiences of the Great Hanhsin‐Awaji Earthquake from
being forgotten, a thirty‐minute program “Daishinsai wo kataritsugu” (Continuing to
talk About the great earthquake disaster) is broadcast every week on Sundays
(holidays). In this program Radio FMYY wants to pass on to future generations the
important themes of “The Preciousness of Life” and “Lessons Learned from the
Earthquake”, and create communities that can cope with natural disasters by
having disaster victims, disaster‐relief volunteers, local government staff and
specialists, etc. discuss the earthquake disaster and how to create communities that
can endure through disasters. The program is uploaded onto the Internet the
following day and can be downloaded on demand by those who missed it.

Talk Live (UNISI FM Radio, private radio, Indonesia)

UNISI FM Radio, a commercial radio station located in Yogyakarta, produced a
short talk live of approximately 3 minutes. A talk live was live conversation between
the announcer and certain people interviewed by phone. This program was aired
within the duration of an hour with three different talk lives. It raised issues about the
post‐earthquake reconstruction process that was being conducted in Yogyakarta in
2006. It also covered various topics depending on the questions that were asked by
listeners, for instance, logistics distribution, weather conditions, disaster knowledge,
etc. The invited speakers usually were government officers or experts on the
discussed topics. The program was aired every day.

g) Event/off air activity

Event/off-air shows offers public an opportunity to actively participate in the activity
Live broadcasting of annual memorial events of natural disasters provide TV/Radio
stations the opportunity to bring the audience directly in touch with DRR.

“Bring Light to Kobe” (Radio FM YY, community radio, Japan)

                                                                                        16
On the memorial of the Great Hanshin‐Awaji Earthquake, “Bring Light to Kobe”
brought radio listeners and local residents to remember the victims of the
earthquake and to increase DRR awareness. The event includes performances by
junior high school students, talk-show on earthquake experiences and DRR activities
with earthquake victims, specialists, local government staff, and NGOs.

h) Networking

In situations where broadcasting stations were affected by disaster, other stations
could provide operation support necessary to continue broadcast. If stations meet
regularly, co-produce programmes and work together, a disaster management
network can be built. Below are several examples of networking activities:

a) Regular meetings

Through regular meetings, not only for DRR but also for exchanges about everyday
affairs, a mutual exchange of knowhow and experience can be created.

b) Co-produced programmes

Radio stations can exchange programmes or organize simultaneous broadcast of
programme on DRR issues.

c) Programme Contests

Contest of best DRR programmes can be created to honor excellent programming
on the issue.

d) Equipment List

Broadcasting stations can prepare a list of equipment that can be lent out, and
share this list with other stations to prepare for when a station‟s equipment is
damaged due to a disaster, or for an occasion when equipment breaks down or
cannot be used.




                                                                                 17
                                        Chapter 2
                    Gender equality in early warning broadcast system
2.1         Introduction

Early warning is a major element of disaster risk reduction. If an effective tsunami early
warning broadcast system had been in place in the Indian Ocean region on 26
December 2004, thousands of lives would have been saved (United Nations, 200611). In
the eight villages surveyed in Indonesia‟s Aceh Besar and North Aceh districts, male
survivors outnumbered female survivors by a ratio of 3:1 to 4:1. Similar patterns were
found in villages hit by the tsunami in India (Oxfam 2005a; Asian Development Bank,
United Nations and World Bank 2005, cited in Dimitríjevics, 200712). Ninety-percent of the
victims of the Bangladesh cyclone in 1991 were reported to be women. Similar situation
was recorded in United States when Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans; African-
American women were the worst affected (UNISDR, 200913). Clearly, the greater
proportion of women as victims hereby demonstrates unequal risk exposure across
genders in many disaster cases.

Traditionally the development of early warning broadcast system does not include
women‟s right or gender perspectives consequently limiting their participation in
building disaster resilience and post-conflict reconstructions. In early warning broadcast
system communication specifically, Drabek (2000; 1969) acknowledges differences
women and men made in producing, processing and interpreting information due to
social and cultural organization and division of labour. Clearly, given the evidence of
gender-differentiated vulnerability to natural hazards, it is imperative that gender
equality is incorporated in early warning broadcast system planning and
implementation.

2.2         Early Warning Broadcast System Defined

The 2005 Hyogo Framework for Action recommended the development of early
warning broadcast systems that are „people-centred‟ to empower individuals and
communities threatened by hazards to act in sufficient time and in an appropriate
manner so as to reduce the possibility of personal injury, loss of life, damage to property
and the environment and loss of livelihoods. For an early warning to work it must be
timely and effective with information provided through authorised-institutions. In
designing an effective early warning broadcast system, it is of paramount importance
to ensure that vital information reaches all segments of the community.

11 Global Survey of Early Warning Systems, 2006, United Nations, Pg 7
               A, 2007, Mainstreaming Gender into Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. World Bank Institute, Accessed on 18 December
12 Dimitríjevics,

2009, http://www.unisdr.org/preventionweb/files/8024_MainstreamingGenderintoDisasterRecoveryandRecostruct.txt.
13 Empowering women against disasters, video, UNISDR 2009, Accessed on You Tube, 2 January 2010,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9wPWmUNMOd0
                                                                                                                                  18
A complete and effective early warning broadcast system comprises four inter-related
elements: risk knowledge; monitoring and warning service; dissemination and
communication; and response capability. The mass media should be aware of these
elements in early warning broadcast system in order to develop effective disaster
communication.

         The four elements of people-centered early warning broadcast systems




                                                    Source: ISDR Platform for the Promotion of Early Warning


2.3    Media in promoting gender equality in early warning broadcast system
       development

The most important role media play in early warning is to provide information relating to
disasters, and to contribute to shaping perceptions that impact on whole groups'
resilience to disasters. Media can assist people to understand risks and prepare people
to respond to warnings. Natural catastrophes arise from the combination of natural
phenomena and general population‟s vulnerability to them. Too often, the reason why
disasters claim victims and inflict great losses is that social, political or cultural constraints
create or amplify vulnerabilities. In this context, media has the ability to shine a light on
social, political and cultural constraints and play a part in dismantling man-made
barriers that keep gender groups and marginalised groups particularly vulnerable(Anna
Dimitríjevics, the World Bank Institute).

Another evident contribution that broadcast media could make to a worldwide
disaster mitigation effort is in developing early-warning broadcast systems capable of
reaching people in even the most remote hazard-prone areas, especially where the

                                                                                                         19
reliability of telephones and other systems is weak under the best of circumstances.
Radio and television have the responsibility to broadcast early warnings and
evacuation information and as important increase public awareness about the risk and
responses. Bangladesh, for example, has suffered from tropical cyclones, with a single
storm in the past decade having led to the loss of almost a half million people. As radio
and television are introduced into remote regions, broadcasters' adoption of early-
warning responsibilities would be a major contribution in limiting the impact of natural
hazards (Rattien, 1994)14. In Japan, for example, the nation has had full-scale
earthquake preparedness drills with virtually the entire populace participating. These
drills include the evacuation of structures as well as simulated post-disaster relief efforts.
The role of the media is crucial in promoting the value of these test runs and in
disseminating information. The information need to reach women and men adequately
and in this instance, media can play a superior role in providing detailed information
such as evacuation routes or steps to take in the preparedness process. One vital factor
in effective communication is the creation and repetition of precise messages, both
through the broadcast media and other forms of communication. Such messages can
empower people to take practical steps to protect themselves from natural hazards
and to demand that private and governmental organizations pay attention to gender
equality issue in disaster prevention, mitigation and response.

The type of media that is consumed is also important in early warning messaging. It is
important to identify which medium of media that is widely used by women. For
instance, where women are more likely to listen to the radio than to follow other media,
it is important to ensure that these channels are equally involved in disseminating early
warning messages. Media has a pivotal role in shifting public thinking from fatalism to
preparedness-specific "how-to" information (Rattien, 1994)15 aimed toward creating a
more robust community with more knowledgeable citizens; participation in drills to raise
awareness and preparedness; and promotion of greater understanding of the
underlying science and technology, to encourage the authorities to address difficult
public decisions.

There is evidence that for women to gain greater power they must have greater
visibility and public voice – they must be able to frame their own issues and then
communicate them, not just through interpersonal channels of their own specialized
media, but also through mainstream news and other media channels that reach larger
audiences (Byerly, 1995)16. Thus, while gathering information for programming content,
media can speak directly to groups that usually do not receive a voice. As an example,
instead of only interviewing a male village leader, media could also interview women's


 Rattien S (1994)The Role of the Media In Hazard Mitigation and Disaster Management
14

 Rattien S (1994)The Role of the Media In Hazard Mitigation and Disaster Management
15

 Byerly, CM (1995) News, Consciousness, and social participation: the role of women‟s feature service in world news in Sreberny-
16

Mohammadi A, Boyd-Barret M Winseck D, and Mckenna J, Media in Global Context a Reader, 2003, Arnold, London.
                                                                                                                                   20
self help groups. It is important to have women speak for themselves to be heard
accurately as taking the time and trouble to talk to women and women's groups can
not only yield insights into the larger picture but point the way to special stories that are
not only interesting but significant (Enarson‟s, 2009)17.

Creativity, cultural sensitivity, and gender-targeted messaging in disaster risk reduction
communication are also important. Failure to tap women, including those now
attempting to resume life after the disaster, as sources and resources may impoverish
media coverage and diminish the understanding of the post-disaster scenario (Enarson,
2009)18.

The next section will explain in detail all four components of early warning broadcast
system and how broadcast media through its programming, can promote gender
equality at each element of early warning broadcast system and assist in narrowing the
gap of challenges faced in gender-sensitive disaster risk communication.

2.3.1 Possible content to promote gender-based risk assessment

Risk assessment is a methodology that analyzes potential hazards and evaluates
vulnerabilities that could pose a potential threat to people, property, livelihoods and
the environment on which they depend. These assessments include detailed
quantitative and qualitative understandings of risk: its physical, social, economic, and
environmental factors, and consequences (UNISDR, UNDP, IUCN, 2009).

Gender sensitive risk assessment are conducted across all these conditions19

     a) Physical aspects
        Assessing physical vulnerability looks mainly at how location and the built
        environment can make disaster impact worse.
     b) Social and cultural aspects
        Assessing social vulnerability looks at the wellbeing of individuals, communities,
        and society.
     c) Economic aspects
        Assessing women‟s access to assets (physical, financial, human, social and
        natural capital) as it will largely determines how they will respond to a given
        hazard.
     d) Environmental aspects
        Women and men use and understanding of natural resources.


17
    Enarson E, 2009, Women, Gender & Disaster Risk Communication, Gender and Disaster Network. Accessed on 21 January 2010.
http://www.gdnonline.org/resources/GDN_GenderNote5_RiskCommunication.pdf
18 Enarson, E (2009), Women, Gender & Disaster Risk Communication, Gender and Disaster Network. Accessed on 21 January 2010.

http://www.gdnonline.org/resources/GDN_GenderNote5_RiskCommunication.pdf
19 Enarson, E. 1998. Through women›s eyes: A gendered research agenda for disaster social science. disasters, 22(2), 157-173, cited in

Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009
                                                                                                                                         21
The table below illustrates specific implications of the gendered nature of risk and
vulnerability for women.

                      Gender-based differentiation in disasters and vulnerability
                                    Implications for women20

         Condition/                        Specific implications                                       Examples
          situation                               for women
                              Women are at greater risk of injury and death                More women die than men
 Direct impacts of            due to societal restrictions and gender roles.               from disasters. Statistics from
 sudden onset                                                                              past disasters including the
 hazards (floods,             Swimming is not a skill girls and women are                  Indian Ocean Tsunami and
 cyclones, tsunamis,          encouraged to learn in some cultures.                        the 1991 Bangladesh Cyclone
 mud slides etc.)                                                                          have showed women
                              In some regions women‟s clothing limits their                overrepresented in mortality
                              mobility.                                                    rates.

