Sample of Patients Demographic Data by vah11512

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 83

Sample of Patients Demographic Data document sample

More Info
									Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




      Demographic Profile of Cancer
         Patients at Bikaner and
       Hyderabad Regional Cancer
                 Centers




                                                   Dr. A.V.Ratnam
                                        M.B.B.S, D.L.O, M.Phil., Ph.D




                                           PARIRAKSHANA

    A Society for Promotion and Protection of Health Systems Management

                                               Training & Research

                                                  HYDERABAD-A.P.




                                                                                                   1
               CURRICULUM VITAE
NAME                         DR. Venkata Ratnam Anapindi (Dr.A.V,Ratnam)
                             S/O A.VENKATESHWAR RAO
D.O.B                          12-4-1957
PERMANENT ADDRESS
 Office                                           Residence
S-1 Vidya Vihar Apartments                        #1-9-290/1 VIDYANAGAR
1-9-625/8,VidyaNagar                             HYDERABAD - 500044A.P.
   Hydera bad                                    27617666
 Email-dravratnam@satyam.net.in
TEL: 27661616 Cell 98480-94403


EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS:
a) M.B.B.S.                                        1980(OSMANIA UNIVERSITY)
b) D.L.O.                                          1984 (OSMANIA UNIVERSITY)
c) M.Phil                                          1993(B.I.T.S, Pilani)
   (Hospital and Health Systems Management)
   Subject     - Management and Organizational Behavior, Health Economics,
   Operational Research, Biostatistics, Finance Management and Accountancy,
   Strategic     Planning,   Health    Systems     and    Environmental    Health,
   Computerization in Medicine, Epidemology, Professional Practice.


d) Ph.D (Hospital & Health Care Management)
   1998 (Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India)
   Subject:      - Human Resource Management in Health Care System.
   Topic:      - Job satisfaction among Registered nurses of different hospitals in
   Hyderabad city.




                                                                                  1
  EXPERIENCE
  July 1999-till date working as president PARIRAKSHANA a non govt
  organization working in health systems management, research and training
  .( details tasks performed is attached separately.)


  1995-Jun 1999 DIRECTOR (Medical Services)
      New Citi Hospital, Secunderabad,
      150 bed super specialty corporate hospital. This post is of Senior most
  executive in the hierarchy involving planning and execution Of Management
  policies regarding provision of health care of Super specialty level in a
  corporate hospital, enforcement of Quality care, planning and executing the
  policies for business promotion and over all responsibility of managing
  medical services.


1994-1995    HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATOR MEDWIN HOSPITAL, Hyderabad
(300 bed super specialty Hospital). Third Senior most position in the hierarchy
involving hospital administration manpower planning dealing with corporate
clientele for special package services.
1990-1994    MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT TILAK NAGAR HOSPITAL
 (75 bed family care Hospital) top position in the hospital to run the institution
 successfully and to the satisfaction of the dependent community.
 1984-1990          CHIEF MEDICAL OFFICER GAGAN MAHAL NURSING
                    HOME (75 bed peripheral unit of C.D.R. Group) overall
                    incharge of Medical Services and manpower.
Extensive knowledge of using all programs on computer.
  .




                                                                                 2
     RESEARCH EXPERIENCE IN HEALTH SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
1) Study of Job satisfaction of Doctors working in Medwin Hospitals.

2) Socio economic conditions and its relation to satisfaction of the Patients
visiting Medwin Hospitals. (300 bed corporate hospital in Hyd)

3) Planning of medical facilities to public sector employees.( co-author Dr.Savitry
Bellary.)

4) Job satisfaction of Registered Nurses in Three different hospitals in
Hyderabad. ( Ph.D thesis)

5) Study of Prevalence of Anaemia in women of Adolescent and         Reproductive
age group and its relation to Socio economic condition in slums of
Secunderabad.
6) Development of Hospital standards for 60-bed hospital of C.H.A.I (catholic
health association of India.) for the state of Bihar.

7) Training of Hospital Staff on Biomedical waste management in public sector
and private sector Hospital.

8) Study of Prevalence of smoking habits in the three different groups of
population.

9) Study of impact of pesticides on the mental abilities of growing children
in A.P.

10) Assessment of socio biological implications of Endosulfan in AP, and
Gujarat.
11) Assessment of health status of rural population around industrial town
      of Ankaleshwar Bharuch district of Gujarat.
12).Study of health status      of farmers of BHATINDA district of         Punjab
using pesticides..

EXPERIENCE IN WORLD BANK ASSISTED PROJECTS:

1) Participation in IPP VIII project of Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad in
collaboration with ESSMEDS, Hyderabad (NGO)

2) Participation in RCH project in kothur mandal of Mahaboobnagar District.




                                                                                  3
3) Survey of the functioning of Anganwadi centers and mothers committee in few
selected villages of Nalgonda District.

