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					                                                                                          IP Australia Library
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                 Searchable Networked Intellectual Property Electronic Resource




        SNIPER
               BULLETIN
                         October 2009




Note: Due to copyright requirements, IP Australia Library is unable to directly
supply copies of these articles to readers outside IP Australia. Please contact your
local library to obtain copies of these articles by interlibrary loan.
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                 Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01670
Author: Zhou, Yi
Title: "3-in-1" trial: an innovation of IP trial mode
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 24-25.
Summary: Chinese intellectual property court structure -- experiment with IP tribunal to hear civil,
administrative and criminal IP cases -- background to the pilot tests -- reform led by civil tribunal --
Supreme People's Court Opinion on Several Issues Concerning the Thorough Implementation of
the State Intellectual Property Strategy.
Subject: Intellectual property litigation--China
Subject: Legal procedure--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01673
Author: Zhou, Yi and Li, Doris
Title: 2009: a copyright turning point for video sharing websites
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 42-43.
Summary: Copyright infringement and video sharing websites -- purchase of broadcast rights by
Chinese video sharing websites to offer authorised recordings.
Subject: Electronic copyright--culture and entertainment industry--China
Subject: Copyright infringement--culture and entertainment industry--China
Subject: Piracy--culture and entertainment industry--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01563
Author: Cornthwaite, Jonathan
Title: AdWords or bad words?: a UK perspective on keywords and trade mark infringement
Source: European Intellectual Property Review. Vol. 31 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 347-352.
Summary: Search engine keywords -- United Kingdom -- Interflora Inc. and Interflora British Unit
v. Marks and Spencer PLC and Flowers Direct Online Ltd. -- operation of search engine programs
-- Google AdWord policies -- UK adword case law -- Road Tech v. Mandata -- Reed v. ReedWilson
v. Yahoo! -- references to European Court of Justice (ECJ) for preliminary rulings -- search engine
keywords as a trade mark infringement.
Subject: Trade mark infringement--case law--United Kingdom
Subject: Keyword advertising--case law--United Kingdom
Subject: Electronic commerce--case law--United Kingdom
Subject: Internet--case law--United Kingdom


SNIPER No.: 2009/01692
Author: Morgan, Gareth and Matthew Royle
Title: All change please: unique considerations affecting biotech products
Source: Pharmaceutical Law Insight. Vol. 5 No. 7, July/August 2009, pp. 9-11.
Summary: Potential of biotechnology products as clinical treatments -- production of
biotechnology productions -- patentability and supplementary protection certificates -- biosimilarity.
Subject: Medical procedures--biotechnology industry
Subject: Biotechnology--patentability




                                            Page 2
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                    Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01677
Author: Yi, Jun, 1975-, and Zhuo Wang
Title: Application of the safe harbor provision in judicial practices
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 52-54.
Summary: Copyright and Chinese video sharing websites -- safe harbour provision for service
providers -- duty of care -- notification of illegal content not a premise for ISP liability -- proof of
wrongful intent Regulation on Protection of the Right of Communication through Information
network.
Subject: Electronic copyright--information technology industry--China
Subject: Copyright infringement--information technology industry--China
Subject: Carriage service providers--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01719
Title: Bicentenary of Louis Braille: the world at our fingertips
Source: WIPO Magazine. No. 3, June 2009, pp. 16-17.
Summary: Louis Braille's raised dot reading system for the blind -- invention of Braille -- adoption
of the Braille system -- Braille and new technologies -- Braille and copyright -- Tiflolibros Spanish-
language digital library for the visually impaired.
Subject: Braille, Louis, 1809-1852
Subject: Braille
Subject: Culture and entertainment industry
Subject: Information technology industry


SNIPER No.: 2009/01631
Author: Saunders, Tim and Kathryn Robinson
Title: Can children own IP?
Source: CIPA Journal. Vol. 38 No. 6, June 2009, pp. 390-392.
Summary: Ownership of intellectual property by children -- creation of IP -- exploitation and the
need for contracts -- guarantee and indemnity by parents or guardians -- enforcement --
consequences of a minor rejecting a contract.
Subject: Intellectual property ownership--United Kingdom
Subject: Commercial law--United Kingdom


SNIPER No.: 2009/00457
Author: Lo, Daniel
Title: Changes to trade mark and design certificates issued by IP Australia
Source: Australian Intellectual Property Law Bulletin. Vol. 21 No. 8, February 2009, p. 182.
Summary: Format of certificates changed from November 2008 -- allow provision of coloured
representations of trade marks on certificates -- changes coming for certificates for registered
designs -- improve quality
Subject: Trade mark registration--Australia
Subject: Industrial design registration--Australia


SNIPER No.: 2009/01666
Author: Singh, Angad, Sharanabasava Hallihosur, and Latha Rangan

Title: Changing landscape in biotechnology patenting
Source: World Patent Information. Vol. 31 No. 3, September 2009, pp. 219-225.
Summary: Current status of patenting in field of biotechnology -- development of technological.
IPR and policy issues -- problem scenarios -- transgenics -- nanotechnology -- pharmaceutical
products -- trends in increase in patent applications by educational institutes
Subject: Patent applications--biotechnology industry
Subject: Patent applications--trends

                                             Page 3
SNIPER Bulletin                                                              Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01582
Author: Shemtov, Noam
Title: The characteristics of technical character and the ongoing saga in the EPO and the English
courts
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 506-514.
Summary: Patentability of computer-related inventions -- differences between United Kingdom
and Europe case law -- recent European Patent Office (EPO) developments -- Vicom -- Pension
Benefit Systems -- Hitachi -- Microsoft/Data Transfer -- response of the English Courts to EPO
case law -- Circuit simularion/Infinen Technologies -- uncertainty due to different approaches by
EPO Appeal Boards.
Subject: Computer-related inventions--patentability--Europe
Subject: Computer-related inventions--patentability--United Kingdom
Subject: Computer-related inventions--case law--Europe
Subject: Computer-related inventions--case law--United Kingdom


SNIPER No.: 2009/01668
Author: Zhou, Yi
Title: China's software piracy rate: 47% or 80%
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, p. 18.
Summary: Software piracy in China -- widely differing survey results from Business Software
Alliance (BSA) and Internet Laboratory studies -- BSA figure attributed to small sample surveying
fee-based software only -- BSA statistics criticised by China.
Subject: Piracy--statistics--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01700
Author: Bennett, Simon and Benjamin Kieft
Title: Clarification on keyword advertising now urgent
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, p. 82.
Summary: Referrals of trade mark infringement/Internet keyword advertising cases to European
Court of Justice -- Interflora Inc. v. Marks and Spencer plc -- Wilson v. Yahoo! -- potential trade
mark infringement and available defences -- ramifications for brand owners and search engines.
Subject: Keyword advertising--Europe
Subject: Trade mark infringement--Europe


SNIPER No.: 2009/01561
Author: Ma, Jichao
Title: Collective administration of audio-video copyright in China
Source: China Patents and Trademarks. Vol. 97 No. 2, April 2009, pp. 75-78.
Summary: Copyright societies -- China -- audio and video copyright management --
establishment of China Audio-Video Copyright Association (CAVCA) -- legal basis -- work
undertaken by CAVCA -- problems with collective administration of copyright in sound and video
recordings.
Subject: Copyright licensing societies--China
Subject: Electronic copyright--management--China
Subject: Sound recordings--China
Subject: Cinematographic works--China




                                          Page 4
SNIPER Bulletin                                                             Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01101
Author: Benhamou, Yaniv
Title: Compensation of damages for infringements of intellectual property rights in France, under
Directive 2004/48/EC and its transposition law: new notions?
Source: IIC: International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law. Vol. 40 No. 2,
2009, pp. 125-152.
Summary: Requirement of fault and prejudice under the Directive and under loi contrefacon --
methods for assessing damages -- negative economic consequences, infringer's profits, moral
prejudice -- lump sum method
Subject: Damages--France
Subject: Intellectual property infringement--France


SNIPER No.: 2009/01102
Author: Lin, Tsai-Yu
Title: Compulsory licenses for access to medicines, expropriation and investor-state arbitration
under bilateral investment agreements: are there issues beyond the TRIPS Agreement?
Source: IIC: International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law. Vol. 40 No. 2,
2009, pp. 152-173.
Summary: Whether compulsory licenses constitute severe curtailment of patent rights -- whether
amounts to indirect expropriation -- differences between expropriation standards in Bilateral
Investment Agreements (BIA) and in TRIPS Agreement -- due process and compensation
requirements -- ability of developing countries to make use of compulsory licenses at WTO level --
mechanisms for settling disputes concerning health-related compulsory licenses under BIAs
Subject: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994)
Subject: Compulsory licensing--health and community services industry