                              In some societies and cultures, women cannot                 Due to recent floods in Nepal
                              respond to warnings or leave the house without               caused by the Saptakoshi
                              a male companion.                                            River, women report that they
                                                                                           cannot feed their children
                              Loss of crops and livestock managed by                       because the river took away
                              women (with direct detriment to family food                  their cows.
                              security).
                              Warnings in many cases do not reach women.                   During the 2006 tsunami, more
 Lesser access to                                                                          women died than men – for
 early warnings and           Women lack adequate awareness how to act                     example in Indonesia and Sri
 lower ability to             upon warnings.                                               Lanka,       male    survivors
 respond                                                                                   outnumber female survivors
                              Women lack life saving skills such as swimming               by 3 or 4 to 1.
                              and climbing.

                              Women tend to take the responsibility of
                              carrying children and elderly to safety.
                              Less control over production and markets.                    Fewer than 10% of women
 Lower land and other                                                                      farmers in India, Nepal and
 asset ownership              Less ability to adapt to ecological changes,                 Thailand own land.
                              resulting in crop failure.

                              Loss of income.
                              Hampers women‟s access to information, and                   876 million people in the world
 Lower levels of              limits their ability to prepare and respond to               are illiterate, of whom two-
 education                    disasters.                                                   thirds are women.


                              Women‟s capacities are not applied, their                    Women are poorly
 Lower levels of              needs and concern are not voiced and they                    represented in decision
 participation at             are overlooked in policies and programmes.                   making bodies. Socio-cultural
 decision making                                                                           norms and attitudes bar
 bodies                                                                                    women‟s participation in
                                                                                           decision-making.

          E (2009), Women, Gender & Disaster Risk Communication, Gender and Disaster Network. Accessed on 21 January 2010.
20 Enarson,

http://www.gdnonline.org/resources/GDN_GenderNote5_RiskCommunication.pdf
                                                                                                                             22
                              Women suffer inequitable access to markets,                    Analysis of credit schemes in 5
     Poor access to           credit, information and relief services resulting in           African countries found that
     resources                less ability to recover from disaster losses.                  women received less than
                                                                                             10% of the credit given to
                                                                                             men.

                                                                                             Women face more difficulties
                                                                                             in accessing credit, as they do
                                                                                             not possess assets for
                                                                                             collateral.


Risk assessment and communication is a domain where media can take the lead.
Media can act as powerful instrument of change by highlighting these vulnerabilities
clearly and empower the society. The following illustrates specific implications of the
gendered nature risk and vulnerability for women and how these could be translated
into programming content to create awareness, educate and reduce their impacts.
Together with assistance from local gender experts and government agencies, media
can identify the risk and vulnerabilities of their local community and create
programmes that can help people understand the risk that they face and steps that
they can take to protect themselves.

      Physical aspects

       Poor people are usually in the wrong place at the wrong time because they cannot
       improve the quality of their houses, choose a good location to live, or store food
       adequately, due to a lack of resources (Cannon, 200221). Poor women tend to be
       more vulnerable due to gender-based inequalities, such as fewer opportunities, less
       access to resources, and more limited mobility than men in the same social class.
       Broadcast content can focus on how government agencies, disaster related
       organizations and communities addressing problems and needs of poor people
       preparing for potential risk.

      Social and cultural aspects

       Social role

       In many countries women‟s traditional role is to look after and protect children and
       the elderly as well as their family‟s domestic property. During seasonal disasters,
       women‟s intensive domestic roles mean they have demonstrated excellent risk
       management and coping skills. In the Jhang area of Punjab Province in Pakistan,
       the division of labour when preparing for floods relies strongly on the full
       participation of both genders. Men take livestock to protective embankments or
       distant places, and arrange for their fodder. Women care for the children, take care

21Cannon, T. 2002. Gender and climate hazards in Bangladesh. Gender and Development, 10(2), 45-50 cited in Making Disaster Risk
Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009
                                                                                                                                  23
     of household belongings, luggage, valuables and cooking utensils, make provisions
     for food to support the family during the floods, and preserve seed material for the
     next cultivation season (Ariyabandu, Wickramasinghe, 2003)22. Here, media has the
     ability to highlight women‟s skills and capacities to participate in community
     preparedness and recovery systems and subsequently promote active involvement
     of men and women in recovery system. Additionally, media can also identify
     women involved in early warning as role models to advocate for gender-sensitive
     early warning broadcast systems and promote its benefits.

     Skills and education

     Limits on women‟s social roles can also often mean that they lack skills needed to
     survive major catastrophes, such as swimming, climbing, understanding and
     responding to warning signals (Castro García and Reyes Zúñiga, 2006; Neumayer
     and Plümper, 2007). In many parts of the world, women and girls face obstacles to
     their education, leading to less ability than men to receive information and to
     understand early warning messages. In many cases, women do not receive hazard
     warnings because their behaviour patterns or information preferences are not taken
     into account. It is assumed that they will simply absorb information from men in the
     community. One of the challenges in mainstreaming gender equality in disaster risk
     reduction is the dominance of literacy and Internet based communication
     strategies that disregard the low literacy of women in some countries. In this context,
     media can report on how government agencies and disaster related organisations
     are addressing these limitations. Together with local gender experts, media can
     identify the behavior patterns of the women in their community and contribute in
     ensuring warning messages that reach both women and men in their community. At
     the same time, media can produce programmes that encourage women to learn
     new skills beneficial to prepare them against natural hazards.

     Health

     In South and Southeast Asia 45 to 60 percent of women of reproductive age are
     underweight and 80 percent of pregnant women have iron deficiencies (FAO,
     200023). This increases women‟s vulnerability to disease that spreads in the aftermath
     of disasters that have damaged health and sanitation services. Lack of sanitation
     and medical services jeopardizes the physical and emotional health of pregnant
     women who may also lost homes, livelihoods and families in the disaster. In the US,
     studies have shown that women express more mental health problems while men

 Ariyabandu M., Wickramasinghe M. 2003. Gender dimensions in disaster management, a guide for South Asia, Intermediate Technology
22

Development Group, Duryog Nivaran, Colombo, cited in cited in Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical
Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009, Pg 49

23 Women – users, preservers and managers of agrobiodiversity. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2000
cited from Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009
                                                                                                                                     24
     are more incline to suffer the effects of substance abuse24. Also, social taboos about
     menstruation and norms about appropriate behavior have contributed to health
     problems for young women in disaster situations. A WHO study found that during the
     1998 flood in Bangladesh there was an increase in perineal rashes and urinary tract
     infections in adolescent girls because they were not able to properly wash and dry
     their menstrual rags (WHO, 200525). Together with local gender experts, media can
     highlight women health concerns in their country and prompt agencies and
     government to address these concerns in their response and recovery strategy.

    Economic aspects

     In many countries in Asia-Pacific, women are poorer compared to men, have less
     access to developing entrepreneurial skills, less ability to access financial resources
     like credit, savings or pensions, less ability to buy and own land, are paid less if paid
     at all, and their income is less secure. Asia Development Bank reported that over 95
     per cent of female-headed households in the Asian region are below the poverty
     line. UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN report on Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender
     Sensitive quoted a woman from Bangladesh attending the 2007 Climate Change
     talks in Bali as saying that when floods arrive only wealthy people have the capacity
     to move to higher ground or send their livestock to relatives in cities. A typical low-
     income rural woman, she does not have the resources to move and loses
     everything, including her livestock.

     There have been examples in the past that proved lack of gender perspectives in
     dissemination and communication of danger aggravated the negative impacts of
     the disasters. In Peru early warning messages about the arrival of El Niño-Southern
     Oscillation were only transmitted to the fishermen. They were warned that the supply
     of fish will be severely affected. The men however did not pass on the warnings to
     the women since they were not directly involved in fishing. Unfortunately, those who
     developed the warning messages overlooked the fact that women manage
     household budgets in those communities. Thus by not considering women in the
     equation of information dissemination process, communities were not able to
     develop strategies to save money before the storm strikes, resulting in the rise of
     poverty and harsh economic condition (Briceno, 2002)26.

     Media can highlight the plights of women in the distribution of resource allocation. It
     can emphasize the role of women in the local economic cycle and promote equal


24 Van Willigen, Maria, 2001, Do disasters affect individuals‟ psychological well-being? An overtime analysis of the effect of hurricane Floyd
on men and women in Eastern Carolina. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 19/1
25 World Health Organization (WHO) 2005. Factsheet: Gender and health in natural disasters cited from Making Disaster Risk Reduction

Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009
26 Briceño, S. 2002. Gender mainstreaming in disaster reduction, Commission on the Status of Women. New York: Secretariat of the

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, cited in Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines,
UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009. Pg 67
                                                                                                                                           25
     rights of economic opportunities for women and men. A number of researcher,
     NGOs and government departments have taken note of the gender dimensions of
     resource management27. The FAO, for example, has a Women and Population
     Division which works (partly) to eliminate legal constraints to women's access to
     resources, stimulating growth with equity, while reducing rural poverty and
     achieving food. FAO‟s work on gender and natural resources emphasises the role of
     women farmers, using traditional methods, in effectively conserving soil fertility. They
     argue that, “given access to appropriate resources, they practice fallowing, crop
     rotation, intercropping, mulching and a variety of other soil conservation and
     enrichment techniques. Over the years, rural women have developed practices for
     the efficient and sustainable use of the resources available to them. For these
     reasons it is important to build upon and enhance their skills in land and water
     management strategies and involve them in protecting and sustaining land and
     water resources.”

    Gender-based capacities and resources for managing risk

     All of the successful initiatives below highlight the potential of women as resource
     and how they can contribute in disaster management. In this context, media can
     play a leading role in highlighting women‟s potential as resources in many stages of
     disaster management, consequently promoting their engagement in the
     development of the country‟s national policy in disaster management.

     FAO (2001)28 indentified women‟s indigenous and local knowledge important for
     adapting crops and cropping systems in the face of encroaching drought and
     other potentially disastrous climate variations. Women in Yazd, Iran devised novel
     methods of agricultural production including food produced in tunnels underground
     (Dankelman, 2004)29. Women are adapting their crops to different conditions, taking
     into account the quality of soil, temperature, inclination, orientation, exposure and
     disease tolerance.

     Women‟s knowledge of their surroundings and of natural resources can be essential
     for recovery from the impact of a natural hazard. In Micronesia, working the land
     has given women a unique knowledge of the island‟s hydrology, enabling them to
     find water and build wells during a drought (Anderson, 2002)30.



27 Rocheleau et al (1996) for a „Feminist Political Ecology‟ perspective
28 Women – users, preservers and managers of agrobiodiversity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2001 cited in
Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009, Pg 48
29 Dankelman, I. 2004. Women and environment: Weaving the web of life, cited in Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy

and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009, Pg 48
30 Anderson, C. 2002. Gender matters: Implications for climate variability and climate change and for disaster management in the Pacific

Islands. Retrieved November 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://www.
gencc.interconnection.org/resources.htm, cited in Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines,
UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009, Pg 48
                                                                                                                                      26
     Women around the world lead their communities to adapt, prevent and overcome
     disaster. In India, since the Latur Earthquake, women have been supervising,
     monitoring and undertaking constructions, encouraging repairs and determining if
     engineers have certified the constructions. They participate in the construction of
     community buildings and model houses, and conduct education campaigns on
     earthquake resistant technology (Krishnaraj, 1997).

     Encouraging women‟s participation leads to safer communities. In examples such as
     the Samadhan project to increase flood awareness and preparedness in the
     southern flood plains of Nepal, community capacity was built by consulting with
     both women and men, promoting girls‟ leadership, and designing training so that
     women could be more involved (UNISDR, 2008)31.