4) Aids Prevention Through Teachers And Students program of A.P.S.A.C.S.

5) Evaluation of impact of training on Nurses of A.P.V.V.P hospitals under
A.P.First Referral Health system project..(World Bank Assisted)


6) Evaluation of impact of training on the medical Officers working in
hospitals of AP Yaidya Vidhan Parishad (in collaboration with Hospital
Administration Dept of NIMS Panjagutta). (World Bank Assisted).


7) Development of Health dairy for Community Health workers for A.P.E.R.P.
Projects. (World Bank Assisted)

8) Training of Hospital staff on Bio-Medical Waste Management, For
A.P.F.R.H.S.P Hospital staff. (World Bank Assisted).

9) Strategic planning for implementation of Bio-Medical Waste Management
System in PHC’s of Andhra Pradesh.

10) Medical audit and Death certification and cause of deaths reporting as per
W.H.O Certification in A.P. First Refferal Health System Project Hospital with
special Emphasis on maternal mortality and avoidable deaths.
11) Medical audit and Death certification and cause of deaths reporting and
avoidable deaths with special Emphasis on maternal mortality of 5000 cases in
the sate of Maharashtra for Maharashtra Health Systems Development
Project

12) Evaluation of Impact of Training of Nurses working in P.H.C.s of Andhra
Pradesh under A.P.E.R.P.

 EXPERIENCE IN ORGANIZING TRAINING PROGRAMES:

 1.   Developed a training module in English Telugu ,hindi and Marathi on
  Biomedical Waste Management

2. Conducted training programme on BMW(Biomedical Waste Management) to
   staff of RTC Hospital Hyd BHEL Hospital Hyd. NTPC Hospital, Ramagundam



                                                                             4
3. Conducted training programme on BMW management to          staff 250 private
   hospitals and diagnostic centers in Twin cities.

4. Conducted two schedule two day training program to all district hospital
   RMO”s of A.P. First refferal Health Systems hospitals in the state.

5. Conducted a one-day training program to District coordinators of A.P.First
   Refferal Health System hospitals.

6. Delivered sensitization lectures at IMA and District Private hospitals and
   Nursing Homes Association of several districts of A.P.

7. Training the medical officers of the P.H.Cs on the B.M.W management in
   collaboration with Dept of Hospital Administration, NIMS Hyd.

8. Training of 20,000staff in Twenty Five Districts in Maharashtra under
   Maharashtra Health systems Development Project.

9. Consultancy for providing Strategic plan for implementation of BMW
   management system in PHCs in Andhra Pradesh.

10. conducting refresher training programe on BMW management to 25 district
   hospitals in Maharashtra under world bank project

11. Conducting training to 6000 staff of 40 Govt. Hospitals in Rajasthan under
   RHSDP project of world bank.

12. Conducting of training to nursing school faculties on teaching methodologies
   in MHSDP Project (world bank0 in Maharashtra.




                                                                               5
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                             ACKNOWLEDGMENT


          We sincerely thank Dr D.P, Punia Director Acharya Tulsi cancer
hospital and Regional Research Center, Bikaner and Dr.B.N.Rao Director
M.N.J. cancer hospital and Regional Research Center, Hyderabad. for giving
us permission to carry out the study in their institute. We also thank Sri
Agarwal administrator Acharya Tulsi Hospital and Dr.Sairam, R.M.O, M.N.J.
cancer hospital, and other staff who have extended the necessary
cooperation in completing                      the study.
          We are also grateful to the patients and their attendants in both the
hospitals who have patiently replied to our questions and helped in
collecting the data.




Dr.A.V.Ratnam




                                                                                                   2
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



                                                    CONTENTS

Chapter                                                  Title                                     Page No.




    I             Introduction                                                                        4



   II             Executive Summary                                                                   7



   III            Profile of the hospitals surveyed and sample
                                                                                                     14
                  studied



   IV             Center wise Research and Analysis findings:                                        19

                  Bikaner and Hyderabad Centers




                  Research and Analysis findings: Comparison of
    V                                                                                                39
                  types of Cancer with other influencing factors


                                                                                                     56
   VI             Conclusions


                                                                                                     60
  VII             Recommendations


                                                                                                     78
                  Annexure



                                                                                                              3
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Back ground of the study


Cancer has become one of the ten leading causes of death in India. Cancer is an abnormal
growth of a cell or an organ due to a specific stimulus (carcinogen). This growth is an
uncoordinated, purposeless one, which continues to grow even after the cessation or
withdrawal of the stimulus.


Cancer can originate from any organ or part of the body. The natural behaviour of a
particular cancer depends upon the site of involvement and the histopathological type of
the cancer. Some of the cancers are very mild and can be controlled very easily while
some are very aggressive and results of treatment are very poor.