SNIPER No.: 2009/01675
Author: Zhou, Yi
Title: "Copyright: an industry wide challenge": an interview with Ms. Huang Huiwen, Community
and Market Vice President of Tudou.com
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 47-48.
Summary: Copyright and Chinese video sharing websites -- China -- Tudou video sharing website
-- awareness of copyright issues -- use of safe harbour doctrine by video sharing sites --
cooperation with copyright holders -- introduction of authorised high-definition channels --
purchasing budget -- profit models -- licensing of television content.
Subject: Huang, Huiwen--interviews
Subject: Electronic copyright--culture and entertainment industry--China
Subject: Copyright infringement--culture and entertainment industry--China
Subject: Piracy--culture and entertainment industry--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01689
Author: Viana, Liza Porteus
Title: Copyright holders acknowledge losing battle for public consciousness
Source: Intellectual Property Watch. Vol. 6 No. 7, July 2009, p. 7.
Summary: Public opinion towards copyright holders -- anti-copyright lobby arguments poorly
countered -- blocking access to content not the way to success -- relationship with YouTube --
International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) World Copyright
Summit.
Subject: Copyright owners' rights
Subject: Copyright use
Subject: Copyright--social aspects




                                         Page 5
SNIPER Bulletin                                                              Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01442
Author: Striukova, Ludmila
Title: Corporate value creation through patent governance structures
Source: International Journal of Intellectual Property Management. Vol. 3 No. 3, 2009, pp. 223-
237.
General Note: Special issue of journal, titled "Corporate context of generating, protecting and
disseminating IP", edited by Deli Yang.
Summary: Value created through different types of patent ownership and use -- value to
organisations through patent management structures -- co-ownership -- licensing-in -- licensing-out
-- cross-licensing -- patent pools -- research methodology -- research conclusions.
Subject: Value of intellectual property--research
Subject: Patent licensing--research
Subject: Patent ownership--research


SNIPER No.: 2009/01680
Title: Deputy Director of National Copyright Administration, Yan Xiaohong: China's copyright
protection and development
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 75-78.
Summary: Copyright protection and development -- China -- Copyright Administration measures
to implement National Intellectual Property Strategy -- revision of laws on authors' rights --
copyright and the development of cultural industries -- collection of copyright royalties -- video
sharing sites -- rise of Shanhai (Robin Hood) culture.
Subject: Yan, Xiaohong--interviews
Subject: Copyright--interviews--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01718
Author: Bowman, Jo
Title: The eco-patent commons: caring through sharing
Source: WIPO Magazine. No. 3, June 2009, pp. 11-12.
Summary: Patent pools for green patents -- Eco-Patent Commons -- administered by World
Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) -- Commons designed to be easy to
access -- history of patent pooling and royalty sharing -- unites differing businesses with common
aims.
Subject: Eco-Patent Commons
Subject: Patent pools
Subject: Environmental issues in intellectual property


SNIPER No.: 2009/01441
Author: Mason, Elizabeth L. and Adam Cross
Title: The effect of national IP enforcement strategies on the IP management strategies of firms:
the case of India and China
Source: International Journal of Intellectual Property Management. Vol. 3 No. 3, 2009, pp. 195-
222.
General Note: Special issue of journal, titled "Corporate context of generating, protecting and
disseminating IP", edited by Deli Yang.
Summary: Intellectual property enforcement as a measure of strength of IP systems -- China --
India -- measures of IP strength -- purpose of IP indices -- existing indices do not consider
enforcement -- comparative analysis of Chinese and Indian IP enforcement systems -- research
strategy used -- research findings -- enforcement behaviour -- impact of national IP systems on
organisational enforcement approaches -- research conclusions and recommendations.
Subject: Intellectual property enforcement--research--China
Subject: Intellectual property enforcement--research--India
Subject: Intellectual property systems--research--China
Subject: Intellectual property systems--research--India

                                          Page 6
SNIPER Bulletin                                                               Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01721
Title: Efficient alternative dispute resolution in intellectual property
Source: WIPO Magazine. No. 3, June 2009, pp. 20-22.
Summary: Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) as a substitute for intellectual property litigation --
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center -- tailored services offered by WIPO -- Uniform Domain
Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) -- WIPO Expedited Arbitration Rules for AGICOA
(Association of International Collective Management of Audiovisual Works) -- trends in WIPO
mediation and arbitration -- settlement trends -- remedies -- WIPO arbitration in banking sector.
Subject: WIPO Arbitration Center
Subject: Dispute resolution


SNIPER No.: 2009/01567
Author: Price, Richard and Gareth Morgan
Title: Enforcing DNA product claims in Europe: a case study using Monsanto's Roundup Ready
litigation
Source: European Intellectual Property Review. Vol. 31 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 377-384.
Summary: Patents for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) -- Europe -- Monsanto's '090
"roundup Ready" patent -- Monsanto Technology LLC v. Cargill International SA (United Kingdom)
-- case at first instance -- Court of Appeal decision -- Monsanto v. Cefetra (Netherlands) --
European Biotechnology Directive .
Subject: Europe. Directive on the Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions (1998)
Subject: Genetic modification--case law--United Kingdom
Subject: Genetic modification--case law--Netherlands
Subject: Patent infringement--case law--United Kingdom
Subject: Patent infringement--case law--Netherlands


SNIPER No.: 2009/01691
Author: Gerhardsen, Tove Iren S.
Title: European Patent system, Court top priority under Swedish EU presidency
Source: Intellectual Property Watch. Vol. 6 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 11-12.
Summary: Swedish EU presidency -- priority on establishment of regional European patent and a
European Patent Court -- priority for draft of European Patent Litigation Agreement -- Pirate Party
seat in European parliament -- other intellectual property priorities.
Subject: Community Patent
Subject: Intellectual property systems--Europe


SNIPER No.: 2009/01570
Author: McAviney, Stephanie
Title: Ever broader border controls?
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 455-457.
Summary: Detention of in-transit generic medicines -- European border control regulations -- legal
context -- facts -- analysis of the case -- practical significance.
Subject: Customs--Europe
Subject: Pharmaceuticals--Europe




                                          Page 7
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01449
Author: Iida, Haruka
Title: Examination concerning use of and/or intent to use trademarks for which application in
made
Source: Yuasa and Hara Intellectual Property News. Vol. 17, June 2009, pp. 15-18.
Summary: Requirement for Japanese trade mark applicants to use trade marks -- trade mark
rejection based on lack of intent to use -- general trade marks -- retail trade marks -- methods for
overcoming preliminary rejections issued on lack of intent to use.
Subject: Trade mark use--Japan
Subject: Trade mark applications--Japan


SNIPER No.: 2009/01671
Author: Li, Doris
Title: Excessive downloading of electronic contents: infringement for the taking
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 26-27.
Summary: Downloading infringement of electronic journal resources -- temporary suspension of
National Library of China accounts with American Chemical Society (ACS) -- excessive usage of
electronic journals -- academic infringement of copyright.
Subject: Electronic copyright--China
Subject: Copyright infringement--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01690
Author: Saez, Catherine
Title: First results from FAO on benefit-sharing, but doubts on sustainability
Source: Intellectual Property Watch. Vol. 6 No. 7, July 2009, p. 8.
Summary: International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Governing
Body -- doubts about sustainability of benefit-sharing fund -- establishment of 11 new projects --
breakthrough on farmers' rights.
Subject: Benefit sharing agreements
Subject: Farmers' rights


SNIPER No.: 2009/01660
Author: Artelsmair, Georg, Heidrun Krestel and Lubos Knoth
Title: The future of PATLIB centres in a globalized patent world
Source: World Patent Information. Vol. 31 No. 3, September 2009, pp. 184-189.
Summary: Need for patent libraries to adapt to changing global environment in patent information
-- European PATLIB network future priorities for services -- database searches -- training IP users -
- technology transfer advice -- networking with partners to proved complementary services --
EPO's policy for cooperation with member states -- initiatives -- raising awareness and use of
patent system -- patent information -- exploitation of IP rights amongst education institutions and
SMEs -- PATLIB centres to provide higher quality, customer-related, added value services to
support innovation.
Subject: Patent searching--Europe
Subject: Intellectual property awareness--Europe
Subject: Intellectual property industry--Europe