     Women are proactive in preparedness and response. Women have an important
     role in taking appropriate and timely action in response to warnings. For example, a
     study in California found that more women than men responded to the earthquake
     aftershock warnings by seeking more information to secure households items and
     developing family emergency plans (Enarson, 1998)32.

2.3.2 Possible media content to promote gender-based monitoring and
      warning service

Continuous monitoring of hazard parameters and precursors - using local and learned
knowledge, and the abilities of women and men in the community - is necessary to
generate accurate warnings in a timely fashion(United Nations, 200633). Knowledge
base, roles, responsibility, access to information, preferred medium of communication,
opportunities of learning, social constraints, cultural practices that impact general
population need to be considered to ensure that all community members receive,
understand and are in the position to respond as best able to early warning. The post-
tsunami years have seen an increase in the emphasis on building the technological
capacity to detect and forecast disasters. While this has the potential to bring great
benefits, this potential could only be fully realised if it is also ensured that the
infrastructure is in place for warnings to reach poor communities. Again, designing
appropriate infrastructure would involve planning for a means of reaching all in the
community who are likely to be affected by a disaster (Dimitríjevics, 2007)34. Being one
of the stakeholders responsible in developing early warning boadacst system, it is


31 UNISDR, 2008. Gender perspectives: Integrating disaster risk reduction into climate change adaptation, cited in Making Disaster Risk
Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009, Pg 49
32 Enarson, E. 1998. Through women›s eyes: A gendered research agenda for disaster social science. disasters, 22(2), 157-173. FAO. Gender

and food security: Agriculture. Retrieved February 2008, from the World Wide Web: http://www.fao.org/Gender/en/agri-e.htm, cited in
cited in Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009, Pg 49
33 Global Survey of Early Warning Systems, 2006, United Nations, Pg 11
34 Dimitríjevics, A, 2007, Mainstreaming Gender into Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. World Bank Institute, Accessed on 18

December 2009, http://www.unisdr.org/preventionweb/files/8024_MainstreamingGenderintoDisasterRecoveryandRecostruct.txt.
                                                                                                                                      27
media‟s responsibility to ensure that early warning messages reach both women and
men.

No death was surprisingly reported after Hurricane Mitch struck La Masica, Honduras in
1998. This was because a gender-sensitive community education on early warning
broadcast systems and hazard management was provided to the community six
months earlier. Women were held in-charge of the early warning broadcast system,
and they have alerted the municipality to evacuate the area promptly before
Hurricane Mitch struck (Buvinić, 1999 in UNISDR, 200935). Here, media plays a pivotal role
in community education of early warning through the creation of programmes that
educate the public about evacuation process. Media can ensure that data and
warning product created on evacuation system are created in simple and local
languages and are understood by both men and women.

Knowledge of the surroundings and natural resources can prove essential when
monitoring hazards. In Sri Lanka, it was found that women in Nawalapitiya were more
likely to witness early signs of landslides or anticipate rock falls that threatened the
community, as they work close to home or at home most of the time as opposed to the
men who worked elsewhere during the daytime. Following on these roles, women along
with men, formed neighbourhood groups during rainy seasons to watch for those early
signs (Ariyabandu, Wickramasinghe, 2003)36. Media‟s intervention is crucial at this stage
to ensure that marginalized group is not just present, but visible and empowered.
Journalists have the potential to investigate if gender perspectives are mainstreamed in
all the processes, roles and responsibilities of all organizations generating and issuing
warnings. Together with disaster and gender experts, media can investigate if there is
an equal involvement of women and men in the committee that sets up technical
warning for all hazards and if women‟s and men‟s traditional knowledge has been
considered equally in forecasting hazards? Again, media has the opportunity to
challenge prevailing gender norms and highlight women‟s potential providers,
caregivers, community organizers, volunteers, advocates and make them key partners
in disaster management.

2.3.3 Possible media content to promote gender-based dissemination and
      communication of early warning

It has been stressed so many times that for early warning broadcast system to work it is
imperative that the warning itself must get to those at risk, through a reliable



35 Buvinić, M. 1999. Hurricane Mitch: Women‟s needs and contributions. Inter-American Development Bank, Sustainable Development
Department in Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender-Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines. UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN. 2009. Pg 66
36 Ariyabandu M, Wickramasinghe M 2003. Gender dimensions in disaster management, a guide for South Asia, Intermediate Technology

Development Group, Duryog Nivaran, Colombo, cited in Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines,
UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009, Pg 66
                                                                                                                                   28
communication system (Fakhruddin, 2007)37. A classic failure of many warning systems
has been the inaction on the part of the person or group who is warned of an
impending threat - local perceptions of risk, reluctance to leave one's few possessions
and disbelief due to lack of credibility of authorities issuing the warning (Rodriguez, P in
Fordham, 2001)38. It is important to identify regional, national and community-level
communication channels and tools and to establish a one authoritative voice (UNISDR,
UNDP and IUCN, 2009)39. The use of multiple communication channels is necessary
(Ratien, 1994)40 to ensure everyone is reached and to avoid the failure of any one
channel, as well as to reinforce the warning message. No single system can serve for all
circumstances and an effective public warning system should use as many information
communication/dissemination channels as possible (UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN, 2009).

There are two types of communication methods available for warning dissemination
(Fakhruddin 2007)41:

     1. Mass notification methods

Mass notification methods are not individually addressable and generally provide the
same alert or message to everyone within a particular geographic area, regardless of
level of individual risk. These include:

    Outdoor systems – sirens, local sirens/ loud speakers, mobile electronic signs

    Mass broadcasting systems – conventional radio and television, cable television and
     low power radio.

     2. Addressable notification methods

Addressable notification methods are tailored and targets alerts and messages only to
those at risk or to specific groups (such as emergency responders). Some latest
addressable technologies are flexible enough to support many of the same functions of
traditional mass notification systems. These include:

    Broadcasting systems – provincial radio broadcasting, amateur radio, VHF/HF radios,
     weather radio, micro phone, mosque, temple

    Telecommunication systems – telephone, fax, cellular mobile, Short Message
     Service, paging and tone-alert radio, internet, VoIP, and satellite

37 Emergency Communications for Disaster Management, 2007. Asian Disaster Management News, Vol 13, No.1 . Asian Disaster
Preparedness Center
38
   Fordham, M (2001) Challenging Boundaries: A gender perspective on early warning in disaster and environmental management. United
Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) Expert Group Meeting on
“Environmental management and the mitigation of natural disasters: a gender perspective”. Ankara.
39 Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009, Pg 50
40 Rattien S (1994)The Role of the Media In Hazard Mitigation and Disaster Management
41 Emergency Communications for Disaster Management, 2007. Asian Disaster Management News, Vol 13, No.1 . Asian Disaster

Preparedness Center
                                                                                                                                29
    Inter personal communication – door-to-door, residential route-warning, etc.

In disseminating early warning messages, media organisation can play a leadership role
in ensuring that messages are transmitted by all medium of broadcast communications
available, in a timely manner and with minimal delay between identification of an
impending event. Through its broadcast content, media can encourage both men and
women to be a part of volunteer network to receive and widely disseminate hazard
warnings to remote households and communities.

Risk communication research concludes that men and women do not hear, personalize
or believe disaster warnings the same ways. Because of their social networks and roles,
women are more likely to hear warnings than men (Turner et al, 1979, 1981). In 1991, the
death toll from the Bangladesh Cyclone was five times higher for women than men,
partly because the early warning information about the cyclones and the floods was
transmitted by men to men in public spaces, rarely reaching women directly (Genanet,
2004)42. Women are more likely to hear warnings from their peers such as friends,
relatives and neighbours (Fothergil, 1996)43. To ensure warning messages reach all
affected people, media together with local gender experts, gender groups and
disaster management experts, can identify the preferred medium of communication of
men and women in their local community and ensure that warning messages are
transmitted through all broadcast medium encompassing those used and preferred by
men and women in their society.

Women‟s involvement in early warning dissemination process increases the number of
people informed because they are connected to different social networks and often
have specific and different communication strategies that take into consideration their
practices, concerns and needs. This has been demonstrated for example in Brazil where
women have made a difference when it comes to information distribution,
organization, and mobilization. An NGO in Brazil named CEMINA started a local radio
program for women in 1990 and due to its success the network was expanded to
include around 350 women‟s radio programs. This network has played a critical role in
mobilizing women and fostering their participation in local sustainable initiatives
(Fordham, 2001). Through its programming content, media can highlight efforts like
CEMINA and encourage the replication of such efforts in their society.

Early warnings are irrelevant if they are not received, understood and trusted by those
who need to act. Early warning broadcast system must contain clear, useful information
that enables proper responses (United Nations, 2009). It is critical to transform scientific
information, which is often complex and in the form of maps or percentages, into

42 Genanet. 2004. Mainstreaming gender into the climate change regime, COP 10 Buenos Aires, , cited in Making Disaster Risk Reduction
Gender Sensitive, Policy and Practical Guidelines, UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN 2009, Pg 44
43 Fothergil A (1998) The Neglect Of Gender In Disaster Work : An Overview Of The Literature in Perspective on gender and disaster.

International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasers
                                                                                                                                    30
simple and accessible messages that would allow people at risk to make sensible
decisions on how to respond to an impending threat (IFRC, 2008)44. Media‟s primary role
is to provide simple information on hazards, vulnerabilities, risk, and how to reduce
impacts are disseminated equally to vulnerable women and men in a language that
they can understand. There is also a critical need to develop data and warning
messages in local/ethnic languages - understandable by men, women and local
ethnic minority groups.

Many researchers agreed that dissemination of knowledge on disaster awareness is one
of the most important aspects of disaster preparedness. Knowing how to recognise the
signs of an oncoming disaster, and how best to act, is a prerequisite of effective disaster
response45. This is well illustrated by the difference in casualty rates in Papua New
Guinea between the 1998 and the 2000 tsunamis. Although the country had
experienced tsunamis before, in 1998 the people had almost no knowledge on
tsunamis. Instead of seeking refuge immediately when feeling the earthquake and
seeing the sea recede, many residents stood on the coast to watch the sea. When the
tsunami struck, it claimed at least 2 200 lives. Following the disaster, the government
collaborated with local academics and specialists from Japan and the US to raise
tsunami awareness through distributing pamphlets, videos and through education at
schools. Media has a critical role in educating people about potential risk, forecasting
hazards and subsequently trains them on measures that they can take to protect
themselves.

2.3.4 Possible media content to promote gender-based response system

An early warning has no effect without early action. At the shortest timescales, the
action could be evacuation, meanwhile on the longest timescales; early action
translates to working closely with local communities to assess the root causes of the risks
they face, update contingency planning and volunteer mobilisation (IFRC, 2008)46.
Women play an important role in taking appropriate and timely action in response
around warnings. They are likely to believe disaster warnings and take disaster
announcement seriously. They are also more likely to perceive disaster recurrence (de
Man and Simpson-Housely, 1987). It is clear that in most disaster situations, women
respond more to warnings than men (Forthergill, 1996). A study in California found out
that more women and men responded to the earthquake warnings by seeking more
information to securing household items and developing emergency plans (Enerson,
2006). Studies found that women will not evacuate their homes without their family and
in some cases without permission from their husbands (Drabek 1969, Millican 1993).

4444
    Early warning, early action, 2008. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
45 Cate, F.H, 1994 International Disaster Communications: Harnessing the power of communication to avert disasters and save lives. The
Annenberg Washington Program in Communications Policy Studies of Northwestern University. Accessed on 4 February 2010 at
http://www.annenberg.northwestern.edu/pubs/disas/
46
   Early Warning, Early Action, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Society, 2008. Pg 4
                                                                                                                                         31
However, if they have their children and reassured that the husbands are informed,
they may evacuate (Millican, 1993). Women often being the one responsible for
children and the elderly, thus the demands on them prior to and during disaster are
different from men‟s. In the case of rapid onset disasters, these demands are important
to consider as the time between receiving a warning and responding can be very
limited. World Bank Institute study (2007)47 in mainstreaming gender into disaster
recovery and reconstruction refers to an example of a manager in a state agency who
immediately brought in trailers and staff to provide on-site childcare for her
predominantly female staff who were heavily impacted by the flood but also needed
at work to assist others. While her on-the-spot decision helped, contingency planning to
provide childcare to women in emergency relief roles would have helped yet more.

