Advanced Vehicle Control and Safety by pengxuebo

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									Advanced Vehicle Control and
          Safety
          Chuck Thorpe
    Carnegie Mellon University
                1. The Problem
• Vehicles and highways have greatly improved safety: total
  fatalities are down approximately 30% over the past 35
  years
• Even with those improvements, there are still
  approximately 40,000 fatalities / year in the US
• People haven’t improved: in 90% of all accidents, the
  driver is a contributing cause
                      The Solution

• The Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) is a USDOT
  program to use advanced electronics to improve vehicles,
  with the dominant concern being safety.
• This tutorial is arranged around a series of advanced
  functions, such as vehicle detection, that contribute to safer
  and more intelligent vehicles. For each function, the
  tutorial discusses a set of possible technologies.
• The next set of slides show the “user services” for the IVI
  advanced vehicle control and safety systems. The
  following charts show which technology functions support
  each user service.
• Note the synergy: each technical function supports many
  user services.
     IVI User Services categories:
• Safety: (directly contributing to vehicle safety);
    –   rear end collision warning
    –   roadway departure warning
    –   lane change / merge collision warning
    –   intersection collision warning
    –   railroad crossing collision warning
    –   vision enhancement
    –   location-specific warnings
    –   collision notification
• Safety Impacting: (potential to distract or aid the driver);
    – navigation and routing
    – real-time traffic information
    – driver comfort and convenience features
                       More Services
• Commercial Vehicle Services:
    –   vehicle stability
    –   vehicle diagnostics
    –   driver condition monitoring
    –   cargo identification
    –   automated transactions
    –   safety recorder
• Transit:
    –   obstacle and pedestrian detection
    –   precision docking
    –   passenger monitoring
    –   passenger information
                        More Services
• Specialty Vehicles:
    – full automation
• Supporting Services:
    – low friction warning
    – longitudinal control
    – lateral control
               Technical functions
• There is a set of common vehicle functions that underlie
  those user services:
   –   sensing the position of other vehicles
   –   sensing obstacles
   –   sensing the position of the lane relative to your own vehicle
   –   sensing vehicle position and motion
   –   estimating braking performance
   –   communication
   –   reliability
   –   miscellaneous functions
   –   sensor-friendly vehicles and roadways
• The rest of this section shows how each of these functions
  supports the various user services
                                Safety 1
         Other   Obst.   Lane   Con-   Pos +   Brake   Comm   Relia    Misc.   Clutter
         Veh.            Pos    trol   mtion                  bility



                                                                       
Rear
End



                                                                        
Road
Dep



                                                                        
Lane
Chnge



                                                                        
Inter-
Sect



                                                                  
RR
                                  Safety 2
          Other   Obst.   Lane   Con-   Pos +   Brake   Comm Relia    Misc.   Clutter
          Veh.            Pos    trol   mtion                bility



                                                                   
Vision
Enhce



                                                                  
Loc-
spec



                                                                   
Coll
Notif



                                                                   
Smart
restrnt
                    Safety Impacting
          Other   Obst.   Lane   Con-   Pos +   Brake   Comm Relia    Misc.   Clutter
          Veh.            Pos    trol   mtion                bility



                                                         
Nav/
Rout



                                                          
R-T
traffic



                                                            
Driver
Comf.
               Commercial Vehicle
            Other   Obst.   Lane   Con-   Pos +   Brake   Comm Relia    Misc.   Clutter
            Veh.            Pos    trol   mtion                bility


                                                              
Stability



                            
Driver
Cond.
Vehicle
Diag.
Cargo ID



                                                          
Auto
Transact.