                                           Page 8
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                      Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01676
Author: Zhou, Yi
Title: Genuine copyright dilemma for video sharing websites
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 49-51.
Summary: Copyright and Chinese video sharing websites -- copyright infringement suits against
Tudou video sharing website -- monitoring for pirated content -- lack of local Chinese content --
copyright cooperation with rightsholders -- safe harbour doctrine -- establishment of Anti-Piracy
Alliance.
Subject: Electronic copyright--culture and entertainment industry--China
Subject: Copyright infringement--culture and entertainment industry--China
Subject: Piracy--culture and entertainment industry--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01632
Author: Schüll, Gottfried
Title: Germany: of patent trolls and patent smurfs
Source: CIPA Journal. Vol. 38 No. 6, June 2009, pp. 392-395.
Summary: Patent trolls -- patent infringement suits -- Germany -- preferred victims (smurfs) of
patent trolls -- rules of conduct by patent trolls -- patent litigation strategies -- need for troll antics to
be curbed -- how courts reach patent infringement decisions.
Subject: Patent trolls--Germany
Subject: Patent infringement--procedure--Germany


SNIPER No.: 2009/01687
Author: Bevitt, Chris
Title: Google Books settlement: threat or opportunity?
Source: Internet Law Bulletin. Vol. 12 No. 4, July 2009, pp. 63-64.
Summary: Settlement in copyright suit against Google -- Google Print Project -- Publisher Print
Program -- Print Library Project.
Subject: Copyright infringement--case law--United States
Subject: Electronic copyright--case law--United States


SNIPER No.: 2009/01669
Author: Li, Doris
Title: The horologe industry in China teetering on the road to innovation
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, p. 19.
Summary: Intellectual property issues for Chinese horology industry -- problems with suspect
watches by Chinese exhibitors at international trade shows -- factors that block innovation in the
Chinese watch and clock manufacture.
Subject: Innovation (Technological)--manufacturing and processing industry--China
Subject: Intellectual property infringement--manufacturing and processing industry--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01577
Author: Lehman, Ben
Title: Hot news misappropriation claim survives motion to dismiss
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 466-467.
Summary: Rights in breaking news content -- unfair competition -- International News Service v.
Associated Press -- copyright infringement -- Internet -- legal context -- facts of the case -- analysis
of the decision -- practical significance.
Subject: Copyright infringement--case law--United States
Subject: Competition (Economics)--case law--United States
Author: Mortimer, Marie-Louise



                                              Page 9
SNIPER Bulletin                                                              Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01572
Author: Inman, Paul and Simon Spink
Title: House of Lords addresses 'Biogen insufficiency'
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 459-461.
Summary: Sufficiency of product and process patent claims -- United Kingdom --
pharmaceuticals -- Generics (UK) Ltd. v. H. Lundbeck A/S -- legal context -- facts of the case --
analysis of the decision -- practical significance.
Subject: Inventive step--case law--United Kingdom
Subject: Patent claims--case law--United Kingdom
Subject: Patent validity--case law--United Kingdom


SNIPER No.: 2009/01448
Author: Isoda, Naoya
Title: If a demand for the correction of plural patent claims is filed in a patent opposition trial,
should the correction be judged on each patent claim?
Source: Yuasa and Hara Intellectual Property News. Vol. 17, June 2009, pp. 11-14.
Summary: Amendment to restrict patent claims or specifications during opposition proceedings --
judgement of July 10, 2008, the First Petty Bench of the Supreme Court (318/2007) -- outline of the
case -- judgement at first instance, June 28, 2007, Intellectual Property High Court, Second
Division -- analysis of the decision.
Subject: Patent amendment--case law--Japan


SNIPER No.: 2009/01556
Author: Wu, Yuhe and Lizhi Pang
Title: Impact of drug dosage feature on novelty of Swiss-type use claim
Source: China Patents and Trademarks. Vol. 97 No. 2, April 2009, pp. 29-35.
Summary: Second medical use patents -- patent novelty -- China -- origin of Swiss-type claims --
novelty of Swiss-type claims for pharmaceutical dosage -- examination of second medical use
patent applications -- Chinese case law -- first instance courts -- appeal courts.
Subject: Swiss-type claims--China
Subject: Patent novelty--China
Subject: Pharmaceuticals--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01583
Title: In person: Darren Olivier
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, p. 520.
Summary: Interview with Darren Olivier, South African intellectual property lawyer.
Subject: Olivier, Darren--interviews
Subject: Lawyers--interviews--South Africa


SNIPER No.: 2009/01564
Author: Ventose, Eddy D. (Eddy David), 1976-
Title: In the footsteps of the framers of the European Patent Convention: examining the travaux
préparatoires
Source: European Intellectual Property Review. Vol. 31 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 353-363.
Summary: European Patent Convention (EPC) -- patentability of medical treatments -- wording of
the EPC exclusion -- therapeutic methods -- surgical methods -- diagnostic methods -- animal
medical treatments -- case law from Technical Board of Appeal (TBA) -- applicability of European
Patent Convention 2000.
Subject: Convention on the Grant of European Patents (1973)
Subject: Medical procedures--patentability--Europe
Subject: Medical procedures--case law--Europe


                                         Page 10
SNIPER Bulletin                                                               Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01667
Author: Stellmach, Joachim A.
Title: The influences of the structure and activity of biologically active compounds on the
assessment of inventive step
Source: World Patent Information. Vol. 31 No. 3, September 2009, pp. 226-234.
Summary: Assessing inventive step for biologically active organic chemical compounds --
application of structure-activity relationship theory as part of common general knowledge --
problem-solution approach (PSA) -- relevance of the PSA in this field -- decisions of the Technical
Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office.
Subject: Inventive step--Europe


SNIPER No.: 2009/01699
Author: Chan, George; Tim Smith, and Lawson Hao
Title: An insight into China's top trademark cases
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 76-80.
Summary: Trade mark cases selected by Chinese People's Supreme Court (SPC) in top 10
intellectual property cases of 2008 -- Lei Ci (RITZ) Hotel Co. Ltd. v. Shanghai Huangpu Li Chi
(RITS) Fitness Co. Ltd. (RITZ case) -- similarity of marks -- similarity of services -- Henan Zheng
Long Food Co. v. Sichuan Baijia Food Co. Ltd. (White Noodles case) -- similarity of marks --
similarity of goods -- Jiangsu Baite Trading Co. Ltd. v. Xu Zangyou (Wrongful Injunction case) --
temporary relief -- hearings and invalidity -- counterclaim by defendants -- Hangzhou Dukuai
Internet Media Co. v. Wang Linyang (19floor Domain Name case) -- domain names -- Xiapu
County Huafeng Machinery Co. Ltd. v. Zeng Fengxi (Counterfeits case) -- revaluation of counterfeit
goods -- key SPC message seems to be training value of these decisions for subordinate courts.
Subject: Trade marks--case law--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01579
Author: Parker, Nigel
Title: Intellectual property and joint ventures: protection of intellectual property on exit
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 473-484.
Summary: Joint ventures and intellectual property -- key concerns of rights owners entering into a
joint venture -- relationship between joint venture control and control of IP -- joint venture exit
mechanisms for rights owners -- involuntary exit -- out-sided buy-out -- voluntary exit -- no
prescribed exit mechanisms -- licensing terms and retaining control of IP -- background IP --
foreground IP.
Subject: Intellectual property management
Subject: Business collaboration


SNIPER No.: 2009/01565
Author: Scherf, Stephanie
Title: Intellectual property rights in mergers: a reflection of the situation in the chemical industry
sector
Source: European Intellectual Property Review. Vol. 31 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 364-369.
Summary: Mergers and acquisitions -- chemical industry -- Europe and United States -- Shell and
Montecatini joint venture case -- European Commission (EC) and Federal Trade Commission
(FTC) competition decisions -- Dow chemicals takeover of UCC -- EC and FTC competition
decisions.
Subject: Mergers and takeovers--manufacturing and processing industry
Subject: Competition (Economics)--manufacturing and processing industry
Subject: Intellectual property--manufacturing and processing industry




                                          Page 11
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01103
Author: Odermatt, Jed
Title: Investigating new models of pharmaceutical innovation to protect the human right to health.
Source: IIC: International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law. Vol. 40 No. 2,
2009, pp. 173-181.
Summary: Problems with TRIPS and access to medicines in developing countries -- need for
alternative models of pharmaceutical innovation -- reforming or replacing TRIPS -- model of
Advanced Market Commitments -- guarantee market for newly developed drugs -- prize model --
system of prizes to reward pharmaceutical companies for developing new drugs -- concludes prize
system based on therapeutic benefit of the drug most effective -- work with patents, not replacing
them.
Subject: Pharmaceuticals—developing countries
Subject: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994)