It is government‟s responsibility to develop a gender-sensitive preparedness and
response plans that engaged the opinion from women-focused organizations and
previous disaster analysis and gender sensitive lesson-learned. It is also important to
implement gender-sensitive community and volunteer education/training, organize
public awareness and education campaigns that are tailored to specific needs of men
and women, and evaluate these programmes each year to determine if women are
effectively involved in the response process. Media can assist in disseminating these
plans and verify if it is being put into practice by men and women. It can contribute by
participating in the public awareness campaign, educating people on how warning
will be disseminated, which sources are reliable and how to respond to different types
of hazards after an early warning message is received.

2.4       How do we build gender-based early warning broadcast system

UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN in its report „Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Sensitive:
Policy and Practical Guidelines‟ (2009) drew a checklist on building gender sensitive
early warning broadcast system as follows.

                                                     RISK KNOWLEDGE
     Core Task                                                         Actions
 Organisational                       Organization-wide task force on gender, led by senior staff with the
 arrangements                          power to implement change, assigned to coordinate hazard
 established                           identification, vulnerability and risk assessment.
                                      Gender mainstreamed in the legislation or government policy mandating
                                       the preparation of hazard and vulnerability maps for all communities in
                                       place.
                                      Involving women and women‟s organizations in the development of
                                       national standards for the systematic collection, sharing and assessment
                                       of hazard and vulnerability data development.
                                      Equal opportunity for men and women to be part of the scientific and
                                       technical expert groups assessing and reviewing the accuracy of risk
                                       data and information developed.

47
  Dimitríjevics, A, 2007, Mainstreaming Gender into Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. World Bank Institute, Accessed on 18
December 2009, http://www.unisdr.org/preventionweb/files/8024_MainstreamingGenderintoDisasterRecoveryandRecostruct.txt
                                                                                                                                 32
                         Strategy to actively engage women and men from the communities in
                          local hazard and vulnerability analyses.
                         Women and men equally involved in the process to review and update
                          risk data each year, and include information on any new or emerging
                          vulnerabilities and hazards established.

Natural hazards          Women‟s traditional knowledge and perceptions included in the analysis
indentified               and evaluation of the characteristics of key natural hazards.
                         Women and men involved equally in the development of hazard and risk
                          maps.
                         Risk maps reflect gender differentiated impacts of the risk.
                         Hazard maps include gender differentiated vulnerability data.
Risks assessed           Assessment of gender specific hazards and vulnerabilities to determine
                          the risks faced by men and women in each region or community.
                         Gender differentiated results of risk assessment integrated into local risk
                          management plans and warning messages.
Information stored       Central ‟library‟ or GIS databases with gender differentiated data
and                       established to store all disaster and hazard risk information.
accessible               Gender differentiated hazard and vulnerability data available to the
                          government, the public, and the international community.



                             MONITORING AND WARNING SERVICES
      Core Task                                           Actions
Institutional            Gender perspectives mainstreamed in all the processes, roles and
mechanisms                responsibilities of all the organizations generating and issuing warnings.
established
Monitoring systems       Equal involvement of women and men in the committee that sets up
developed                 technical warning systems for all hazards.
                         System established to verify that warnings have reached both women
                          and men equally.
                         Documentation of the hazards women consider relevant.
                         Gender-differentiated data and analysis from regional networks,
                          adjacent territories, and international sources accessible.
Forecasting    and       Data and warning products that can be understood by both women and
warning    services       men.
established              Women and men trained how to forecast hazards using different
                          resources.
                         Women and men‟s traditional knowledge considered equally in
                          forecasting hazards.



                               DISSEMINATION AND INFORMATION
      Core Task                                       Actions
Organizational           Warning dissemination chain ensures that both women and men receive
and decision              information.
making processes         Women and men are both part of volunteer network trained and
institutionalized         empowered to receive and widely disseminate hazard warnings to
                          remote households and communities.
Effective                Communication and dissemination systems are tailored to the needs and
communication             social behaviour of both women and men.
systems and              Warning communication technology is accessible and reaches women
equipment                 and men equally.
installed                Gender experts or women‟s groups are consulted to assist with
                          identification and procurement of appropriate equipment or
                          mechanisms.
                                                                                                        33
                      Multiple communication mediums for warning dissemination are used,
                       encompassing those used or preferred by women.
                      Consistent warning dissemination and communication systems reach
                       women and men equally.
                      Two-way and interactive communication system allows for verification, so
                       it can be determined that women and men have received warnings.
                      Women and men trained and employed to maintain equipment and
                       upgrade programmes of back-up systems in the event of failure.
Warning messages      Warning alerts and messages take into consideration the behaviour
recognized and         patterns of women and men.
understood            Messages incorporate an understanding of the values, concerns, and
                       interests of women and men.
                      Warning alerts can be understood by both women and men.
                      Studies should be undertaken to determine how women and men access
                       and interpret early warning messages.
                      Gender-sensitive lessons learnt should be incorporated into message
                       formats and dissemination processes.



                                    RESPONSE CAPABILITY
    Core Task                                          Actions
Warnings              Warnings distributed by credible sources reach both women and men.
respected             Gender-sensitive strategies are developed to build credibility and trust in
                       warning development.
Disaster              Disaster preparedness and response plans are gender-sensitive.
preparedness          Hazard and risk maps include gender differentiated variables for
and response           vulnerability and risks, and are used to develop emergency preparedness
plans                  and response plans.
established           Gender-sensitive up-to-date emergency preparedness and response
                       plans developed and put into practice by women and men.
                      Gender-sensitive up-to-date emergency preparedness and response
                       plans are disseminated to women and men.
                      Gender-sensitive strategies are implemented to maintain preparedness
                       for recurrent hazard events.
                      Feedback from regular tests and drills are undertaken to test if the early
                       warning and dissemination process and responses reach women and
                       men equally.
Public awareness      Simple information on hazards, vulnerabilities, risks, and how to reduce
and education          impacts are disseminated equally to vulnerable women and men and in
enhanced               a language they can understand.
                      Women and men are educated on how warnings will be disseminated,
                       which sources are reliable and how to respond to different types of
                       hazards after an early warning message is received.
                      Women and men are equally trained to recognize simple hydro-
                       meteorological and geophysical hazard signs to allow immediate
                       response.
                      Gender-sensitive ongoing public awareness and education should be
                       built into school curricula from primary schools to university.
                      Media that women prefer is used to improve public awareness.
                      Public awareness and education campaigns are tailored to the specific
                       needs and concerns of women and men.
                      Public awareness strategies and programs are evaluated at least once
                       per year to determine if women are effectively involved in the response
                       process.


                                                                  Source: UNISDR, UNDP, and IUCN 2009
                                                                                                     34
                                Chapter 3
      Early warning broadcast system Development (country specific)

3.1       Cambodia

Alongside the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap Lake, there are frequent floods, whilst
east, west and northwest are the drought-prone area.

Recent Major Disasters

Flood (August 2000)
A massive flooding in August 2000 heavily damaged the northern, eastern and southern
regions, especially in Takeo Province. Three provinces along Mekong River (Stung Treng,
Kratie and Kompong Cham) and Municipality of Phnom Penh have declared the state
of emergency. 121,000 families have been affected, more than 170 people were killed,
and some $10 million in rice crops has been destroyed.

Flood (August 2001)
With the flood that occurred in August 2001, 12 states were affected, 56 died, and
about 1.7 million people were affected. Approximately 410,000 people had to
evacuate in the shelter.

Drought (2002)
After a dry climate that lasted since January 2002, 8 provinces suffered from the worst
drought in the last 20 years. More than 2 million people were affected, and caused
serious food shortages.
                                                                             Source: http://www.adrc.asia/disaster/index.html


Gender Related Disaster Effect and Good Practices

In recent years, many communities in Cambodia have been significantly affected by
flood disasters and drought. A study48 of the impact of flood to women and children in
Cambodia found that the main problem is not the flood itself but the period following
the flooding season. Food shortage (specifically rice shortage) was by far and away the
single factor that defined disaster. For most the transition period between normal rice
shortage and disaster rice shortage was at 3 – 4 months. One of the main coping
strategies is sending family members away to work in another town/country as migrant
workers. However this consequently increases the workloads of women and children
that were left at home (CARE, 2002). The migration of family members also increases

48
  Flood Impact on Women and Girls, 2002, Care International accessed on 6 February 2010 at http://www.adpc.net/pdr-
sea/publications.htm
                                                                                                                          35
the concern of sexually transmitted infections and drug abuse. Women/girls who seek
employment harvesting rice in other villages note their concern over sexual abuse,
physical violence, human trafficking and robbery49.

Emergency Warning System Update

Cambodia national progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for
Action50 notes that there has been some progress on the development of the country‟s
early warning broadcast system; however no clear systematic policy and institutional
commitment can be seen. The early warning broadcast system and dissemination of
early warning information to communities were established by the Ministry of Water
Resource and Meteorology (MoWRAM) through its Department of Hydrology and River
Work (DHRW) and Department of Meteorology. The department reviews, maintains and
disseminates flood forecast, early warning messages and weather forecast (via fax) to
line ministries, partner agencies including humanitarian agencies, UN agencies, funding
agencies, NGOs, and Provincial Department of Water Resource and Water Work.
Similar information is disseminated to communities through national and private TV
channels, radios and existing networks of partner agencies.

An early warning system for flood in 58 villages of flood-prone provinces in the Mekong
Lower Basin (Steung Treng, Kratie, Kampong Cham, Kandal and Prey Veng provinces)
was established by the Ministry of Water Resource and Meteorology through
Department of Hydrology and River Work (DHRW), Department of Meteorology, the
Mekong River Commission, the Cambodian Red Cross, the Action Against Hunger
(AAH) and the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC). Oxfam GB in collaboration
with the Department of Hydrology and River Work (DHRW) established the same system
in flood prone districts in Takeo province.

Cambodia‟s achievements in building the early warning system are neither
comprehensive nor substantial due to several challenges and constraints encountered
by the national, local authorities and partner agencies. Many villages in flood prone
provinces failed to establish the early warning system effectively, timely and accurately.
Cambodia national progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework
highlights that forecast and early warning information from the national level do not
reach the community levels, due to insufficient mechanisms and communication
system and equipments. Some systems are still effectively operating while others are not
well functioning due to financial and technical factors. The existing systems and tools
are not well-maintained and reviewed while technically and financially supports

49 Flood Impact on Women and Girls, 2002, Care International accessed on 6 February 2010 at http://www.adpc.net/pdr-
sea/publications.htm, Pg 38
50 Cambodia national progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework of Action, accessed on 26 February 2010 at

http://www.preventionweb.net/english/countries/asia/khm/ , Pg 9
                                                                                                                               36
phased out, due failed of dedication of resource from the government to keep the
momentum of implementation. CARE studies echoes the national progress report and
notes villagers‟ complains about not noticing any early warning messages directly
relating to the floods. A number of women interviewed for the study said that they
often do not hear any announcements because their house was too far away and
sheltered from the loudspeakers51.

Villagers in the four flood prone areas note that they receive flood information from a
variety of different sources and there is frequent exchange of information between
villagers when they meet. As a result, there is often contradictory information and a
number of women said that they were often not sure what to believe. In Cambodia,
radio and particularly television appeared to be the trusted sources information for
information on natural hazards. However, many women said that even when the radio
was on they were usually too busy with domestic tasks to listen, and when the TV news
programmes were on they found it difficult to fully concentrate. CARE study notes
Cambodian men as more likely to spend time and have the inclination to listen to the
radio routinely. CARE study also found that women in the area having difficulties
understanding some of the language used in radio or television news broadcasts
(CARE, 2002)52.