Numerous studies are being conducted on Cancer and Cancer related issues by both
Government and non-governmental organizations. Yet the exact cause of it is not yet
known. The current study is one of its kind which aims to identify if type of Cancer has
any relation with patient’s profession and geographical area of living.



1.2 Objectives of the study

   i.     To find out if incidence of Cancer is more among farming community compared to

          other professionals.

  ii.     To find out if any particular type of Cancer is more predominant in farmers.

 iii.     To find out whether the incidence of Cancer among farmers is as per their

          representation in population or not.

 iv.      To compare ratio of community and geographical representation of Cancer patients

          at two hospitals located in different parts of the country.




                                                                                                   4
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




1.3 Scope of the study

The scope of the study is to find out if prevalence of Cancer is more among farming
community compared to population from other occupations to identify whether a patient’s
type of Cancer has any relation to his/her occupation and geographical location.


Limitations

The study is limited to a specific period of study i.e. 10 days in both the regions. However, the
sample is large enough to give a yearly representation



1.4 Approach & Methodology

The study is purely a primary research carried out on Cancer patients who are visiting as
out patient and admitted in two prominent Cancer hospitals of the country representing
two different geographical areas. The reason for selecting hospitals from two different
locations of the country is to find whether the incidence of cancer is varying with
geographical locations and sow economic condition.



1.5 Primary Research (Field Operations)

Primary data collection was done in Acharya Tulsi Regional Cancer Treatment and

Research Institute, Bikaner and MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center,

Hyderabad. The data collection is done in a fixed period in a month to reach at least 1000

samples. The survey was conducted using a pre-designed questionnaire based on the

objectives of the study.



1.6 Sampling Plan and Survey coverage

The target sample was randomly selected from out patients and in patients of the two

hospitals. The study was conducted on 100 patients on an average for 10 days at each

Cancer hospital. In total, 2,030 patients were interviewed for the study.




                                                                                                   5
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

In 2030 patients interviewed, 1026 are from Bikaner hospital the remaining 1004 are from

Hyderabad hospital.



Details of the sample interviewed are given in the following table:




                                     Center           Segment             Sample size
                                  Bikaner             Male                   574
                                                      Female                     452
                                  Hyderabad           Male                       330
                                                      Female                     674
                                  Total                                         2030




The selected sample follows 95% confidence level and 5% precision level. From the

analysis it is found that the data follows normal distribution in terms of the profile of the

focus and control groups which indicate that the results from the survey are statistically

valid.    This is arrived by adopting strict information gathering procedures and filtering

techniques followed by data back checks, data validation procedures and data cleaning

techniques.




                                                                                                   6
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

                                         II EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This study is conducted to identify if population from particular occupation and certain
geographical area is more prone to certain types of Cancer. To find out such reasons,
Cancer patients from two hospitals located at two different geographical areas of the
country have been studied.


Field work was conducted at Acharya Tulsi Regional Cancer Treatment and Research
Institute, Bikaner and MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center, Hyderabad.
Bikaner and Hyderabad are different in terms of geographical location, climatic conditions,
staple food, living habits, culture and traditions.


From research and analysis findings it can be concluded that type of Cancer has no
relation with patient’s profession or area of living. This conclusion is drawn because
patients from different occupations are suffering with similar types of Cancer. And also
more or less equal percentage of patients were affected with similar types of Cancer at
Bikaner and Hyderabad Cancer centers.


Summary of Research and Analysis Findings:


1. General profile of the patients studied


     Cancer patients studied in Bikaner hospital are from Rajasthan and surrounding states.

     Majority are from Rajasthan (46.7%), followed by Punjab (35.4%) and Haryana
     (15.5%).

     In Rajasthan 30.7% are from Bikaner, 22.5% from Sri Ganganagar, 14.6% from
     Hanumangarh and 11.1% are from Churu districts.

     In Punjab       27.6% are from Bhatinda,19.6% from Mansa,13.55 from Ferozpur, and115
     from Muktsar districts.

     From Haryana36.5% patients are from Sirsa, 20.8% from Hisar and 15.7% are from
     Bhiwani districts.

     All most all Cancer patients in MNJ Regional Cancer center in Hyderabad (98%) are
     from Andhra Pradesh. Few of them are from Karnataka(1.1%), Maharasthra(.3%),
     Delhi and Orissa (.1%)

     Large percentages of the patients are in 31-45 years age and 46-60 years age groups
     at both hospitals.


                                                                                                   7
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

     Literacy rates are low among male patients and female patients. Literacy rates are
     almost equal at both Cancer centers.

     In Bikaner hospital, more number of patients are land owners and farmers, where as
     at Hyderabad center more number of patients are agricultural labour .

     Besides       agriculture,         patients       are     from       other       occupations   like   business,
     government/private employees, house wives, students etc.