              
Safety
recorder
                                 Transit
         Other   Obst.   Lane   Con-   Pos +   Brake   Comm Relia    Misc.   Clutter
         Veh.            Pos    trol   mtion                bility



                                                                           
Obst /
Ped



                                                                          
Prec.
Dock

Pass
Mntr



                                                       
Pass
Info
                              Specialty

       Other   Obst.   Lane   Con-   Pos +   Brake   Comm Relia    Misc.   Clutter
       Veh.            Pos    trol   mtion                bility



                
Full
Auto
                           Supporting
           Other   Obst.   Lane   Con-   Pos +   Brake   Comm Relia    Misc.   Clutter
           Veh.            Pos    trol   mtion                bility



                     
Low
Friction



                     
Long
Ctrl



                      
Lat
Ctrl
            Section 1 Questions:
• How many accidents occurred in the most recent year for
  which statistics are available? Hint -
  http://www.ohs.fhwa.dot.gov/info/saffacts.html and
  http://www.census.gov/statab/www/
• How many fatalities?
• What was the dollar cost of those accidents?
• What kind of economic justification is there for the various
  AVCSS services?
• Are there other on-vehicle functions that would be useful?
    2     Sensing Other Vehicles
• Other vehicles need to be sensed in front for
  adaptive cruise control and forward collision
  warning; on the sides, for blind spot and lane
  change / merge warning; and behind, for backup
  warning and for lane change / merge warning of
  overtaking vehicles.
• Sensing has to work in all weather, and at a
  variety of ranges
                   2.1 Basic Geometry
Sensing straight ahead is
not sufficient; on a
curving road, a forward-
looking sensor needs to
have a wide field of
view, and sensed vehicle
position needs to be
combined with road
geometry to know
whether the lead vehicle
is in your lane, another
lane, or on the shoulder.
         2.2 Targets and Clutter
• Other objects in the field of view can include roadside
  signs, parked cars, overpasses, guard rails, etc; this is
  referred to in the radar literature as “clutter”.
• Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems, which are only
  concerned with moving vehicles, can reject any stopped
  object as clutter.
• Rear-end collision warning systems need to sense stopped
  vehicles, and so need high-acuity sensing of vehicles and
  lanes in order to separate targets (other vehicles) from
  clutter.
                          2.3 Radar
• Radar is an excellent choice for seeing big metal objects through fog,
  snow, or light rain
• The currently approved frequency is 77 GHz. Radar works at the speed
  of light, so sensing is almost instantaneous.
• Simple radar is be a single spot with no information on bearing angle.
  More sophisticated versions sweep the beam mechanically, or use two
  or more beams and various processing schemes to measure bearing and
  range
• Typical resolution (closest objects that can be distinguised) is 1 meter
  in range, 3 degrees in bearing.
                              Radar Data
Data from a scanning radar.
Top image is video of the
scene, bottom is radar data,
with corresponding locations
marked. The radar data is range
(horizontal) and bearing angle
(vertical; up is left, down is
right). Brightness indicates
strength of return. Car A is
close and he center of the radar
return (the video image does
not extend as far to the right as
the radar); B is further and left;
C is further yet and is barely
visible above the roof of A; D
is much further and has a
bearing between A and B.
                         2.4 Ladar
• Ladar, lidar, and laser rangefinder are all synonyms. They refer to
  measuring distance using the travel time of a laser beam. The laser can
  be scanned over the scene with mirrors to produce a “range image”.
• Lasers can be focused to very small spots (fractions of a degree), so
  they have much better resolution than radar. Instead of sensing a blob
  with radar, a ladar can make many measurements as it scans, and can
  measure fine details of shape.
• Since ladar is near visible light, it is blocked by the same kinds of
  effects that impede human vision: fog, snow, and heavy rain will block
  the signals.
                         Ladar Data
• The figures on the next page show data from a high-resolution
  scanning laser rangefinder. Each picture is 480,000 pixels (points),
  each corresponding to a separate ladar measurement.
• The top picture shows the reflectance data: this is the amount of laser
  energy returned from that point in the scene, and is roughly equivalent
  to a flash photo.
• The lower picture shows range data. Brightness encodes range: points
  that are further away are displayed more brightly.
• Note the fine details of shape and appearance visible in this data. It is
  possible to build a computer program that can identify which objects
  are cars, and which direction they are facing; this can give early
  warning of which vehicles may be on a collision course.
Ladar Data
                      2.5 Sonar
• Sonar works by measuring the time of flight of sound.
• Sound travels (relatively) slowly though air and is hard to
  focus, so sonar is only useful for detecting objects at
  ranges of a few meters or less.
• Sonars are inexpensive, and work in a most weather
  conditions. The initial mass market application was in
  Polaroid auto-focus cameras.
• Sonars are commercially available for blind spot sensors
  and back-up warning sensors.
                Side and Rear Sensors
                                        Sonars