Several recommendations have been made by the country‟s National Committee of
Disaster Management in 2009 to establish an effective early warning system in the flood
prone areas in the country53:
       • The system should be made in place in other disaster prone areas, especially
          the remote areas.
       • Prioritize the mechanism to maintain the existing system and to review and
          disseminate information
       • The government should develop and review strategy and action plan, and
          allocate resources to extend the systems to other areas and maintain and
          the existing systems by including in development framework.

Useful Contacts

National Committee for Disaster Management
Peou Samy
Email: caccdm@yahoo.com


51 Flood Impact on Women and Girls, 2002, Care International accessed on 6 February 2010 at http://www.adpc.net/pdr-
sea/publications.htm, Pg 54
52 Flood Impact on Women and Girls, 2002, Care International accessed on 6 February 2010 at http://www.adpc.net/pdr-

sea/publications.htm, Pg 54
53 Cambodia national progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework of Action, accessed on 26 February 2010 at

http://www.preventionweb.net/english/countries/asia/khm/ , Pg 10
                                                                                                                               37
Gender Focal Points

Ms. Sieng Sovathana
Gender Focal Point
Director of Early Childhood Education Department
Early Childhood Education Department
Ministry of Education Youth and Sport
169 Norodom Boulevard
Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Ms Sambo Tey
House 38, Samdech Sothearos blvd
Phnom Penh
Cambodia
Tel: +855 23 42 62 99   Fax: +855 23 23 42 61 63
Email: s.tey@unesco.org

Agencies

Cambodian Red Cross Society (CRC)
#17,Street Cambodian Red Cross (street 180)
12101, Phnom Penh
Country: Cambodia
Tel: +855 23212876 Fax: +855 23212875
Email: info@redcross.org.kh
http://www.redcross.org.kh/english/index.asp

UNDP
Energy and Environment
Mr. Lay Khim, Team Leader
#53, Pasteur Street, Boeung Keng Kang I
P.O. Box 877, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Tel: +855 23 216167 / 217193
Fax: +855 23 216257 / 721042




                                                   38
3.2       China

China suffers from a variety of disasters including earthquakes, extreme climate
changes, floods, storms, storm surges, forest fires, drought, insect damage, landslides
and slope failure. In particular, earthquakes, drought and cyclone give major
damages.

Recent Major Disasters

Sichuan Earthquake (May 2008)
On 12 May 2008, a massive earthquake measuring 7.9 (USGS) struck Sichuan province. It
killed 87,476people, affected 45,976,596, and total economic loss was US$85,000 million.

Typhoon Bilis (July 2006)
Cyclone Bilis that hit China on 14 July 2006 triggered floods and landslides. Due to the
cyclone, 820 were found dead (including missing), 29,623,000 affected, and 263,000 lost
their houses.

Yunan Earthquake (February 1996)
On 3 February 1996, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake that hit the province of Yunnan, killed
309 people, affected 5,077,795 people, whose economic loss was US$506 million.

                                                                             Source: http://www.adrc.asia/disaster/index.html


Gender Related Disaster Effect and Good Practices

On 12 May 2008, China‟s most powerful earthquake since 1976 affected Sichuan and
parts of Chongqing, Gansu, Hubei, Shaanxi and Yunnan killing at least 87,556 people,
injuring more than 365,000 1 and affecting more than 60 million people in ten provinces
and regions. An estimated 5.36 million buildings collapsed and more than 21 million
buildings were damaged54. Both earthquakes hit children especially hard. The
Wenchuan earthquake, which damaged more than 12,000 schools in Sichuan and
6,500 schools in Gansu, struck during the early afternoon when effectively every school
children was in a classroom. Meanwhile, the Panzhihua earthquake struck two days
before the start of the school year, keeping students in the new earthquake zone from
returning to school as planned. The earthquake struck areas that are predominantly
poor, where the health and nutrition conditions of children and women were below
national averages even before the emergency55.



54Global assessment report on disaster risk reduction, 2009, UNISDR, Pg 3
55Sichuan Earthquake, One Year Report, 2009, UNICEF accessed on 25 February 2010 at
http://www.unicef.org/china/China_Earthquake_Report_2009ENG_Part_1.pdf
                                                                                                                          39
Among those left homeless and economically vulnerable were women and women-
headed households in Maoxian County, one of the poorest counties in Sichuan and
largely populated by ethnic Qiang. Most of the women act as heads of their
households in Maoxian, as many men from this area migrate for work to coastal cities in
China. The Asia Foundation, with support from Give2Asia‟s donors including the
Committee of 100 and the China Earthquake Recovery Fund, is helping hundreds of
Maoxian local women to build sustainable livelihoods and participate in their
communities‟ overall recovery and reconstruction efforts. Since the project‟s launch,
the project has already reached 566 households in Maoxian County. Specifically, the
project has established a self-help group of Qiang ethnic women in the village of Mu‟er
to assist women in community recovery planning; provided support to rebuild almost
200 homes in the village of Moutuo; and established a foundation for the women‟s
livelihood reconstruction fund that will support their economic empowerment56.

Emergency Warning System Update

China is prone to a variety of natural disasters that affect the lives and livelihood of its
citizens - such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, typhoons, and drought. In addition to
natural disasters, the country faces human induced hazards such as fires, health
epidemics, transport and industrial accidents. Rapid urbanization and industrialization
are putting additional pressures on the already constrained resources in the country.
The intimate linkage between human activities and disasters became increasingly clear
to the public as a result of 1998 floods which partly resulted from large-scale
deforestation and unsustainable land use practices57.

China in their DRR report (2009)58 indicates that the disaster monitoring and pre-warning
system has taken shape with relevant departments able to timely forecast disasters in
line with the rules of disaster management. The government has set-up a weather
monitoring and forecast network composed of 251 ground meteorological stations, 124
high-altitude monitoring stations and more than 80 new weather radars around the
country. An earthquake monitoring network made up of a national digital earthquake
network of 48 earthquake stations, 23 regional digital remote-monitoring stations, 25
GPS stations and 56 crust movement monitoring networks composed of 1,000 mobile
observatories and 400 stations have been established. A hydrometric network
composed of 3,130 basic hydrometric stations, 1,073 water level stations, 14,454
precipitation survey stations and 11,620 underground water observing wells has been
put in place. The country reports that a forest fire-fighting and pest preventing forecast

56 Long-term Earthquake Relief for Sichuan and Gansu Provinces, assessed on 26 February 2010 at http://asiafoundation.org/in-
asia/2009/05/06/from-china-long-term-earthquake-relief-for-sichuan-and-gansu-provinces/
57 Yangtze Flood Pushes through Central China,” CNN, 1998 on Thomson, Freeman, Flood Across the Border, 2009, U.S.-Korea Institute (USKI)

of the Johns Hopkins University‟s School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS)
58 Disaster Reduction Report of the Republic People‟s of China, 2009, accessed on 21 February 2010 at

http://www.unisdr.org/eng/country-inform/reports/China-report.pdf
                                                                                                                                      40
network composed of 2,867 inspection and quarantine stations, 3,151 forest fire-fighting
headquarters, 11,222 forest fire-fighting watch towers, 300,000 kilometers of fire-
separation roads and 1.03 million kilometers of fire separation zones, has been set up. A
pest monitoring network composed of 400 regional forecasting stations, 15 monitoring
centers and 300 regional monitoring stations, has also been established. The report
highlights that the constant improvement of monitoring and pre-warning system
targeted against various natural disasters has guaranteed the timely organization of
disaster reduction and relief work by governments at different levels. No specific
information on mainstreaming gender in the development of China‟s emergency
warning system was recorded on China‟s report on its EWS progress. Media is
encouraged to contact local government agencies and gender focal points to obtain
most updated information on the topic.

Useful Contacts

National Platform Focal Point

China National Committee for International Disaster Reduction (CNCIDR)
Phone: +86 1058123150, +86 1058123140
Alternative Contact:
Tel: +86 105812329       Fax: +86 1058123140
http://www.mca.gov.cn

Hyogo Framework of Action Focal Point

China National Committee for International Disaster Reduction (CNCIDR)
Phone: +86 1058123150 +86 1058123140
Alternative Contact:
Tel: +86 1058123296      Fax: +86 1058123140
http://www.mca.gov.cn

Gender Focal Points

Ms LU XiaopingD
Director, General Affair
Department of International Cooperation
Ministry of Labour & Social Security
12, Hepingli Zhong Jie
Beijing 100716, China
Tel: (8610) 8422 1788       Fax: (8610) 8422 1624
Email: luxiaoping@mail.molss.gov.cn


                                                                                       41
Mr YANG Zhengwei
Ministry of Commerce,China
Tel: (8610) 6519 7719
Email: apecdiv@mofcom.gov.cn




                               42
3.3      Malaysia

Most common hazards in Malaysia are flood, landslides, haze and forest fire.

Recent Major Disasters

Indian Ocean Tsunami (December 2004)
The Indian Ocean Tsunami which occurred off the Sumatra Island after a massive
earthquake (M9.1) killed 80, affected 5,063.

Flood (December 2007)
Floods triggered by torrential rains in northeastern, central and southern part of
Malaysia killed 33, and affected 158,000 in December 2007.

Tropical Cyclone Greg (December 1996)
In December 1996, tropical cyclone Greg which hit Keningau in Sabah killed 270 and
destroyed 5,000 houses whose total loss is estimated to be US$ 52,000.


                                                                            Source: http://www.adrc.asia/disaster/index.html


Gender Related Disaster Effect and Good Practices

Compared by other countries hit by the 2004 tsunami, Malaysia sustained relatively
modest physical damage. However, the psychological effects of the disaster were
reported to be profound. UNICEF and its partners provided counseling services to
approximately 400 youths and mothers in tsunami-affected areas. Local mental health
support networks by training residents (teachers, medical workers and community
leaders) to form Local Mental Health Teams (LMHTs) were built. Through the training,
teams are equipped to: identify children and adults who are experiencing
psychological problems or mental disorders related to the tsunami; conduct initial
assessment interviews to identify the severity and nature of the mental problem; and
provide counseling sessions, which continued over six-month post-tsunami period.
Community awareness activities were also conducted to establish trustful working
relationships between NGOs and local residents. The Langkawi Community Education
Workshop was conducted to identify community contacts, lobbying support and active
participation and to mobilize people in the community (including women and youth)59.

Focus groups conducted by UNICEF have encouraged women to organise self-help
teams. The purpose of these teams is to empower women to: document and verbalise

59Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: UNICEF Response at Six Month Update, UNICEF. Accessed on 25 February 2010 at
http://www.preventionweb.net/files/2044_VL108103.pdf
                                                                                                                         43
their concerns so that their needs can be better represented and recorded; provide
women the opportunity to brainstorm on possible income generating projects that they
wish to carry out; enhance leadership skills, motivation, communication skills and
confidence of young persons; and provide the youth with a positive environment and
space to develop their own projects. Specifically on gender and disaster management,
UNICEF and its Malaysian partners have been conducting focus groups session, reveling
gender equality in tsunami assistance and highlighting need for further action to
empower women left out of tsunami assistance.

Psychological assessments conducted by UNICEF and its partners revealed that in
tsunami-affected areas, women are more vulnerable than men due to a variety of
factors, including lower socio-economic status, limited access to necessary resources,
and inability to provide for their families. They lack influence due to inequality and
disempowerment, and have less decision-making power and control over their lives.
Traditional social roles result in a situation where women‟s losses are viewed as less
important than those suffered by men. For this reason, women‟s losses were often not
documented, resulting in an unequal distribution of government economic support.