SNIPER No.: 2009/01576
Author: Kazi, Ilya
Title: IP rights and employment issues: lessons from Bratz
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 465-466.
Summary: Copyright infringement -- breach of contract -- Carter Bryant v. Mattel, Inc. -- Bratz
dolls -- United States -- anti-competition requirements for employees -- legal context -- facts of the
case -- analysis of the decision -- practical significance.
Subject: Copyright infringement--case law--United States
Subject: Copyright entitlement--case law--United States


SNIPER No.: 2009/01633
Author: Brook, Daniel and Florian Gerhardt
Title: Is the UK still a good place to challenge pharma patents?
Source: CIPA Journal. Vol. 38 No. 6, June 2009, pp. 396-400.
Summary: Pharmaceutical patent infringement and validity -- Germany -- United Kingdom --
different conclusion in parallel pharmaceutical patent cases -- Napp Pharmaceuticals v. Sandoz
and ratiopharm -- oxycodone formulation patents -- Biogen Inc. v. Medeva Plc. -- calcipotril
crystalline form patent -- Generics (UK) Ltd. v. H. Lundbeck A/S -- escalitopram patent --
ScinoPharm Taiwan v. Eli Lilly and Co. Ltd. -- gemcitabine process patent -- Dr Reddy's
Laboratories (UK) Ltd. v. Eli Lilly and Co. Ltd. -- olanzapine patent -- trend for UK courts to find
patent validity when German courts have not.
Subject: Patent validity--pharmaceutical industry--United Kingdom
Subject: Patent validity--pharmaceutical industry--Germany


SNIPER No.: 2009/01695
Author: Wilkof, Neil J.
Title: Is there a fiduciary claim in relation to licences
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, p. 15.
Summary: Trade mark licensing -- Canada -- Bluefoot Ventures Inc. v. Ticketmaster -- creation of
fiduciary relationship between licensee and licensor.
Subject: Trade mark licensing--case law--Canada




                                           Page 12
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                 Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01569
Author: Phillips, Jeremy
Title: It's my party and I'll cry if I want to
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, p. 451.
Summary: Proper response of intellectual property sector to Sweden's Pirate Party -- Pirate Party
platforms and supporters.
Subject: Pirate Party (Political party)
Subject: Electronic copyright
Subject: Intellectual property--philosophy


SNIPER No.: 2009/01573
Author: Tessensohn, John A. and Shūsaku Yamamoto, 1949-
Title: Japan's IP High Court finds 3D seashell chocolate bar shape inherently distinctive and
registrable without secondary meaning evidence
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 461-463.
Summary: Distinctiveness of three-dimensional shape -- trade mark registrability -- Japan --
Chocolaterie Guylian NV v. Commissioner of Japan Patent Office -- legal context -- facts of the
case -- analysis of the decision -- practical significance.
Subject: Shape marks--case law--Japan


SNIPER No.: 2009/01720
Author: Levalet, Catherine
Title: Legal pioneering at the auction house
Source: WIPO Magazine. No. 3, June 2009, pp. 18-19.
Summary: Counterfeit goods sold through online auctions -- France -- LVMH v. eBay, Inc. --
French jurisdiction to hear cases -- status of eBay as an exempt Internet host -- nature of the
offences -- assessment of damages.
Subject: Counterfeiting--case law--France
Subject: Internet--case law--France


SNIPER No.: 2009/01557
Author: Cheng, Yongshun, 1957-
Title: Legislative progress in protection of design patent and exploration of enforcement
Source: China Patents and Trademarks. Vol. 97 No. 2, April 2009, pp. 40-45.
Summary: Amendment of Chinese design patent laws -- registrable subject matter -- scope of
protection -- one design per application -- single applications for similar or identical designs within
one product -- search evaluation reports -- prior art defence to infringement.
Subject: Industrial designs--law and legislation--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01568
Author: Clark, Simon
Title: Lucasfilm Ltd. v. Ainsworth: the force of copyright protection for three-dimensional designs
as sculptures or works of artistic craftsmanship
Source: European Intellectual Property Review. Vol. 31 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 384-388.
Summary: Copyright in film costumes -- Lucasfilm Ltd. v. Ainsworth -- sale of replica Star Wars
stormtrooper helmets and armour -- facts of the case -- definition of sculptures -- whether helmets
and uniforms were sculptures -- helmets and armour as works of artistic craftsmanship --
unregistered Community designs and aesthetically pleasing, three-dimensional works.
Subject: Copyright infringement--case law--United Kingdom
Subject: Artistic works--case law--United Kingdom




                                           Page 13
SNIPER Bulletin                                                               Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01444
Author: Stead, Richard, 1948- and Adam Cross
Title: The management and security of trade secrets: an exploratory study
Source: International Journal of Intellectual Property Management. Vol. 3 No. 3, 2009, pp. 256-
277.
General Note: Special issue of journal, titled "Corporate context of generating, protecting and
disseminating IP", edited by Deli Yang.
Summary: Management of trade secrets and confidential information -- defining trade secrets --
function of trade secrets in an organisation -- mechanisms for keeping trade secrets as secrets --
research methodology -- research analysis and findings.
Subject: Trade secrets--research


SNIPER No.: 2009/01634
Author: Kandiah, Geetha
Title: McCurry thwarts McDonalds at the Malaysian Court of Appeal
Source: CIPA Journal. Vol. 38 No. 6, June 2009, p. 401.
Summary: Passing-off -- Malaysia -- McCurry Restaurant v. McDonalds Corporation -- no
passing-off -- no monopoly over "Mc" prefix -- different styles of food -- McCurry short for
Malaysian Chicken Curry -- decision may be appealed.
Subject: Passing-off--case law--Malaysia
Subject: Trade mark infringement--case law--Malaysia


SNIPER No.: 2009/01684
Author: Christie, Alec and Jackie Emery
Title: Meltdown of the copyright Ice Age
Source: Internet Law Bulletin. Vol. 12 No. 4, July 2009, pp. 50-52.
Summary: Copyright in database compilations -- Australia -- impact of Desktop Marketing
Systems Pty. Ltd. v. Telstra Corp. Ltd. -- implications of IceTV case for online publishers and
application developers -- lessons for database owners and compilers.
Subject: Database rights--Australia
Subject: Copyright infringement--Australia


SNIPER No.: 2009/01580
Author: Wolf, Rebecca L.
Title: Microbicide development: an argument for broadening the experimental use exception
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 485-498.
Summary: Development of microbicides for HIV prevention -- research inhibited by narrow
experimental use exceptions -- what microbicides are -- global interest in microbicide development
-- intellectual property challenges -- use of patented materials in research -- material transfer
agreements -- over-the-counter access to products from pharmacies and patent exhaustion --
scientists' disregard of patents -- experimental use exceptions -- narrow application in United
States -- problems with restrictive exception -- proposed legislative amendments -- a broader
experimental use exception as applied to microbicides.
Subject: Experimental use (Patents)--health and community services industry--United States
Subject: Medical research




                                          Page 14
SNIPER Bulletin                                                              Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01693
Author: Bikoff, James L.; David K. Heasley; Phillip V. Marano; and Michael T. Delaney
Title: The name game: the UDRP turns 10
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 7-11.
Summary: Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) -- operation of UDRP
system -- pros and cons -- noteworthy decisions -- trade mark ownership and confusing similarity --
legitimate interest in a domain name -- bad faith registration and use -- considerations for the
future.
Subject: Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
Subject: Domain name dispute resolution


SNIPER No.: 2009/01697
Author: Sommers, Mark and Naresh Kilaru
Title: New directions for the laches defence
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 69-71.
Summary: Application of laches in countering or reducing trade mark infringement remedies --
United States -- Internet Specialties West Inc. v. Milon-DiGiorgio Enters Inc. -- requirement for
defendant to show actual brand recognition and goodwill -- summary of the decision -- survey of
Circuit Court case law.
Subject: Trade mark infringement--case law--United States
Subject: Legal defences--case law--United States