 Radar


This bus is
equipped
with rear and
side sensors
for blind
spot
coverage
             2.6 Communications
• If all vehicles on a roadway are equipped with ITS features, inter-
  vehicle communications can be used to determine relative positions.
• Each vehicle can broadcast its current location, derived from GPS or
  other positioning systems.
• Vehicles can also broadcast other information, such as speeds, intent to
  change lanes, or onset of emergency braking. This is crucial in
  decreasing inter-vehicle spacing to increase throughput, while
  maintaining safety.
• This kind of scheme is most appropriate for high-end IVI systems,
  such as automated highways.
• The picture on the next page shows a “platoon” of tightly-spaced
  automated vehicles, developed by the PATH program at UC Berkeley.
  Platoons rely on communications 20 times a second to keep all
  vehicles moving smoothly together.
Platoon
              2.7 Driver models
• Sensing the current location of a nearby vehicle is not all:
  it would be even better to predict future actions of the
  vehicle. Unless that vehicle is fully automated, it is
  necessary to model the behavior of that driver.
• As shown in the next slide (and as everyone knows from
  personal experience), there is a great deal of variability in
  people’s driving behavior.
• If a particular vehicle can be observed for some time, that
  driver’s behavior can be estimated, and used to predict
  future actions.
                     Driver Differences
The five drivers plotted
here each have
different behaviors for
one important
component of driving:
average lane position.
They have different
mean lane positions
when the road is
straight, and cut the
corners by different
amounts when the road
curves
                           Left curve   Straight   Right curve
         Section 2 Questions:
• What are the advantages and disadvantages
  of using radar vs. ladar?
• The speed of light is about 3*10^8 m/sec,
  or, for a rule of thumb, a foot / nanosecond.
  How long does it take a radar pulse to go to
  and from an object 150 m away?
• Find two manufacturers of automotive or
  truck radars on the www
         3     Sensing Obstacles
• Obstacle detection is much more difficult than
  vehicle detection: obstacles can be small, non-
  metallic, and much harder to see
• Obstacles can be stationary or moving (e.g. deer
  running across the road)
• For a passenger car at highway speeds, obstacles
  need to be detected 100 m ahead. For trucks, the
  distance is even longer.
• Obstacle detection is one of the most challenging
  tasks for an intelligent vehicle
        3.1 Obstacles on the Road
 State DOTs report cleaning up construction debris, fuel spills, car
  parts, tire carcasses, and so forth.
 State highway patrols receive reports of washing machines, other home
  appliances, ladders, pallets, deer, etc.
 A survey commissioned by a company that builds litter-retrieval
  machines reports 185 million pieces of litter / week.
 Rural states report up to 35% of all rural crashes involve animals,
  mostly deer but also including moose and elk as well as farm animals.
 A non-scientific survey of colleagues indicates that people have hit tire
  carcasses, mufflers, deer, dogs, even a toilet.
                 3.2 Sensors
• Ladar, in its high-resolution scanning formats, is
  useful for seeing small objects
• A variant is to use the reflectance channel of a
  ladar, and to look for bright returns, which
  probably come from objects sticking up out of the
  roadway.
• Sonar has insufficient range
• Advanced radar and stereo vision systems may
  work
          3.3 Polarimetric radar
• Radar can be polarized in the same was as light.
• Just as polarized sunglasses help reduce light reflected
  from shallow angles (glare), polarized radar transmitters