Emergency Warning System Update

Following 2004 tsunami that struck several Indian Ocean nations, the government of
Malaysia has set up a National Tsunami Early Warning System (SAATNM) to disseminate
early warnings especially to those residing at the coastal areas. Implemented by the
Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovations through the Malaysian Meteorological
Department in 2005, it presently operates a total of 17 seismological stations throughout
the country together with 10 strong motion stations in the Klang Valley. Currently, there
is a total of four closed-circuit televisions (CCTV) installed at strategic locations in the
northern parts of Peninsular Malaysia to monitor real time high wave or unusual sea
condition. The first coastal camera was successfully installed at Batu Feringghi Beach in
Penang. Two deep ocean buoys were deployed to detect the surface pressure and
the height of tsunami waves, located in the Andaman Sea and the South China Sea.
Several dissemination components - SMS, direct line (hotline), internet, telephone and
telefax - has been established to disseminate earthquake and tsunami warnings within
15 minutes of the occurrence of any earthquake to the media and disaster
management agencies. Radio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM) and as well as other TV
stations have also begun live broadcasts on the earthquake information on their news
alert programme. The department has installed siren network at several strategic
locations in populated coastal areas and beaches along the coastline of Malaysia to
provide notification of an emergency. The national telecommunication company
established voice message dissemination of earthquake/tsunami warning to reach
public in affected areas through fixed telephone line. Malaysia has also established the
                                                                                          44
Malaysia Emergency Response System (MERS) 999 for the public; the Fixed-Line Alert
System (FLAS) for the dissemination of disaster alert from the authorities to the public via
landline; and the Government Integrated Radio Network (GIRN), which provides radio
communication between responders during emergency or disaster. The
implementation of these measures is made possible through constructive public-private
partnerships carried out between the Government and prominent players from the
local telecommunications industry60. No information on training materials and
preparedness measures were recorded. Although Malaysia has made a significant
move on the implementation of EWS, no specific information on mainstreaming gender
in the development of its EWS was recorded. Media is encouraged to contact local
government agencies and gender focal points to obtain most updated information on
the topic.

Useful Contacts

Hyogo Framework of Action Focal Point

National Security Council
Website: http://www.pmo.gov.my
Phone: +603-8872 4202

Gender Focal Points

Ms Norshahida ZOLKIAPLY
Assistant Director
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Division
Ministry of International Trade and Industry
Government Office Complex
50622 Jalan Duta, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel: (603) 6203 3151 Fax: (603) 6203 1305
Email: shahida@miti.gov.my

Mdm Elena CHIANG ABDULLAH
Under Secretary
International Relations Division
Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development
Level 5, Block E
Bukit Perdana Government Complex
Jalan Dato‟ Onn
50515 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

60Statement made at the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (2009, accessed on 20 February 2010 at
http://www.preventionweb.net/files/10712_MALAYSIAOfficialStatementFinal.pdf, Pg 4
                                                                                                             45
Tel: (603) 2690 4078 Fax: (603) 2694 3967
Email: elena@kpwkm.gov.my

Mrs Nor Hasnah BADRODDIN
Principal assistant Secretary
International Relations Division
Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development
Level 4, Block E
Bukit Perdana Government Complex
Jalan Dato‟ Onn
50515 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel: (603) 2690 4042 Fax: (603) 2694 3967
Email: norhasnah@kpwkm.gov.my

Ms Faten Ummaimah SAIDI
Assistant Secretary
International Relations Division
Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development
Level 4, Block E
Bukit Perdana Government Complex
Jalan Dato‟ Onn
50515 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel: (603) 2690 4068 Fax: (603) 2694 3967
Email: faten@kpwkm.gov.my, apecmiti@miti.gov.my

Agencies

Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN)
Secretariat, No 45B Jalan Mamanda 9, Ampang Point, Ampang
68000, Selangor
Malaysia
Tel: +60 342569999 Fax: +60 342518435
Email: ADRRNetwork@gmail.com

UNICEF
Wisma UN,
Block C, 2nd Floor
Kompleks Pejabat Damansara
Jalan Dungun, Damansara Heights
50490 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Tel: 603 2095 9154 Fax: 603 2093 0582
                                                            46
3.4    Philippines

Located along the typhoon belt in the Pacific, the Philippines is struck by an average of
20 typhoons every year, five of which are destructive. Being situated in the “Pacific Ring
of Fire” makes it vulnerable to frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Its
geographical location and physical environment also contributes to its high-
susceptibility   to    tsunami,   sea     level   rise,    storm      surges,   landslides,
flood/flashflood/flooding, and drought.

Recent Major Disasters

Volcanic Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 1991)
Volcanic eruption of the Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 was the largest volcanic
explosion in the 20th century. It killed 640, affected 1,036,065. About 40,000 houses were
destroyed, and more than 70,000 houses were damaged.

Typhoon Durian & Mud Flow (November 2006)
Typhoon Durian hit the Philippines on 30 November to 1 December 2006 caused
torrential rains in the south Luzon Island, which triggered massive landslides. Death toll is
1,399, and total affected is 2,562,517.

Luzon Earthquake (July 1990)
M7.6 earthquake occurred in the central Luzon killed 2,412, affected 1,597,553, and
destroyed 100,000 houses with the estimated total loss of US$250million.


                                                       Source: http://www.adrc.asia/disaster/index.html


Gender Related Disaster Effect and Good Practices

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Philippines, conducted
an education campaign - "Engendering Geohazard Assessment and Mapping Project"
with an aim to generate information through geohazard susceptibility maps. One of the
emphases is to provide women and men with equal access to information that
indicates the geohazard susceptibility of pilot communities. As women are badly
affected by geohazards such as landslides and floods, providing them with information
as to the susceptibility of their communities is a way to help them cope better in times
of such natural hazards. One of the most important components of the project is
gendered Information, Education and Communication (IEC) which aims to empower
women (and men) through the information provided by the geohazard susceptibility

                                                                                                    47
maps (UNISDR, 2007)61. In 2004-2005, the campaign was carried out in the following
areas: Baras in Eastern Rizal (Northern Philippines); the cities of Naga and Legaspi in
Bicol Region (southeastern end of Luzon in northern Philippines); Panaon Island in
Southern Leyte (Southern Philippines); parts of Surigao City and Gingoog in Misamis
Oriental; and parts of Davao City in Davao Province (Southern Philippines).

Geohazard maps such as flooding and landslide susceptibility maps were developed
for the targeted areas. To impart information better, the maps were the subject of IEC
campaigns targeting women and men. The direct beneficiaries of the project are the
local population and local government units (LGUs). The geohazard maps and
information help them formulate geohazard management policies and programmes.

This is considered a good practice for it specifically seeks to provide women and men
with equal access to geohazard information, making them more aware of risks and
helping them manage disaster risks at local level. Indeed, as mentioned earlier, women
are badly affected by geohazards such as landslides and floods, and providing them
with such relevant information is a way to help them cope better in times of disaster. An
innovative element in the project is the inclusion of a gendered IEC component that
targets both women and men.

Key lessons learned from the project are that it is important for both men and women to
undertake geohazard survey, assessment and mapping; but it is even more important,
in the context of a vulnerable community, to provide women and men with equal
access to information. This is also a way of empowering both women and men, making
them aware and enabling them to recognize their roles and relevance, and participate
actively in DRR efforts at community level.62

Emergency Warning System Update

The Philippine Calamities and Disaster Preparedness Plan (CDPP) develops a hazard
warning system that includes the procedure and linkages among the disaster agencies
to ensure a well organized and coordinated dissemination and response to warnings.
The CDPP has identified the responsibilities of governmental and non-governmental
agencies for the detection of hazards, preparation of hazard warning, dissemination
and management of warning, and operational response to warning. The National
Disaster Coordinating Council, composed of different government agencies, has
organized task units, one of which is responsible for generating hazard warning. Another
task unit is responsible for communicating the warning to the lower level coordinating
councils, which will disseminate the warning to the affected community63.


61
   Gender perspective: Working Together for Disaster Risk Reduction. Good Practices and Lessons Learnt, 2007 UNISDR Pg 43
62 Gender perspective: Working Together for Disaster Risk Reduction. Good Practices and Lessons Learnt, 2007 UNISDR Pg 44
63 Garcia, L (2004), Overview of Early Warning Systems in Selected Countries of Southeast Asia, Asian Disaster Preparedness Center, Pg 42

                                                                                                                                        48
Tropical cyclone warning

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
(PAGASA, the Philippine weather bureau) issues the following warning depending on
the level of threat:

Severe Weather Bulletin: Tropical Cyclone Alert

The alert stage indicates that a tropical cyclone poses a threat to a part of the country.
The bulletin provides detailed information about the cyclone including location,
movement and intensity as well as a 4-hour forecast. The bulletin also gives advice to
the public to undertake the appropriate safety measures and to continue monitoring
development. The tropical cyclone alert is issued twice a day at 11:00 a.m. and 11:00
p.m.

Severe Weather Bulletin: Tropical Cyclone Warning

The warning is issued when there is real and immediate danger to a part or parts of the
country from a cyclone. At this stage, public storm signals are raised. The warning is
issued four times a day: 5:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m., 5:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m.

Flood forecasting and warning

PAGASA monitors the flood situation in major urban areas and the four main river basins
of the country. The Flood Forecasting Branch that produces the flood forecasts and
warnings undertakes the hydrological warning for 1) Pampanga, Agno, Bicol and
Cagayan river basins; 2) Major dams, namely, Binga, Ambuklao, Angat, Pantabangan,
and Magat; and 3) Pasig-Marikina-Laguna Lake complex system64.

Flood forecasting in the country consists of the following steps:

a) Monitoring and data collection
Data from rain gauges, water level and discharge rate are collected at regular intervals
and sent to the Central Flood Forecasting Office. In the case of dam monitoring, some
of the rainfall and river gauges data are telemetered to the central office.

b) Analysis
 Flood-forecasting models tested for each river basin and dam sites are used to analyse
the flood situation.

c) Preparation of flood forecast and warning



64   Garcia, L (2004), Overview of Early Warning Systems in Selected Countries of Southeast Asia, Asian Disaster Preparedness Center, Pg 47
                                                                                                                                          49
Appropriate warnings as well as the corresponding precautionary measures are
incorporated in the flood bulletin.

The concerned public receives flood information directly from PAGASA or through
national and local broadcasts, disaster coordinating councils, and regional warning
centers and dam offices. PAGASA has partnered with SMART, a telecommunications
company to provide the public with weather alert service for typhoons, floods, and
climate change updates65.

Tsunami sensors
Inexpensive tsunami sensors have been deployed in a pilot site in Lubang Island and
are planned to be installed in other parts of the country. The installation of sensors is
being done while also intensifying community-based early warning systems (CBEWS) in
the provinces. CBEWS for tsunami, established in pilot coastal villages in several
provinces, includes hazard and risk assessments, evacuation planning, drills, tsunami
signage installation, and information and education campaigns. Drills utilize indigenous
practices such as ringing of a bell (“batingaw”). SMART also donates mobile phones
and airtime load to hazard-prone areas as preparedness measure. Early warning signs
like flood markers are only beginning to be put up in areas where recent hazard events
became near disasters or reached disaster proportions. A more proactive approach to
early warning is yet to develop in many hazard-prone areas66.

Urbanized areas bring a challenge different from rural communities. A local tsunami
early warning system for Manila Bay and vicinity is being started through a project
implemented by Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) with
funding support by the Finnish government. PHIVOLCS is also linked with the Hawaii-
based Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) which evaluates potential tsunami
triggering earthquakes and disseminates tsunami warnings based on seismic waveform
data streams from a network of seismic stations all over the Pacific67.

There are few good examples where different parties collaborated in preparedness
activities incorporating locally generated EWS. For example, a community radio station
that was put up since late 1999 in the Municipality of Labo Camarines Norte (located
335 km south of Manila), was recognized as a good practice in an Oxfam Publication.
DWLB-FM provided the cheapest yet fastest information tool to warn residents of threats
and educate people of their responsibilities to reduce disaster risks.