SNIPER No.: 2009/01688
Author: Mara, Kaitlin
Title: No agreement on traditional talks at WIPO; future unclear
Source: Intellectual Property Watch. Vol. 6 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 1-2.
Summary: Traditional knowledge -- no agreement on future work of WIPO's committee on the
protection of indigenous knowledge, expressions and genetic resources -- unable to agree of order
for points to be negotiated -- desire of developing nations for a binding treaty -- current lack of
protections.
Subject: Traditional knowledge--treaties


SNIPER No.: 2009/01703
Author: Steinhauser, Paul and Milica Antic
Title: Non-traditional marks: Benelux
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 84-85.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Benelux -- three-dimensional and shape marks -- colour
marks -- scent marks -- sound marks.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Benelux


SNIPER No.: 2009/01704
Author: Carneiro, Rodrigo Borges
Title: Non-traditional marks: Brazil
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 86-87.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Brazil -- non-visual signs -- motion marks -- three-dimensional
and shape marks -- slogans -- collective and certification marks.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Brazil




                                         Page 15
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01705
Author: Wiebe, Justine and Jonathan Burkinshaw
Title: Non-traditional marks: Canada
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 88-89.
Summary: Three-dimensional marks -- Canada -- trade mark registration -- unregistered marks --
industrial design protection -- copyright protection -- integrated protection strategies.
Subject: Shape marks--Canada


SNIPER No.: 2009/01706
Author: Zhou, Vanessa S.
Title: Non-traditional marks: China
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 90-91.
Summary: Three-dimensional marks -- China -- Kraft Foods Schweiz AG v. Switzerland Joy Co.
Ltd. (Toblerone case) -- principles for registration of shape marks -- similarity test -- Société des
Produits Nestlé v. Weishida (soy sauce bottle complaint).
Subject: Shape marks--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01707
Author: Rehné, Heidi and Janne Britt Hansen
Title: Non-traditional marks: Denmark
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 92-93.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Denmark -- legal framework -- three-dimensional and shape
marks -- sound marks -- motion marks -- colour marks -- scent marks -- other marks.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Denmark


SNIPER No.: 2009/01708
Author: Lahoty, Mohit
Title: Non-traditional marks: India
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 94-95.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- India -- draft Trademark Examiners' Manual -- colour marks --
single colours -- colour combinations -- sound marks -- scent marks -- holograms -- three-
dimensional and shape marks -- evidence of distinctiveness -- trade evidence -- survey evidence.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--India


SNIPER No.: 2009/01709
Author: Luzzatto, Kfir and Oren Weiner
Title: Non-traditional marks: Israel
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 96-97.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Israel -- three-dimensional and shape marks -- colour marks --
sound marks -- scent and taste marks -- motion and hologram marks.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Israel


SNIPER No.: 2009/01710
Author: Prandin, Donatella and Vincenzo Melilli
Title: Non-traditional marks: Italy
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 98-99.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Italy -- general issues -- three-dimensional and shape marks --
sound marks -- colour marks -- scent marks.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Italy




                                          Page 16
SNIPER Bulletin                                                            Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01711
Author: González, Gabriela
Title: Non-traditional marks: Mexico
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 100-101.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Mexico -- background -- colour marks -- three-dimensional
and shape marks -- motion marks -- other signs.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Mexico


SNIPER No.: 2009/01712
Author: Wolther, Lisbeth G. and Line Schartum-Hansen
Title: Non-traditional marks: Norway
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 102-103.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Norway -- registration requirements -- visible marks -- three-
dimensional and shape marks -- holograms -- colour marks -- slogans -- motion and gesture marks
-- non-visible marks -- sounds marks -- scent marks -- taste and texture marks.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Norway


SNIPER No.: 2009/01713
Author: Cunha Ferreira, Gonçalo da and Isabel Bairrão
Title: Non-traditional marks: Portugal
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 104-105.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Portugal -- registration requirements -- three-dimensional and
shape marks -- sound marks -- current practice -- other signs.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Portugal


SNIPER No.: 2009/01714
Author: Vilau, Dragos M. and Ionut Lupsa
Title: Non-traditional marks: Romania
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 106-107.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Romania -- three-dimensional and shape marks -- colour
marks -- sound marks -- scent, taste and touch marks -- motion, hologram and position marks.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Romania


SNIPER No.: 2009/01715
Author: Nesterov, Alexander
Title: Non-traditional marks: Russia
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 108-109.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Russia -- colour marks -- three-dimensional and shape marks
-- sound marks -- light marks -- scent marks.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Russia


SNIPER No.: 2009/01716
Author: Sousa, João Miranda de and Sandrine Peters
Title: Non-traditional marks: Spain
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 110-111.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Spain -- registration requirements -- colour marks -- three-
dimensional and shape marks -- sound marks -- scent marks.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--Spain




                                        Page 17
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                  Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01717
Author: Lackert, Clark W. and Jill Wasserman
Title: Non-traditional marks: United States
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 112-113.
Summary: Non-traditional marks -- Spain -- registration requirements -- single colour marks --
three-dimensional and shape marks -- motion marks -- trade dress -- sound marks -- scent, taste
and touch marks -- ornamentation, descriptiveness and functionality issues.
Subject: Non-traditional marks--United States
Author: Wasserman, Jill


SNIPER No.: 2009/01630
Author: Korenberg, Alexander
Title: Not for the faint-hearted: the new rules relating to filing a divisional application at the EPO
Source: CIPA Journal. Vol. 38 No. 6, June 2009, pp. 388-390.
Summary: Divisional patent applications -- changes to European Patent Office rules -- time limits
-- specific objections regarding unity -- divisionals permitted on a case by case basis
Subject: Divisional applications (Patents)--procedure--Europe


SNIPER No.: 2009/01558
Author: Rui, Songyan
Title: On registrability of generic names
Source: China Patents and Trademarks. Vol. 97 No. 2, April 2009, pp. 52-58.
Summary: Trade mark registrability of generic names -- China -- legislative development --
purpose of generic name provisions -- factors considered when deciding whether a generic name
can be registered as a trade mark -- formalities -- generic names implicitly showing name of goods
or services -- statutory and arbitrary generic names -- regional scope -- time frame -- lexical
expressions.
Subject: Generic use--China
Subject: Trade mark registrability--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01696
Author: Coquia-Regidor, Marian
Title: On the defensive
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 17-20.
Summary: Defensive trade mark registrations -- systems for defensive registrations -- Japan --
Malaysia -- trade mark use requirements -- Germany -- Spain -- Russia -- Mexico -- need to
demonstrate bona fide intent to use -- no purpose of use -- opportunities for global brand owners.
Subject: Defensive trade marks
Subject: Trade mark use


SNIPER No.: 2009/01571
Author: Gassner, Ulrich M.
Title: Paediatric extensions: the requirement of compliance statement
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 457-459.
Summary: Supplementary protection certificates (SPCs) for complying paediatric pharmaceuticals
-- United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office (UK IPO) documentary requirements -- Merck and
Co. Inc. case -- legal context -- facts of the case -- analysis of the decision -- practical significance.
Subject: Europe. Regulation on Medicinal Products for Paediatric Use (2006)
Subject: Patent extension--case law--United Kingdom




                                            Page 18
SNIPER Bulletin                                                              Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01578
Author: Crowne-Mohammed, Emir Aly
Title: Parody as fair dealing in Canada: a guide for lawyers and judges
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 468-472.
Summary: Copyright infringement -- Canada -- fair dealing exceptions -- parody as a form of fair
dealing -- parody and moral rights -- CCH Canadian Ltd. v. Law Society of Upper Canada --
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Subject: Fair use (Copyright)--Canada
Subject: Copyright infringement--Canada


SNIPER No.: 2009/01665
Author: Darmont, Anne-Gaëlle; Michele Fattori; Gerben Gieling and Aalt van de Kuilen
Title: Patent information user groups in Europe join together: foundation of the Confederacy of
European Patent Information User Groups (CEPIUG)
Source: World Patent Information. Vol. 31 No. 3, September 2009, pp. 216-218.
Summary: CEPIUG founded in 2008 -- includes patent information user groups of seven
European countries -- promotes sharing of experiences and expertise in patent searching --
coordination of European efforts in education and training of new patent searching professionals --
identifying certification scheme for professional patent searchers.
Subject: Patent searching--Europe
Subject: Professional bodies (Intellectual property)--Europe