  and receivers can separate the return from different
  polarization directions; this provides cues to distinguish
  horizontal surfaces and from vertical surfaces.
• Polarimetric radars built at U of Michigan are much better
  than ordinary radar at separating small obstacles from
  ground clutter.
• There is also some evidence that polarimetric radar will
  give different returns for wet or snowy roads, giving some
  information on road conditions.
           3.4 Stereo vision
• Stereo works by finding the same point in
  two or more cameras. Intersecting the lines
  of view from the cameras gives the 3D
  location of the object.
     Stereo Guided Segmentation
• Low-resolution stereo for detection and recognition of nearby objects,
  used for side-looking sensors on a bus.
• Left: Original image. Center: depth map from stereo; brighter is close.
  Right: “blobs” of pixels at the same distance. The overlays on the
  original image show detected objects, two pedestrians and a car.
• Further processing can examine each blob to separate people from
  fixed obstructions, and generate appropriate driver warnings
                  Long-Range Stereo
Top: One of three images
from a stereo set. The
objects on the road are 15
cm tall at a range of 100
m from the camera.
Bottom: detected objects
in black. Besides the
obstacles on the road, the
system has found the
person, the sign, grass
along the road, and a
distant dip in the road
          Section 3 Questions:
• Look up the connection between posted speeds
  and vertical curvature in the AASHTO handbook.
  Is the line of sight for a human driver, going over
  the crest of a hill, better or worse than for a sensor
  mounted in the front bumper?
• For extra credit, go out and run over obstacles
  with your car, and decide what is the largest object
  you would be willing to hit, and therefore the
  smallest object that needs to be detected.
     4    Sensing Lane Position
• Knowing lane position is necessary for
  automated guidance and for lane departure
  warning systems. It is also important for
  rear-end collision warning, to know which
  lane your vehicle is in as well as which lane
  preceeding vehicles are in.
• Requirements are somewhat different for
  each application.
          4.1 Requirements
– reliability: high for warning systems, extremely high
  for automated guidance
– availability: must be available nearly 100% for
  automated guidance; lower availability acceptable for
  warning systems provided a warning is given
– weather: should operate in most weather, warn and
  disable if not operating
– accuracy: absolute accuracy of better than 30 cm
  needed; no high-frequency jitter allowed for control
  applications
– range: rear-end warning requires knowing lane position
  of leading vehicle, to approx. 100m
                      4.2 Magnetics
UC Berkeley has pioneered the use of
permanent magnets, buried in the center
of the road, for lateral guidance. The
magnets can be inexpensive magnets, as
shown here, for most applications; or
more expensive but much smaller
magnets for bridge decks where drilling
large holes would damage the structure.
The magnets are sensed by
magnetometers underneath the front and
rear bumpers of the vehicle to provide
lateral position information.
The magnets can be installed north pole
up or down, providing a simple binary
code that can indicate e.g. map location.
                   More Magnets
                                     An obvious advantage of
                                     magnets is that they are not
                                     affected by weather. Here,
                                     they are used to mark the
                                     edge of the shoulder, to
                                     provide a visual indicator
                                     to the snow plow operator.