65 Philippines National Progress Report on the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, 2009, Pg 11
66 Philippines National Progress Report on the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, 2009, Pg 12
67 Philippines National Progress Report on the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, 2009, Pg 12

                                                                                                               50
Philippines national progress report on the implementation of Hyogo Framework for
Action (2009) notes that when communication facilities break down during strong
typhoons, most local government units do not have an alternate system to
communicate warnings to residents and inform when and where to evacuate.
Forecasting models and equipment for tropical cyclones are available but constantly
require maintenance and upgrading; thus the need for appropriate government
investment.

Setting up an end-to-end EWS that delivers accurate warning information of potential
hazards dependably and in a timely manner to authorities and populations at risk, and
enabling them to take action remains to be a challenge. A multi-hazard approach
would make it possible to building on existing EWS capacities and infrastructure of
various stakeholders. The job of facilitating stakeholders‟ involvement bears mostly on
local disaster coordinating council, which themselves need capacity building in the
area of community participation. Much work is needed to integrate the EWS in the
emergency preparedness and response planning. NGOs also need to be alert on what
guidelines may be needed and what technical assistance and know-how can be
shared to communities and their local government units.

The national report calls for the availability of government funds to enable procurement
of monitoring instruments and equipment, which has been dependent on foreign aid.
Investment for continuous training of personnel, particularly from the warning agencies,
is also a concern.

Useful Contacts

National Platform Focal Point

General Glenn J Rabonza
Office of Civil Defense, National Disaster Coordinating Council
Administrator OCD & NDCC Executive officer
E-mail: genrabonza@ndcc.gov.ph
Website: http://www.ndcc.gov.ph/

Hyogo Framework for Action Focal Point

National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC)
Website: http://www.ndcc.gov.ph/
Tel: (632) 9122424, (632) 9115061

Gender Focal Points

                                                                                      51
Dr Amelou BENITEZ-REYES
Commissioner
The Philippines Women‟s University
1743 Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines
Tel: (632) 521 3383 / 524 2857    Fax: (632) 522 4002
Email: board@ncrfw.gov.ph; abreyes@pwu.edu.ph; amelou_reyes@yahoo.com

Ms Encarnacion N. RARALIO
The Philippines Women‟s University
1743 Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines
Tel: (632) 524 2612 / 872 9446    Fax: (632) 524 2612 /872 9446
Email: enra_ph@yahoo.com

Ms Myrna T YAO
Chairperson
National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women
1145 J. P. Laurel St., San Miguel
Manila 1005, Philippines
Tel: (632) 735 1864 Fax: (632) 736 4449
Email: board@ncrfw.gov.ph; mtyao@richwell.net; chair@ncrfw.gov.ph
fcfbpwp@yahoo.com

Ms Isabelita SY PALANCA
Commissioner
National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women
1145 J.P. Laurel Street, San Miguel
Manila 1005, Philippines
Tel: (632) 735 1864 Fax: (632) 736 4449
Email: board@ncrfw.gov.ph; Sabsy3p@yahoo.com

Ms Emmeline L. VERZOSA
Executive Director
National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women
1145 J.P. Laurel Street
San Miguel, Manila, Philippines
Tel: (632) 735 4955 / 4766 Fax: (632) 736 4449
Email: ncrfw_execdir@yahoo.com; edo@ncrfw.gov.ph

Ms Amaryllis Torres
National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women
1145 J.P. Laurel Street
                                                                        52
San Miguel, Manila, Philippines
Email: board@ncrfw.gov.ph; attorres@yahoo.com

Agencies

Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue
Postal Code: 1550
Mandaluyong City
Country: Philippines
Telephone: +63 26324444 Fax: +63 26322444

Yolanda Benitez Gomez
Department of Environment & Natural Resources (DENR)
Philippines
Email: yolibee@hotmail.com




                                                       53
3.5       Thailand

Flood, landslide, forest fire, wind damage, drought, lightening, hail and epidemics are
the major disasters.

Recent Major Disasters

Indian Ocean Tsunami (December 2004)
On 26 December 2004, Tsunami occurred off the Sumatra Island killed 5,395, affected
58,550, and whose total loss was US$ 399.78 million in Thailand.

Typhoon Lekima (October 2007)
Cyclone Lekima hit Thailand between 4 and 6 October 2007 killed 17, affected
1,552,936, and whose total loss was US$ 30.8 million.

Typhoon Mekkahla (Sep-Oct 2008)
Typhoon Mekkahla hit between 31 September and 1 October 2008. The cyclone
caused torrential rains which killed 32, affected 2,864,484 and whose total loss was US$
21.6 million.
                                                                                 Source: http://www.adrc.asia/disaster/index.html


Gender Related Disaster Effect and Good Practices

The 2004 tsunami in Thailand was one of the most devastating natural disasters in the
country‟s history. It has claimed over eight thousands of lives in Thailand alone and left
hundreds of children orphaned and many women and men widowed. No official
gender disaggregated statistics on the loss of lives in Thailand in the 2004 tsunami, was
recorded. Studies comparing casualties comparing women and men were mainly
conducted in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. The psychosocial impact of the tsunami
disaster on men, remains a poorly understood problem that received insufficient
response from assistance organizations. In losing their homes, fishing boats and
capacity to earn a living as heads of households, they lost self esteem and a sense of
worth. Many men became widowers, uncommon among reproductive age groups68.

Gender issues in post-tsunami assistance included rights to land, people excluded from
assistance and/or participation in assistance, protection of migrant workers, increased
vulnerability to the sex industry and trafficking, increased gender-based and domestic
violence, slowness in livelihood recovery, insufficient psychosocial rehabilitation, and
overall lack of focus on gender aspects in assistance programmes. One of the greatest

68Gender Aspects in the Context of Institutional and Legislative Systems for Early Warning Thailand, United Nations Development
Programme, Pg 51
                                                                                                                                  54
disasters facing women in Thailand is AIDS pandemic. The tensions between legal
measures and societal norm discouraged the promotion of gender equality. Barriers
include traditional perception of women‟s role, lack of gender sensitivity among
professionals, limited participation of men and boys to promote gender equality, and
the need to raise interest and engagement from women. Women were still found to be
under-represented at the political and decision making levels. The country
enforcement of laws, women‟s exercising their legal rights, and gender analysis in
planning, budgeting and monitoring evaluation systems need to be improved69.

Emergency Warning System Update

In response to the events of December 2004, the Thai government established the
National Disaster Warning Centre (NDWC), intended primarily to gather and process
critical information on impending natural disasters, and to issue public warnings as
necessary. Over 65 disaster warning towers have been installed in the coastal
provinces, and the NDWC has been planning to extend its telecommunications
networks to cover a range of natural hazards. The establishment of this early warning
system has been complemented by measures intended to reduce disaster vulnerability,
including knowledge dissemination activities in local communities. Training materials
have been prepared for local residents explaining what to do in the event of another
tsunami. Residents, including schoolchildren, have also participated in tsunami
evacuation drills.

One concern over these efforts to promote preparedness is the extent to which some of
the more vulnerable segments of the population were reached. An International
Organisation for Migration (IOM) rapid assessment showed that migrants‟ knowledge of
disasters did not suggest a level of preparedness comparable to that of the Thai
population (UN Country Team Thailand 2006). As a result, the IOM partnered with
Thailand‟s Department of Disaster Preparation and Mitigation and with the German
International Aid Agency to organize a tsunami early warning evacuation exercise in
which Burmese migrant workers were included. In collaboration with local NGOs, the
IOM also distributed cheap radio sets and information materials in migrant communities.

There is little information in English about the content of the training materials that
formed part of the knowledge dissemination activities, which may be an important
issue as far as gender mainstreaming is concerned. If these materials were based on
the Thai government‟s disaster handbook or that of the Asian Disaster Preparedness
Centre, the likelihood is that there is little attention devoted to gender-specific
concerns, as these considerations are missing from the aforementioned texts. Similarly, it

69Gender Aspects in the Context of Institutional and Legislative Systems for Early Warning Thailand, United Nations Development
Programme, Pg 57
                                                                                                                                  55
is not established what format the information materials assumed, but if crucial
information was distributed in the form of printed text, a considerable proportion of
Burmese migrant women – the social group with the highest proportion of functional
illiterates – may have been unwittingly excluded from benefiting from the preparedness
campaign (Dimitríjevics, 2007)70.

Useful Contacts

Mr Jakarin Hongsakul
Director of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Bureau
Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation
3/12 U-Thong Nok Road
Dusit District, Bangkok, 10300 Thailand
Tel: +662 243 0020 ext 3315
Fax: 662 243 2178
Email: foreign_dpm@yahoo.com
National Disaster Warning Centre (NDWC)
Tel: +66 (0) 2589 2497       Fax: +66 (0) 2589 6008

Hyogo Framework of Action Focal Point

Deputy Director-General (Technical Affairs)
Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM)
3/12 U-Thong Nok Road Dusit, Bangkok, Thailand
Tel: +662 2430020/55555557-8     Fax: +662 2414849
http://www.disaster.go.th/html/english/i Bangkok - 10300


Gender Focal Points

Dr Juree VICHIT-VADAKAN
Chairperson
Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society, NIDA
Thailand
Tel: (662) 377 7206                Fax: (662) 374 7399
Email: juree@nida.nida.ac.th

Ms Malee PRUEKPONGSAWALEE
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Law and Women and Youth Studies Programme

 Dimitríjevics, A, 2007, Mainstreaming Gender into Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. World Bank Institute, Accessed on 18
70

December 2009, http://www.unisdr.org/preventionweb/files/8024_MainstreamingGenderintoDisasterRecoveryandRecostruct.txt
                                                                                                                                56
Thammasat University
Thailand
Tel: (662) 224 9420 Fax: (662) 224 9420
Email: malee_p@hotmail.com

Dr. Suteera VICHITRANONDA
President
Gender and Development Research Institute
Tel: (662) 929 2310 Fax: (662) 566 3481, 525 2090
Email: gdri@cscoms.com

Dr Chirawan BHAKDIBUTR
Deputy Professor
Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society
NIDA
Thailand
Tel: (662) 377 7206 Fax: (662) 374 7399
Email: chirawan@nida.nida.ac.th

Mrs Chitrapa SOONTORNPIPIT
Deputy Director-General
Office of Women‟s Affairs & Family Development
Ministry of Social Development & Human Security
Thailand
Tel: (662) 2306 8742 Fax: (662) 2306 8741
Email: chitrapa.s@m-society.go.th; Pha27755@yahoo.com

Mr Suchit TRIPITAK
Deputy Director-General
Office of Women‟s Affairs & Family Development
Ministry of Social Development & Human Security
Thailand
Tel: (662) 2306 8762 Fax: (662) 2306 8753
Email: suchit.t@m-society.go.th

Ms Supathanya BORANIN
Chief of Gender Integration Group
Bureau of Gender Equality Promotion
Office of Women‟s Affairs & Family Development
Ministry of Social Development & Human Security
Thailand
                                                        57
Tel: (662) 2306 8780 Fax: (662) 2306 8753
Email: supathanya_boranin@yahoo.com

Ms Achara SRIRATAMPAI
Social Development Technical Officer
Bureau of Gender Equality Promotion
Office of Women‟s Affairs & Family Development
Ministry of Social Development & Human Security
Thailand
Tel: (662) 2306 8780 Fax: (662) 2306 8753
Email: achara_office@yahoo.com

Mrs Anusorn INKAMPAENG
Director of Gender Equality Promotion Bureau
Office of Women‟s Affairs & Family Development
Ministry of Social Development & Human Security
Thailand
Tel: (662) 2306 8762 Fax: (662) 2306 8753
Email: anusorn.i@m-society.go.th




                                                  58
3.6    Vietnam

Typhoon hit Vietnam from May to January sometimes triggering floods of the Mekong
River. Windstorms, floods, epidemic, drought, insect infestation, slides, wild fires are main
disasters in Vietnam.