SNIPER No.: 2009/01104
Author: Wan, Xiaoli
Title: The patent novelty grace period in China in comparative perspective.
Source: IIC: International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law. Vol. 40 No. 2,
2009, pp. 182-187.
Summary: Grace period -- exception to novelty requirements of patent law -- grace period under
the Chinese Patent Act compared to grace periods in Japan, United States and European Patent
Convention -- significant differences between countries on duration, reference date, manners of
non-prejudicial disclosure and procedure requirements -- need for foreign applicants to pat special
attention to and take advantage of grace periods when filing patent applications in China.
Subject: Grace periods--China
Subject: Patent processing--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01446
Author: Ono, Shinjiro and Makoto Ueda
Title: Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) in Japan
Source: Yuasa and Hara Intellectual Property News. Vol. 17, June 2009, pp. 1-4.
Summary: Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) bilateral agreements for accelerated patent
examination -- results of PPH between Japan and United States, including pilot program.
Subject: Patent examination--Japan
Subject: Patent processing--Japan




                                         Page 19
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                  Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01664
Author: Barroso, Wanise B. G.; Luc Quoniam; Eduardo Pacheco
Title: Patents as technological information in Latin America
Source: World Patent Information. Vol. 31 No. 3, September 2009, pp. 207-215.
Summary: Study of websites of Latin American industrial property offices -- type of patent
information available -- laws -- gazette -- statistics -- cost -- forms -- contacts -- need for the each
of the 21 countries of Latin America to have a policy of spreading information about importance of
the patent system as source of technological information -- increase research and innovation.
Subject: Intellectual property education
--Latin America
Subject: Intellectual property offices--Latin America


SNIPER No.: 2009/01254
Author: Barraclough, Emma
Title: Pirate Bay operators jailed for a year
Source: Managing Intellectual Property. No. 189, May 2009, pp. 10-11.
Summary: Pirate Bay file-sharing site -- operators sentenced to jail -- damages awarded to
entertainment companies -- infringement of copyright in music and films -- new file-sharing law in
Sweden -- comparison with search engines -- failure of copyright industries to embrace new
business models -- ISPs co-opted into fight against piracy -- recent developments in France,
Korea, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States
Subject: Copyright infringement--case law--Sweden
Subject: Copyright infringement--culture and entertainment industry
Subject: Carriage service providers


SNIPER No.: 2009/01447
Author: Takashi, Yamada
Title: Possible introduction of a 'fair use' clause in the Copyright Law
Source: Yuasa and Hara Intellectual Property News. Vol. 17, June 2009, pp. 8-10.
Summary: Fair use -- proposed copyright changes -- Japan -- background -- recommendations of
Intellectual Property Strategy Headquarters -- current status of amendments to the Copyright Law.
Subject: Fair use (Copyright)--Japan
Subject: Copyright--law and legislation--Japan


SNIPER No.: 2009/01662
Author: Cullen, Susan E.
Title: A practical approach to the reformed IPC
Source: World Patent Information. Vol. 31 No. 3, September 2009, pp. 193-198.
Summary: Reclassification of pre-2006 publications after introduction of eighth edition of
International Patent Classification (IPC-8) -- cooperative effort between patent offices -- multiple
techniques used -- use of earlier IPC versions -- use of ECLA codes -- propagation of codes from
one document to another within Inpadoc patent families -- most records have high number of
codes -- effect of reclassification on searching -- use of inventive codes in search strategies --
multi-code searching -- may need different strategies for searching pre-2006 and post-2006
documents
Subject: Patent classification
Subject: Patent searching




                                           Page 20
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                 Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01698
Author: Koch, Matthias and Kathrin Samwer
Title: Preserving prestige
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 72-74.
Summary: Licensing of prestige goods trade marks -- France -- Copad SA v. Christian Dior
Couture SA -- background to the case -- trade mark owners' rights -- impact of the decision criteria
for national courts to consider -- room for interpretation by national courts -- proving damage to
quality -- strengthening of trade mark rights across Europe -- ramifications beyond luxury brands.
Subject: Trade mark licensing--case law--Europe
Subject: Trade mark infringement--case law--Europe


SNIPER No.: 2009/01553
Author: Potocka, Isabel and Matthew Warren
Title: The pros and cons of patent pooling
Source: Pharmaceutical Law Insight. Vol. 5 No. 6, June 2009, pp. 8-11.
Summary: Patent pools -- patent pools in standards-driven industries -- DVDs -- MPEG-2 -- W-
CDMA mobile communications -- proposals for patent pooling for pharmaceuticals -- UNITAID HIV
proposal -- GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) tropical diseases proposal -- cases for and against voluntary
patent pools -- commercial pharmaceutical patent pools.
Subject: Patent pools--pharmaceutical industry


SNIPER No.: 2009/01554
Author: Soutoul, Franck and Jean-Philippe Bresson
Title: Protection of pills and tablets as 3D trademarks
Source: Pharmaceutical Law Insight. Vol. 5 No. 6, June 2009, pp. 12-13.
Summary: Shape marks -- pharmaceuticals -- France and Europe -- examination of three-
dimensional marks -- distinctiveness -- technical function -- special treatment of enforcement
cases.
Subject: Shape marks--pharmaceutical industry--France
Subject: Shape marks--pharmaceutical industry--Europe
Subject: Pharmaceuticals--registrability--France
Subject: Pharmaceuticals--registrability--Europe


SNIPER No.: 2009/01443
Author: Koleva, Fanny
Title: Realising the financial potential of intellectual property: a case study of Bulgarian companies
Source: International Journal of Intellectual Property Management. Vol. 3 No. 3, 2009, pp. 238-
255.
General Note: Special issue of journal, titled "Corporate context of generating, protecting and
disseminating IP", edited by Deli Yang.
Summary: Realising dollar value of intellectual property -- financial potential of IP -- traditional and
new value creation methods -- experience of Bulgarian companies -- research finding and analysis.
Subject: Value of intellectual property--research--Bulgaria




                                           Page 21
SNIPER Bulletin                                                               Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01253
Author: Ollier, Peter
Title: Record patent settlement in China
Source: Managing Intellectual Property. No. 189, May 2009, pp. 8-9.
Summary: Record settlement between Schneider and Chint -- largest award for IP infringement
made by a Chinese court -- utility model patent -- lower threshold than for invention patents -- prior
use in China -- absolute novelty -- changes to patent law -- foreign companies need to do freedom-
to-operate search -- interview with Peter Wexler, Senior Vice-President and General Counsel,
Schneider Electric
Subject: Wexler, Peter--interviews
Subject: Patent infringement--case law--China
Subject: Damages--case law--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01559
Author: Qu, Yousheng
Title: Relations of protection of commodity names of drugs with "prior right", from perspective of
case study
Source: China Patents and Trademarks. Vol. 97 No. 2, April 2009, pp. 62-65.
Summary: Drug names and pharmaceutical trade mark registrability -- China -- Keliting oral
cough liquid registration -- facts of the case -- legal character of drug commodity names -- use of
commodity names to protect a prior right.
Subject: Pharmaceuticals--China
Subject: Trade mark registrability--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01672
Author: Li, Doris
Title: Research and innovation decides IP protection strategy
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 30-31.
Summary: Intellectual property management -- Bayer -- financial crisis strengthens belief in need
for innovation -- building corporate awareness of value of IP -- Bayer's IP strategies based on
product categories -- special IP strategies used in China.
Subject: Bayer AG (Firm)
Subject: Intellectual property management--pharmaceutical industry


SNIPER No.: 2009/01566
Author: Waisman, Agustín
Title: Revisiting originality
Source: European Intellectual Property Review. Vol. 31 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 370-376.
Summary: Copyright protection available for original works -- standards set through case law --
defining originality through standards -- "sweat of the brow", "skill and judgement" and "creativity"
standards -- features and conceptual distinctions between standards -- use of copyright standards
in practice -- possible alternative standards.
Subject: Copyright
Subject: Moral rights




                                          Page 22
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01659
Author: Cielen, Els
Title: Searching Markush formulae directed to medical applications
Source: World Patent Information. Vol. 31 No. 3, September 2009, pp. 178-183.
Summary: Markush formulae -- efficient way of claiming generic group of compounds -- difficult to
determine exact scope -- patentability search strategies for unsearchable Markush structures such
as "A-B-C type molecules" and "too simple" compounds -- claimed Markush formulae overlapping
with prior art generic structures -- selecting most relevant documents -- novelty and inventive step -
- comparison of different search tools
Subject: Patent searching--health and community services industry


SNIPER No.: 2009/01575
Author: Macedo, Charles R.
Title: Secondary meaning must be attributed to business to afford trade mark protection under US
law
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 464-465.
Summary: Trade mark registrability -- arbitrary term acting as synonym for geographic location --
need for secondary meaning -- United States -- OBX-Stock, Inc v. Bicast, Inc. -- legal context --
facts of the case -- analysis of the decision -- practical significance.
Subject: Trade mark registrability--case law--United States