Besides buried magnets, there are also efforts to place magnets in
lane marking tape. This would be less expensive to install, but
requires more sophisticated sensing, since the magnets are not
directly underneath the vehicle’s sensors.
                    4.3 Buried cables
The oldest way to perform automated
guidance, going back to the 1950’s, is
to follow a buried cable. The automated
trucks at the Westrack pavement test
site use two cables for redundancy, with
pickup coils mounted in triangular
frames at both front and back of the
truck. Buried cables are all-weather,
and the signal on the cable can be used
to send messages (e.g. “speed limit
change”). But cable installation and
maintenance are difficult.
      4.4 Radar reflective surfaces
• Collision avoidance radar can                                                   higher f       lower f

  be used for lateral control with
                                                             (a)
  modified lane-marking tape.
• Frequency-dependent tape
                                                                                             Low-Frequency

  properties can provide                        Radar
                                                                   High-Frequency
                                                                   Illumination
                                                                                             Illumination




  distance and other information
                                                        Radar-Reflective Stripe




                                                                (b)


                                 • Conventional lane marking
                                   tape (3M Corp.) punched with
                                   specific hole pattern to provide
                                   frequency-selective retro-
                                   reflection
                               4.5 Vision
Typical vision system for
lane tracking.
The detected position of the
solid line is shown by the
blue dots; the detected
dashed line by dark and
light blue dots. Overlayed
on the image is data from
other sensors, showing the
location of radar targets:
yellow X for right lane, red
X for current lane.
Experimenter interface
shown at bottom.
        Section 4 Questions:
• What would be the relative advantages of
  magnetics vs. vision?
• What is the disadvantage of buried cables?
 5         Sensing vehicle position and
                   motion
• An estimate of vehicle motion, and position on a map, can
  be used in several ways, depending on the resolution. For
  example:
     – coarse position (10s of meters) can be used to predict that a corner
       is coming up
     – medium position (meters) can be used to warn a driver to slow
       down, based on the design speed of the upcoming curve
     – fine positioning (cm) can be used to tell if the driver is drifting out
       of their lane through the curve
• Several different technologies provide ways of measuring
  absolute position and motion, at a variety of resolutions.
                       5.2 GPS
• The Global Positioning System is a satellite-based
  navigation system, originally developed by the US
  military. It works by broadcasting very accurate time
  signals from a constellation of orbiting satellites. A
  ground-based receiver can compare the times from several
  satellites; the different in apparent times gives the
  difference in time-of-flight of the signals from the
  satellites, and therefore the difference in distance to each
  satellite. Simple geometry gives the location of the ground-
  based unit and an accurate time.
                     More GPS
• This simple picture is distorted by two phenomena
   – The US government deliberately introduces distortions
     into the civilian version of the signal, in order to reduce
     the accuracy of the system for potential enemies
   – Local atmospheric effects refract the signals by varying
     amounts
• The result is that raw GPS has an accuracy of only
  10’s of meters
               Differential GPS
• In Differential GPS, a base station has a GPS receiver at a
  known location. It continually compares its known position
  with the GPS reported position. The difference is the error
  caused by selective availability and atmospheric distortion.
  The base station broadcasts the correction terms to mobile
  units. By applying the correction, the mobile units can
  reduce their errors.
• The accuracy of DGPS is on the order of a few meters.
            Carrier Phase GPS
• In carrier phase systems, the base station and the
  mobile units watch both the broadcast time code,
  and the actual waveforms of the carriers. By
  counting waveforms, they can synchronize their
  positions with each other to a fraction of a
  wavelength.
• A good carrier-phase system, with good
  conditions, can achieve accuracies of 2 cm or
  better.
              GPS Difficulties
• GPS requires a clear view of at least 4 satellites.
  For aircraft applications, or in flat, open terrain,
  this is not a problem.
• In mountainous terrain, or in urban canyons, GPS
  signals can be blocked or (worse) can reflect from
  tall objects and cause mistaken readings.
• Carrier-phase GPS is very sensitive to losing lock
  on the satellites, and can become confused even
  going under a large road sign.
         Bottom line on GPS
• GPS is very useful for many applications.
• It is not yet 100% reliable, so is not ready
  for control applications.
• Research continues on filling in gaps in
  GPS coverage, and integrating GPS with
  other sensors, so there is hope for the future.
                                Maps
• Accurate position is not useful unless combined with accurate maps.
• The first generation of digital maps were produced from paper maps,
  and therefore are no more accurate than the paper products. Typical
  quoted accuracies are 14 meters. This is sufficient for in-vehicle
  navigation systems; until more sophisticated uses arise, there is little
  market demand for high accuracy.
• The next generations of maps will be produced directly from aerial
  photos and verified by driving selected routes with accurate GPS, so
  the accuracies will improve.
• To be completely useful, maps should have additional information,
  such as design speed of curves, grade of slopes, etc. This would aid
  e.g. in warning drivers of excessive speed when entering a curve.
                     5.3 Inertial
• Inertial sensing measures acceleration, then integrates
  acceleration to give velocity and again to give position.
• Since position is doubly-integrated, small errors in
  acceleration build up rapidly.
• Inertial measurement is good for sensing braking forces or
  for comparing wheel speed with ground speed and
  calculating slip during braking.
• High-precision inertial navigation is not yet affordable for
  the automotive market.
• Inertial measurement is useful to fill in short-term gaps in
  GPS or other measurements.
                5.4 Other sensors
• “Dead reckoning” uses estimates of distance travelled and
  direction of travel.
• Odometry uses wheel encoders to measure distance
  traveled. It is susceptible to errors due to tire slip, incorrect
  estimates of wheel circumference due to changes in tire
  inflation, etc. Road Rally enthusiasts can calibrate their
  odometry to 0.1%; this is not practical for most vehicles.
• Standard compasses are affected by nearby metallic
  objects, such as bridges or buildings.
                    More Sensors