Recent Major Disasters

Typhoon Linda (November 1997)
Typhoon Linda which hit Vietnam in November 1997 killed 3,111 and affected more
than one million people. Approximately 77,000 houses were destroyed and the
estimated total loss was US$470,000.

Central Vietnam Flood (November 1999)
Flooding in Central Vietnam in November 1999 killed 749 people, destroyed 49,094
houses and the estimated loss was US$240,000.

Tropical Storm Kammuri (August 2008)
Tropical Storm Kammuri which hit the northern Vietnam in August 2008 caused heavy
rains and storm wind, and subsequent floods and landslides. It killed 133 people with the
missing 34, destroyed 990 houses, and the estimated total loss is US$11.5 billion.

                                                       Source: http://www.adrc.asia/disaster/index.html


Gender Related Disaster Effect and Good Practices

The BBC World Service Trust (BBC WST) worked with two provincial broadcast partners
and the Committee for Flood and Storm Control in Vietnam to build a culture of disaster
prevention and preparedness by local communities. The project aims to increase
understanding of disaster risk reduction among general and at-risk populations in Thua
Thien Hue and Quang Tri provinces of Vietnam. Activities were designed to effectively
reach out to local communities by developing news media and NGO capacity.
Broadcast partners included QTV and TRT radio and TV stations. Training for journalists
and disaster managers focused on how to communicate effectively with communities
on disaster risk reduction, and increase disaster risk reduction awareness among at risk
populations by creating and broadcasting high quality media outputs. The project
mass media outputs which included a comedy film, two TV spots and two radio spots
were broadcast by the provincial broadcast partners from the middle of July to end of
October 2009. The BBC WST has been working in partnership with two provincial
broadcasters, NGO disaster managers and the Flood and Storm Committee, Red Cross
in Thua Tien Hue and Quang Tri provinces and Disaster Management Working Group.
Irish Aid has been supporting the BBC WST through their Civil Society Fund to address the
                                                                                                    59
communication need of communities suffering from flood and storm in the two
provinces mentioned. The project provided a platform for NGOs and the media to work
together, delivering the same messaging strategy71.

No specific gender aggregated disaster effect or good practices in mainstreaming
gender issues in disaster management were recorded. Media is encouraged to contact
local government, disaster, and gender agencies for more information.

Emergency Warning System Update

The National Hydro-meteorological Services (NHMS) is the national agency authorized
to prepare severe weather and flood forecasts over the country. The NHMS operates a
high resolution satellite image receiving system at the National Center for
Hydrometeorological Forecasting (NCHMF) and five radar systems installed in different
parts of the country and two regional hydro-meteorological centers that perform
forecasting in the Mekong Basin. Advisories and warnings of tropical storms and
typhoons are issued 48 and 24 hours in advance, respectively72.

The Provincial Dyke Management, Flood Control and Storm Preparedness (PDMFCSP)
undertake a key role in disaster forecasting, warning and preparedness. It also informs
the Chief of People‟s Village Committee of any impending flood, rise in floodwater or
river water level. Flood warning is disseminated to the community through village radio
communications. Loud speakers are attached to poles to ensure that the community
hears the warning. The boat is a fixture in villages located in areas that normally get
flooded. It serves a double purpose: for fishing and as transportation mode during
evacuation. In some villages, especially the more recently established ones; the past
flooding events have been used as an important feedback for village planning and
also for preparing the villagers to respond to flooding. Flood markers installed in the
villages provide the level of past flooding in the area, indicating the risk to flooding. The
flood level marks also provide an important indicator for constructing houses.

Vietnam in 200973 reported that disaster early warning information has been
disseminated through two channels: a government system, and a mass media system
(television, and radio). The government system disseminates the information down to
local communities using the Central Committee for Flood and Storm Control (CCFSC)
communication networks through telephone, fax, and loudspeaker system. However,
several isolated areas were unable to receive the warning information due to poor


71 Vietnam: preventing and preparing for disaster, BBC World Service Trust,
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/whatwedo/where/asia/vietnam/2009/11/091116_vietnam_disaster_prevention.shtml
72 Garcia, L (2004), Overview of Early Warning Systems in Selected Countries of Southeast Asia, Asian Disaster Preparedness Center, Pg 53
73 Nguyen, X.D (2009) National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, accessed on 19 February 2010

at http://www.preventionweb.net/files/9815_Vietnam.pdf
                                                                                                                                       60
communication system in the areas, with no landlines or mobile phone network/signals
available.

Radio the Voice of Viet Nam (VOV) in collaboration with relevant agencies
participated in the dissemination of the early warning information. In 2008, VOV
completed the first phase of the “East Sea radio signal coverage project” which can
cover the sea areas up to 3,500km. VOV built small and medium radio stations at
northern mountainous areas, valleys, and weak-signal areas. It is planned that by 2009
99% of all residential areas have been covered radio signal in order to effectively
disseminate the disaster information to isolated and remote areas. At provincial level,
warning messages received from the CCFSC are passed on to the district, which in turn
passes to the commune. Though, daily weather forecast are show on Vietnam TV and
radio, warnings are given to people using the telephone and fax to all provinces.

The geographic and socio-economic conditions of Vietnam included many isolated
and remote areas with limited infrastructures, especially in the areas far from city
centers, contributes to the possibility of information gap on the dissemination of early
warning information at the community level. Furthermore, the limited capacity at the
local levels in understanding or comprehending the early warning information and its
preparedness measures in responding to early warning also adds the challenges face
by the country.

To improve the system, Ministry of Information and Communications, VOV, VTV, other
ministries, and local authorities are to strengthen, upgrade, and develop the disaster
early warning systems at local levels to ensure the warning message can reach to the
remote and isolated communities before and during the disasters. Furthermore,
communities need to be educated and trained on simple identification of various
hazards and vulnerabilities so that they could understand and response effectively
toward the early warning information that they receive.

Useful Contacts

National Platform Focal Points

Mr. Nguyen Xuan Dieu
Department of Dyke Management, Flood and Storm Control, Ministry of Agriculture and
Rural Development
Director
nguyen.xuan.dieu@ccfsc.org.vn
Tel: +84 4 37 33 56 94  Fax : +84-4 37 33 57 01



                                                                                      61
Pham Van Tham
Director, Disaster Management Center,
Department of Dyke Management for Flood and Storm Control
Vietnam
Email: pclbtw@fpt.vn

Gender Focal Points

Mrs TRAN Thi Mai Huong
First Vice Chairperson
National Committee for the Advancement of Women in Vietnam (NCFAW)
39 Hang Chuoi Street, Hanoi, Vietnam
Tel: (844).971 1348/971 1349     Fax: (844). 971 1349
Email : ncfaw@hn.vnn.vn; vie96011@undp.org.vn

Mr VU Lien Huong
Officer
Multilateral Trade Policy Department
Ministry of Industry and Trade
Viet Nam
Tel: (844) 220 5418              Fax: (844) 220 2525
Email: apec@moit.gov.vn

Mr. PHAM Ngoc Tien
Director
Department for Gender Equality
Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs
Viet Nam
Tel: (844).936 2915/936 4400
Email: vubdgioi@gmail.com; phamngoctienvn@yahoo.com

Agencies

UNDP:
Le Van Hung
United Nations Development Programme
25 - 29 Phan Boi Chau Street
Hanoi, Vietnam
Tel: (84 4) 3942 1495
Fax: (84 4) 3942 2267




                                                                     62
                                                         Chapter 4
                                                         Conclusion
Considerable amount of effort has been done by international agencies to raise
awareness of gender issues amongst international and academic communities;
however progress at national and regional levels has been slow74. Out of the six focus
countries on the report, only Thailand mention substantial reliance on gender in their
national disaster risk reduction policy. Gender considerations are largely marginalized
from the disaster risk reduction process. Lack of understanding of gender issues, an
absence of political accountability and weak institutional capacities pose great
challenges to mainstreaming gender in DRR efforts75.

An evident contribution that broadcast media could make to a worldwide effort of
mainstreaming of gender equality in disaster mitigation effort is in developing gender-
sensitive early-warning broadcast systems capable of reaching people in even the
most remote hazard-prone area. Media can ensure that messages are transmitted by
all medium of broadcast communications available, in a timely manner and with
minimal delay between identification of an impending event, encompassing those
used and preferred by men and women in their society. Early warnings are irrelevant if
they are not received, understood and trusted by those who need to act (United
Nations, 2009). By creating simple information on hazards, vulnerabilities, risk, and how
to reduce impacts in simple/local languages, media can assist people to understand
risks and prepare people to respond to warnings.

Media plays an important role to identify gender specific vulnerabilities to determine
risks faced by men and women in the community. Through its broadcast content,
media can highlight the physical, social, economic and environment aspects of
vulnerabilities that women and men face during disaster. It can showcase lessons learnt
and success stories of advocates working on disaster mitigation and encourage both
men and women to be a part of volunteer network to receive and widely disseminate
hazard warnings to remote households and communities. Media has the opportunity to
challenge prevailing gender norms and highlight women‟s potential providers,
caregivers, community organizers, volunteers, advocates and make them key partners
in disaster management.

While some general proposals can be made for how broadcast media can promote
gender equality in the development of early warning broadcast system in their country,
programming content must be locationally and socially-context specific. The

74 2009 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, UNISDR, Accessed on 27 February 2010 at
http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/report/documents/GAR_Chapter_5_2009_eng.pdf
75 The Disaster Risk Reduction Process: A Gender Perspective, 2009. UNISDR Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Pg 12

                                                                                                                                        63
involvement of disaster and gender experts in the development of programming
content is crucial to address the specific needs of the communities. Media, gender
specialists and disaster specialists need to work together to support mutual interests
and, more important, to serve the world community by tangibly reducing the risks of
natural hazards. T

o do so, the media, disaster and gender specialists should work together to:

      develop information of mutual benefit such as the creation of risk assessment
       maps that reflect risk and vulnerabilities of their local community;
      develop data and warning products that can be understood by both women
       and men (such as evacuation routes),
      identify and develop all medium of communication to convey this information to
       the public, encompassing those used and preferred by women;
      identify ways to encourage women and men to take part of volunteer work
       trained to widely disseminate hazard warnings; and
      develop public outreach materials of interest to the media and of benefit to the
       general public.




                                                                                     64
                                 Sources

Asian Development Bank
http://www.adb.org/
Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN)
http://www.adrrn.net/index.html
Center for International Studies and Cooperation (CECI)
http://www.ceci.ca/ceci/en/index.html
Global Open Learning Forum on Risk Education (GOLFRE)
http://www.seedsindia.org/golfre/Index.aspx
Global Risk Identification Program (GRIP)
http://www.gripweb.org
Global Risk Identification Program (GRIP)
http://www.gripweb.org
UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery
http://www.undp.org/cpr/index.shtml
United Nations World Meteorological Organization (UN WMO)
http://www.wmo.ch/pages/index_en.html
UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA)
http://ochaonline.un.org/
UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
http://portal.unesco.org/en/
UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
http://www.unescap.org/esd/water/disaster/
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
http://www.unicef.org/
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
http://www.ifrc.org/note.asp
The Inter Action Risk Reduction Working Group
http://www.interaction.org/disaster/riskreduction.html
World Bank Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
http://gfdrr.org/index.cfm?Page=home&ItemID=200
National Disaster Coordination Council (NDCC)
http://ndcc.gov.ph/home/
World Bank Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
http://gfdrr.org/index.cfm?Page=home&ItemID=200
World Bank Hazards Management Unit
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTURBANDEVELOPMENT/EXTDISM
GMT/0,,menuPK:341021~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:341015,00.html

                                                                          65
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