SNIPER No.: 2009/01629
Author: Tierney, Serena
Title: Securitisation of IP assets
Source: CIPA Journal. Vol. 38 No. 6, June 2009, pp. 386-388.
Summary: Using intellectual property as a financial asset of an organisation -- essentials for
secured lending on IP assets -- legal and commercial framework -- IP strategy to deliver business
objectives -- coherent body of IP assets -- security structures for IP assets -- taxation -- value of
using IP assets as security.
Subject: Financial management
Subject: Intellectual property management


SNIPER No.: 2009/01562
Author: He, Huaiwen
Title: A self-defeating framework: how far could ITO patent policy go?
Source: European Intellectual Property Review. Vol. 31 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 343-346.
Summary: International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Patent Policy -- evaluation of ITU
Patent Policy -- implementation -- many aspects of Policy self-defeating -- need to encourage
disclosure of patent information.
Subject: International Telecommunication Union
Subject: Patent disclosure
Subject: Standards (Technical)




                                          Page 23
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                 Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01555
Author: Liu, Xiaojun
Title: Several issues in hearing design patent cases: the Intellectual Property Tribunal of the
Beijing Higher People's Court
Source: China Patents and Trademarks. Vol. 97 No. 2, April 2009, pp. 17-22.
Summary: Design patent litigation -- China -- civil cases -- colour and scope of protection --
essential portion of design -- average consumers -- similarity -- prior art defence -- suspension of
court proceedings -- infringement damages -- administrative cases for design invalidation --
determining subject matter -- improperly-made drawings -- standards for two-dimensional designs -
- similar products incorporating designs -- disclosure in part of previous design drawings.
Subject: Industrial design litigation--China
Subject: Industrial designs--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01581
Author: Cappuyns, Patricia
Title: The shape of the Lego brick is free for all to use
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 499-505.
Summary: Functional shapes as trade marks -- Lego bricks as a shape with technical function --
history of Lego's patent and trade mark protections -- Lego Juris A/S v. OHIM and MEGA Brands,
Inc. -- procedural history -- trade mark protection for functional shapes -- policy interests underlying
the functionality exclusion -- Court of First Instance's (CFI) functionality analysis for Lego case --
need for shape to be entirely functional -- determining what is essential and functional -- relevance
of alternative shapes -- acquired distinctiveness -- disclosure of shape in expired patents.
Subject: Shape marks--case law--Europe
Subject: Trade mark validity--case law--Europe


SNIPER No.: 2009/01722
Title: Signs of the times: Article 6ter enters the e-communication era
Source: WIPO Magazine. No. 3, June 2009, pp. 20-22.
Summary: Electronic publication of signs protected under Paris Convention -- state signs, devices
and armorial bearings -- communication under Article 6ter.
Subject: Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883)
Subject: Official marks


SNIPER No.: 2009/01679
Author: Yang, Harry; Chao Xu; Bian Zou; Quansheng Zhang and Shunde Li
Title: Software IP protection during the financial crisis
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 68-71.
Summary: Software intellectual property during global financial crisis -- calls for piracy to be
allowed during financial crisis so that companies can survive -- approach not favoured, belief that
IP protections should remain unchanged -- benefits from using legitimate software -- software
research and development -- no need to treat small and medium businesses differently -- software
asset management plans -- determination of software prices by open market -- People's Daily
Online IP Salon.
Subject: Intellectual property--information technology industry--China
Subject: Piracy--information technology industry--China




                                           Page 24
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01107
Author: Sunthornsingkarn, Jayin
Title: Song sung blue: karaoke and royalty collection in Thailand
Source: IIC: International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law. Vol. 40 No. 2,
2009, pp. 213-218.
Summary: Public performances of songs in karaoke bars -- disputes between karaoke operators
and musical companies over high royalty fees -- proposed changes to Thailand's Copyright Act by
Department of Intellectual Property to establish collecting agency or society -- comparison to
situation in China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Singapore -- need for clear legal rules for collecting
royalties in karaoke business -- create public awareness of IP infringement.
Subject: Copyright infringement--culture and entertainment industry--Thailand
Subject: Copyright licensing societies--culture and entertainment industry


SNIPER No.: 2009/01701
Author: Batho, John
Title: Spanish revolution
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 58-67.
Summary: Spanish trade mark system -- effect of global economic downturn on trade mark
market -- filing and prosecution before Spanish Trademark and Patent Office (OEPM) -- trade mark
examination -- trade mark oppositions -- Spanish opposition procedure different from other
jurisdictions -- trade mark enforcement -- specialist intellectual property courts -- litigation
procedure -- outlook for Spanish trade mark system -- electronic filing system and OEPM as a
paperless office.
Subject: Spanish Patents and Trademarks Office
Subject: Trade marks--Spain
Subject: Trade mark systems--Spain
Subject: Intellectual property industry--Spain


SNIPER No.: 2009/01445
Author: Raasch, Christina
Title: Strategic options to tackle patent expiration: theoretical framework and case studies
Source: International Journal of Intellectual Property Management. Vol. 3 No. 3, 2009, pp. 278-
300.
General Note: Special issue of journal, titled "Corporate context of generating, protecting and
disseminating IP", edited by Deli Yang.
Summary: Minimising the effects of patent expiry on rights owner -- pharmaceuticals -- Germany -
- competition from generic drug producers upon patent expiry -- types of patent expiration
strategies used -- product strategies -- pricing strategies -- communication strategies -- implications
for companies and IP policy makers -- case studies of Eli Lilly, Merck and Co., Pfizer and Schering-
Plough -- research findings and analysis
Subject: Patent expiry--pharmaceutical industry--Germany
Subject: Patent expiry--case studies--Germany


SNIPER No.: 2009/01678
Author: Feng, Xiang
Title: Tampering with open license agreement leads to criminal sanctions for copyright
infringement
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 60-63.
Summary: Copyright infringement in computer software licenses -- China -- Xu Chufeng and
Jiang Haiyu v. Prosecutorate of Pudong New Area Shangai -- tampering with Open License
Agreement (OLA) in Microsoft products -- unauthorised reproduction of Microsoft software -- facts
of the case -- judge's opinion -- analysis of the decision.
Subject: Copyright infringement--case law--China
Subject: Copyright infringement--information technology industry--China

                                          Page 25
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                 Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01663
Author: Hidalgo, Antonio and José Molero Zayas
Title: Technology and growth in Spain (1950-1960): an evidence of Schumpeterian pattern of
innovation based on patents
Source: World Patent Information. Vol. 31 No. 3, September 2009, pp. 199-206.
Summary: Analysis of newly available Spanish patent data for 1950-1960 in digitized database
format -- development of indicators relating to degree of concentration of innovative activity --
innovation size of companies -- level of instability -- technological growth rate -- presence of foreign
innovators -- used to investigate Schumpeterian patterns of innovation and economic factors in this
period of Spain's development.
Subject: Innovation (Technological)--history--Spain


SNIPER No.: 2009/01507
Author: Becker, Daniel M.
Title: Third-party re-examination at the USPTO
Source: Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. Vol. 4 March 2005, p. 183
Summary: Post-grant opposition procedure for third parties under European Patent Convention --
similar procedure not available in US patent law -- two types of post-issuance re-examination
proceeding -- allow limited third-party challenge to patent validity -- not widely used -- inter-partes
re-examination -- ex-parte re-examination -- advantages of -ex-parte re-examination in defence of
infringement litigation.
Subject: Patent examination--United States
Subject: Patent opposition--United States
Subject: Patent validity--United States


SNIPER No.: 2009/01702
Author: Shteiwi, Omar
Title: Time to push through unified trademark law in Gulf region
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, p. 68.
Summary: Counterfeiting -- high level of counterfeit goods suspected to be passing through
United Arab Emirates -- limited detection by customs authorities -- penalties in Middle East Gulf
states not severe enough to act as deterrent -- need to ratify United Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC) Trademark Law so that law comes into effect.
Subject: Counterfeiting--Arab States of the Gulf
Subject: Trade marks--law and legislation--Arab States of the Gulf