• Image correlators directly measure vehicle motion by
  watching the ground move by under the vehicle. These
  systems are accurate to better than 0.1%
• Doppler radar is used in precision agriculture applications,
  where it is important to measure the speed of farm
  equipment even with significant tire slip.
        Section 5 Questions:
• Why can’t you just use a magnetic compass
  for heading?
• What’s the cheapest GPS unit you can find
  on the web?
• Why would Japan have a higher market
  penetration of GPS and moving map
  displays than the US?
        6      Predicting Braking
                Performance
• Braking performance is key to setting many
  parameters in automated control and in driver
  warning systems.
• To set safe following distance, ideally the system
  should know its own braking capability; the
  braking capability of the lead car; and the reaction
  time of the automated system or of the
• Braking performance of vehicles on identical
  roadways can vary by a factor of 4
              6.1 Basic formulas
• The basic formulas for the time and distance required to
  bring a car to a stop are
       • Time = reaction time + speed / deceleration
       • Distance = speed * reaction time + ½ speed2 / deceleration
• Typical highway speeds are approximately 30 meters /
  second; typical reaction times range from 100 milliseconds
  for a fast computer-controlled sensor and brake actuator, to
  up to 2 seconds for a human driver. The dominant
  unknown factor is deceleration, or braking performance.
            6.2 Wheel speeds and slip
Typical force vs. slip curve. As the
brakes are applied, the tires begin to slip,
which results in deceleration force. As                Dry surface


the slip increases, the force increases to
                                               Force
some maximum. After that point, the            (g)

wheels begin to lock and skid, and the                       Wet surface


braking force decreases. Note that the
curves for wet and dry pavement start                            Slip (%)

off very close to each other, but reach
different peaks. This means that gently
tapping the brakes is not enough to tell
surface type, and therefore it is difficult
to predict maximum braking
performance without attempting hard
braking.
   6.3 Surface condition sensing
• Several methods have been attempted to sense current
  surface conditions:
   – infrared spectrophotometers, tuned to detect differences between
     ice, water, and dry pavement
   – microphones in the wheel wells listening for water splash sounds
   – roadside mini-weather stations with sensors built into the pavement
   – careful instrumentation of all wheels of a car, looking for incipient
     slip on the driving wheels
• None of the methods is completely successful yet.
              Section 6 Questions:
• Have you ever encountered “black ice” that you
  couldn’t tell was there?
• Calculate stopping distance for the following
  parameters:
   –   Truck with 1.0 sec reaction time and 0.3 g braking
   –   Sedan with 1.0 sec reaction time and 0.7 g braking
   –   Sedan with sleepy driver, 1.5 sec reaction time and 0.7 g braking
   –   Sedan with poor brakes, 1.0 sec reaction and 0.5 g braking
   –   Sports car with professional driver, 0.5 sec and 1.0 g
• Which factors dominate stopping distance?
             7       Reliability
 Reliability engineering in intelligent vehicles is
  difficult. Several characteristics of automobiles
  are much different than, e.g., aircraft:
    Cost sensitivity: Usual practices that involve triplex
     redundancy of critical components may not be
     affordable in automobiles.
    Equipment used until end-of-life: In most safety-
     critical tasks, preventive maintenance schedules call
     for replacing electronics before the end of their
     design life. In the automotive environment, many
     components are never replaced until they fail.
        More Reliability
 Operation in uncontrolled environment: Vehicles
  operate in harsh environments, with relatively
  unskilled and untrained operators.
 Very large scale of deployment: An extremely
  improbable event, one that occurs once in 109 hours,
  would cause one failure in 73 years in the US
  commercial air fleet. That same probability would
  cause a failure once every 4.5 days in the US
  automotive fleet, due to the much higher number of
  vehicles. Even though the risk to a passenger might
  be the same in both cases, the public perception of
  risk could be much higher for cars.
                7.1 Redundancy
• Duplex redundancy refers to having two copies of a
  subsystem (e.g. computer). If a failure is detected in one
  system, the other can be used.
• Triplex redundancy has three copies. for computers, the
  output of all three can be compared, and the majority wins;
  this provides automatic detection and correction of single
  errors.
• Heterogeneous redundancy refers to doing the same
  function with different means. For instance, if a steering
  actuator fails on an automated vehicle, some steering
  authority is available by differentially applying the right or
  left brakes.
    7.2 System-level solutions
• System level solutions build safety into the
  system by considering the entire system. In
  automated highways, the California PATH
  approach of Platoons is designed to mitigate
  the effects of an (unlikely) crash by having
  vehicles so closely spaced that any collision
  would be at a small relative velocity.
               Questions:
• How reliable is your car? Your computer?
  Would you trust your life to them?
• Describe heterogeneous redundancy, and
  give an example.
     8     Emerging technologies
• A number of other technologies are being
  developed that will support intelligent vehicles.
• Some, such as electronic controls, are being
  developed for other purposes (e.g. handling), but
  will be useful for intelligent vehicles.
• As drivers become more accustomed to electronics
  in vehicles, prices will fall, consumer acceptance
  will increase, and the pace of adoption of new
  technology could accelerate.
                   8.1 Control
• Current IVI applications are focused on driver assistance
  rather than vehicle control; nevertheless, partial and full
  automation will eventually be important.
• A wide variety of standard and advanced controls
  techniques are being applied to road vehicles
• Vehicles to date have been designed for human control, not
  automated control. For example, current steering system
  geometry is designed for “good handling”, i.e. predictable
  response for humans. The underlying hardware may need
  to be modified for optimal automatic control.
                         Difficulties

• Automated control is especially difficult in some
  situations:
    Emergency maneuvers: Control systems optimized for smooth
     performance at cruise will not work for abrupt maneuvers in
     emergency situations.
    Equipment failure: Special controllers need to be designed to cope
     with tire blowout or loss of power brakes or power steering.
    Heavy vehicles: The load, and the distribution of the load, vary
     much more for a heavy truck than for a passenger car. Truck
     controllers need to be much more adaptable than light vehicle
     controllers.
              More Difficulties
 Low speeds: Engine and transmission dynamics are hardest to
  model at slow speeds. Applications such as automated snow plows
  or semi-automated busses will require careful throttle control
  design.
 Low-friction surfaces: As addressed above, it is difficult to predict
  the effective coefficient of friction on a particular road surface.
  This affects not only braking performance but also the design of
  throttle and steering controllers.
                  8.2 Actuation
• Full or partial automation will require actuators, i.e.
  computer-controlled motors that can move the throttle,
  brake, and steering.
• The state of the art is rapidly improving: vehicles are
  available on the market with electronic fuel injection,
  electronic power steering, and electronic power brakes, all
  driven by performance and weight improvements for
  manually-driven cars. This makes it much easier to add
  computer control.
• Special-purpose actuators will still be needed in some
  applications, such as quick-response throttles for closely-
  spaced platoons of cars.
         8.3 Driver condition
• It is important to assess driver alertness,
  both in a drowsy driver warning system,
  and in an automated system that is
  preparing to return control to the driver.
• Alertness can be sensed indirectly, by
  watching lane-keeping performance; or
  directly, by watching for eye blink rate and
  closure.
                         Perclose
Measuring percentage of time
eyes are closed. This system
illuminates the face with two
IR wavelengths, one of which
reflects from the retina.
Subtracting the images will
create a blank image (if the
eyes are closed) or an image
with two bright spots (if the   Top left: image with retinal reflections
eyes are open).                 Top right: no retinal reflections
                                Bottom left: difference image, note
                                two bright dots for reflections
             8.4 Communications
• Infrastructure-based ITS projects are building roadway-to-vehicle
  communications for traffic and routing information.
• Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is being developed
  for warning of local conditions, such as ice, sharp curves, changes in
  speed limit, or stopped traffic out of sight around a bend.
• Vehicle-vehicle communications will be increasingly important for
  collision warning systems. The lead vehicle can communicate speed,
  braking, intent to change lanes, traffic status ahead, etc.
• In the platoon version of full automation, vehicles need to
  communicate with low latency, e.g. 20 times / second. This creates
  interesting research questions on creating local nets, on managing both
  inter- and intra-platoon communication, and on reliable
  communications in urban canyons and other difficult environments.
  Communications Technologies
• Most communications schemes rely on radio,
  using a variety of bands.
• Schemes currently under research include:
   – modulating the radar reflectivity of a surface, so radar-equipped
     trailing vehicles can get information as well as range
   – powering a transponder with radar energy, again to communicate
     to a following radar-equipped vehicle
   – modulating LED brake lights so trailing vehicles equipped with
     detectors tuned to that particular wavelength can pick up
     information
        Section 8 Questions:
• What makes vehicle control difficult?
• What makes communications difficult?
   9      Sensor-friendly roadways
              and vehicles
• On-board sensing would work better if the
  environment were designed for sensing.
• Current roadways have significant variability
  (Bott’s dots, painted lines, thermoplastic stripes,
  etc).
• Current roadways have many objects that cause
  radar “clutter” (returns from objects that are not of
  interest), such as guard rails, roadside signs,
  bridge overpasses
          9.2 Path prediction
• “Path Prediction” refers to estimating where the
  vehicle’s current lane goes, so an obstacle
  detection system knows where to look for stopped
  cars and other obstructions.
• Sensor friendly systems will improve path
  prediction by enhancing lane visibility.
• They will also improve obstacle detection by
  reducing clutter from off-road objects and
  increasing returns from other vehicles.
     9.1 Dealing with clutter
 Clutter can be:
    Moved: Sign posts could be placed farther from the travel
     lanes.
    Masked: Radar Absorbing Material (RAM) could be applied to
     objects such as bridge abutments
    Marked: Polarizing reflectors, or filters that absorb only a
     narrow frequency band, could be applied to large objects. They
     would then still appear in a radar return, but would be marked
     in the radar signal as known fixed objects
    Mapped: The locations and signatures of fixed objects could be
     stored in a map, and provided to individual vehicles.
      Sensor-Friendly Features
• Besides clutter suppression, sensor-friendly
  systems can improve visibility:
  – Lane markings can be improved with pigments
    that reflect radar or near-visible wavelengths
  – Vehicle visibility can be improved with radar
    reflectors, either fixed or modulated for
    communications
    Microstrip patch retroreflector
               antenna
 • Without a stable aiming
   point, radar-based vehicle
   tracking is difficult. Lead
   vehicle appears to wander • OSU patch retro-reflector
                               provides a distinctive,
                               wideband, vehicle marker.
                               Compact form factor is easily
                               attached to vehicles.
                                                  Angle