SNIPER No.: 2009/01584
Author: Hartland, Lucy
Title: Trade marks: revocation and infringement
Source: Australian Law Journal. Vol. 83 No. 6, June 2009, pp. 384-385.
Summary: Trade mark revocation and infringement -- Australia -- E & J Gallo Winery v. Lion
Nathan Australia Pty. Ltd. -- BAREFOOT trade mark registration -- facts of the case -- decision at
first instance -- decision on appeal.
Subject: Trade mark cancellation--case law--Australia
Subject: Trade mark infringement--case law--Australia
Subject: Alcohol marks--case law--Australia




                                           Page 26
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                  Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01560
Author: Shi, Xinzhang
Title: Trademark dispute procedure for the protection of non-registered geographical indications
Source: China Patents and Trademarks. Vol. 97 No. 2, April 2009, pp. 69-72.
Summary: Unregistered geographical indications and trade marks -- China -- Xiang Lotus Seed
Association v. Fujian Food Corporation -- facts of the case -- protecting geographical indicators
through trade mark dispute procedure -- protection of unregistered GIs -- establishing GIs --
qualification of parties to trade mark dispute -- extent of GI protection -- distinctive character of GI
marks.
Subject: Geographical indicators--case law--China
Subject: Trade mark registrability--case law--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01683
Author: Starr, H. David and Gregory G. Bennett
Title: Trademark protection of colour marks in the United States
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 102-106.
Summary: Colour marks -- United States -- Qualitex Co. v. Jacobson Products Co. -- subsequent
application of Qualitex test -- secondary meaning -- functionality -- defining a colour mark.
Subject: Colour marks--United States


SNIPER No.: 2009/01694
Author: Smith, Adam
Title: .trademark: the battle over the new domain space
Source: World Trademark Review. No. 20, August/September 2009, pp. 13-14.
Summary: Expansion of generic top-level domains (gTLDs) -- potential risks to brand owners --
uniform rapid suspension system (URS) -- criticism from rights owners -- effects for domain name
registrars.
Subject: Domain names
Subject: Cybersquatting
Subject: Domain name registries


SNIPER No.: 2009/01105
Author: Naser, Mohammad Amin
Title: Trademarks and freedom of expression.
Source: IIC: International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law. Vol. 40 No. 2,
2009, pp. 188-205.
Summary: Trade mark systems and the rights of free expression -- proposition that trade marks
are "co-authored" by registrants and the consuming public -- role of the public in attributing cultural
meanings to trade marks -- different kinds of expressive uses exist and should be given proper
protection -- parody, criticism and satire -- possibility of conciliation between dilution and right of
free expression -- whether UK Trade Marks Act (1994) and US Trademarks Act (1946) recognize
right of public in using marks for cultural and expressive uses -- need for reform of trade mark
systems
Subject: Fair use (Trade marks)--United Kingdom
Subject: Fair use (Trade marks)--United States
Subject: Free speech--United Kingdom
Subject: Free speech--United States




                                            Page 27
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01685
Author: Papageorge, Ike and Deborah Bell
Title: Twitter squatting and trade mark infringement: a birds-eye view
Source: Internet Law Bulletin. Vol. 12 No. 4, July 2009, pp. 53-55.
Summary: Cybersquatting through use of Twitter names -- Australia -- how Twitter protects brand
owners -- Australian trade mark law protections for brand owners caught by Twitter-squatting -- use
in trade.
Subject: Twitter
Subject: Cybersquatting
Subject: Social networking
Subject: Internet


SNIPER No.: 2009/01674
Author: Zhou, Yi
Title: The two generations' pursuit of copyright
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 44-46.
Summary: Copyright negotiation by Chinese video sharing websites -- original video resources
from content providers -- finding an appropriate profit model -- different cooperation models with
film and television producers -- purchasing plans for video sharing sites -- copyright infringement --
safe harbour rules.
Subject: Electronic copyright--culture and entertainment industry--China
Subject: Copyright infringement--culture and entertainment industry--China
Subject: Piracy--culture and entertainment industry--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01681
Author: Kong, Xiangjun and Junli Xia
Title: Understanding and application of the Interpretation on Certain Issues Concerning the
Application of Law in the Trial of Civil Disputes Involving Protection of Well-Known Trademarks
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 88-94.
Summary: Well-known marks -- China -- drafting and guiding principles -- concept of well-known
marks -- conditions for determining whether a trade mark is well-known -- factors for deciding well-
known status -- assessing damages -- cross-class protection of well-known marks -- remedies for
well-known marks against later identical or similar marks -- strict interpretation of legislation --
application of other judicial interpretations -- jurisdiction.
Subject: Famous trade marks--China


SNIPER No.: 2009/01682
Author: Wang, Yanfang
Title: Understanding and application of the Interpretation on Certain Issues Concerning the
Application of Law in the Trial of Civil Disputes Involving Protection Appreciation and application of
the Supreme People's Court Notice on the Proper Venue for Well-Known Trademark Cases
Source: China Intellectual Property. No. 30, May-June 2009, pp. 96-97.
Summary: Well-known marks -- China -- jurisdiction for cases concerning well-known marks --
background to the Notice -- points to note.
Subject: Legal jurisdiction--China
Subject: Famous trade marks--China




                                          Page 28
SNIPER Bulletin                                                                  Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01106
Author: Leber, Thomas M.
Title: Unity of chemical and biotechnological Markush claims under the PCT and EPC:
consistency of the PCT and EPC guidelines with the law
Source: IIC: International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law. Vol. 40 No. 2,
2009, pp. 206-212.
Summary: Claims in biotechnology patents referring to plurality of alternative nucleic acids or
proteins can be worded as Markush formulae -- assessment of unity under the PCT and EPC of
Markush claims in chemistry and biochemistry -- examples in PCT guidelines related to
biotechnological-type Markush claims seem to correctly reflect legal provisions -- examples on
chemical-type Markush claims not consistent with PCT and EPC guidelines or articles and rules of
PCT/EPC, or PCT-Administrative Instructions.
Subject: Patent claims--biotechnology industry
Subject: Patent claims--science and research industry
Subject: Patent examination


SNIPER No.: 2009/01574
Author: McLeod, Linda K. and Stephanie H. Bald
Title: US TTAB bars registration of the mark A-HOLE Patrol on the ground that the mark is
immoral or scandalous
Source: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Vol. 4 No. 7, July 2009, pp. 463-464.
Summary: Scandalous or vulgar terms not registrable as trade marks -- United States -- In re
JibJab Media, Inc. -- dictionary evidence sufficient -- legal context -- facts of the case -- analysis of
the decision -- practical significance.
Subject: Trade mark registrability--case law--United States


SNIPER No.: 2009/01686
Author: Christou, Sophia and Abi Paramaguru
Title: User-generated content, copyright and fair dealing
Source: Internet Law Bulletin. Vol. 12 No. 4, July 2009, pp. 57-60.
Summary: Copyright and user-generated content (UGC) -- Australia -- copyright and social media
-- fair dealing exceptions -- practical considerations for user-generated content -- issue for IP
owners.
Subject: Copyright
Subject: Fair use (Copyright)
Subject: Internet
Subject: User-generated content


SNIPER No.: 2009/01661
Author: Scott, Jeremy R. M. and Sytse de Jonge
Title: When is a search not a search? Part 3: the worst of the worst: when complex applications
also lack unity
Source: World Patent Information. Vol. 31 No. 3, September 2009, pp. 190-192.
General Note: Third article in a series of three. See also: 2007/00714; 2008/01478.
Summary: Complex applications difficult for examiners to search -- problems relating to Articles
83 and 84 of the European Patent Convention -- non-unity -- no single general inventive concept in
application -- problems and solutions when application both complex and lacking unity --
streamlined EPO procedure to deal with these applications.
Subject: European Patent Office
Subject: Patent searching--Europe
Subject: Patent examination--Europe




                                            Page 29
SNIPER Bulletin                                                             Library, IP Australia

SNIPER No.: 2009/01552
Author: Owen, Jane
Title: Wyeth denied a jump start in its evergreening war for venlafaxine
Source: Pharmaceutical Law Insight. Vol. 5 No. 6, June 2009, p. 4.
Summary: Second generation evergreening patents for pharmaceuticals -- Australia -- Wyeth v.
Secretary, Department of Health and Aging -- Wyeth attempt to discover identities of applicants to
produce generic venlafaxine (Efexor) -- claims of infringement against method patent -- refusal to
grant injunction -- supplied evidence hypothetical -- certificate of non-infringement required by
Therapeutic Goods Administration.
Subject: Evergreening--pharmaceutical industry--Australia
Subject: Patent infringement--case law--Australia
Subject: Injunctions--case law--Australia




                                         Page 30

				
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