• Angle-invariant return provides
  aim-point stability.              Freq. [GHz]

• Wide bandwidth permits good
  range resolution.
        Section 9 Questions:
• List four ways of handling clutter.
• How can sensor-friendly features help with
  the path prediction problem?
  10 Comments and conclusions

• Many of these technologies work best in combination: e.g.
  lane tracking aids both lane departure and rear-end
  warnings.
• Many of these work best with some infrastructure
  assistance: e.g. lane departure systems need at least good
  road delineation, and can take advantage of better
  markings.
• In many cases, the technology is approaching readiness;
  the remaining obstacles to deployment are legal and
  institutional.
               Acknowledgements
• My thanks to the CMU Navlab group, and the Automated Highways
  Tech Team. Much of the research described here was supported by
  NHTSA and FHWA.
• Photo credits: thanks to Liang Zhao (stereo), Todd Williamson
  (stereo), Richard Grace (perclose), Gerald Stone and California PATH
  (magnets and snowplow), Bill Stone and California PATH (platoon),
  Colin Ashmore (buried wire), Umit Ozguner, Jon Young, and Brian A.
  Baertlein (radar reflective surfaces and microstip antenna), K2T Inc
  (ladar), Dirk Langer (radar), Parag Batavia (driver differences chart),
  Assistware Technologies (vision system) and Todd Jochem (bus). All
  pictures copyright by their owners; reproduced by permission.

								
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