     Next to agricultural as occupation, percentage of house wives is observed to be more
     among patients at both the Cancer centers.

     Majority of guardians either father/husband of Bikaner female patients are from
     farming community or similarly father / husband of female patients at Hyderabad are
     agriculture labour.

     Patients with personal habits like smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol consumption
     are less in both Bikaner and Hyderabad. Because Majority of the patients having such
     habits have stopped them currently and replied negative..


2. Details of family members death in the last 5 years


     Only around 5% and 4% patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Cancer hospitals
     respectively reported death of their family members in the last 5 years.

     First two       causes of death are due to old age and Cancer. Accidents and Kidney
     problem are other important causes of relative's death at Bikaner Hospital. Kidney
     problem, accidents and Heart attack are other important reasons for death at
     Hyderabad Center

     Among the cancer deaths throat and breast are the major causes of deaths of relatives
     at Bikaner Hospital.

     Only 14 patients out of 1026 at Bikaner said one of their relatives also had cancer in
     the last 5 years and died. Similarly only 8 patients out of 1004 patients at Hyderabad
     reported to have admitted that one of their blood relative also died of cancer in the
     last 5 years.
3. Details on Patient’s type of Cancer

     Majority of the male patients are suffering with Throat Cancer (38% at Bikaner and
     29% at Hyderabad.) followed by Liver/Abdomen and Mouth Cancers.

     The incidence of cancer mouth and liver / abdomen is slightly more among the male
     patients from Hyderabad in comparison to Bikaner Hospital.



                                                                                                                  8
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

     Though Cancer breast and Cancer uterus are the commonest type of cancer among
     women, the incidence of uterine cancer is slightly more at Hyderabad center than
     Bikaner center.(table 4.9.2)

      uterine cancer is 30%at Bikaner and 41% at Hyderabad. Breast cancer is 28% at
     Bikaner and 18% at Hyderabad. The reason for less percentage of breast cancer
     reporting at Hyderabad could be because breast cancer is generally more in educated
     upper class who prefer to go to private hospitals than Govt. hospitals.( Hyderabad has
     large number of private cancer hospitals in the country).

     Patients chose the present hospitals on the suggestion of their local doctor, friends/

     relatives and also because of their popularity, low cost of treatment and availability of

     good doctors.

     Majority of the patients had prior treatment in another hospital before getting
     treatment at current study hospitals of Bikaner and Hyderabad. They were local
     government or private hospitals not necessarily specialty hospitals for Cancer
     treatment.
4. Specific details of female patients


     Age at marriage of females is very less both at Bikaner and Hyderabad centers. Nearly
     three fourths of the Bikaner female patients got married below 18 years, while the
     percentage is 52% in Hyderabad.

     It is to be noted that women get married at a younger age in Rajasthan and Punjab
     than south India.

     Another substantial percentage of women patients of both centers got married
     between 18-22 years.

     More than half of the female patients (51%) at Bikaner hospital had more than three
     deliveries and another 23% of them had three deliveries. Even in Hyderabad hospital
     more number of them had above three deliveries (43%).

     Majority of the female patients have under gone the pressure of early marriage and
     more deliveries.




                                                                                                   9
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

5. Comparison of Cancer types with patient’s age


     Majority of male patients of 31-45 and 46-60 years age group are suffering with

     Throat, Liver/Abdomen and Mouth Cancers in that order at both centers.

     Majority of female patients at both centers are affected                                 with Breast and Uterus

     Cancer. Other type of Cancers observed in some female patients are Throat and

     Liver/Abdomen Cancers

     The percentage difference in incidence of Cancer types between 31-45 years and 46-

     60 years patients is marginal.


6. Comparison of Cancer types with patient’s occupation(table 5.2.1,2.2)


     The incidence of cancer mouth, throat, liver and abdomen is high irrespective of the

     professional back ground at both the regions.

     The incidence of cancer uterus and breast among females is also equally distributed

     among all professional back ground in both regional hospitals.

     38% of males at Bikaner Hospital are suffering with throat cancer. When professional

     break up of this incidence is observed, among the agriculture background it is around

     40%, but among employees and non-working community it is 45%. This shows the

     incidence of throat cancer is not high among agriculture community (Table 5.2)

      Similarly uterus and breast cancers are common with equal distribution among

     females at Bikaner ( 29% & 28% respectively), but when professional wise analysis is

     done the highest among them are from Business community, housewife women                                     in

     other profession in that order and farming community is lower ( Table. 5.2.2.)

     When a similar analysis is done for the Hyderabad, among males the throat cancer is

     of high incidence, it is equally distributed among all other professions and some times

     higher than agricultural back ground ( Table.5.2.3.)

     Among the female patients from Hyderabad, cancer breast is the second largest

     incidence and the overall percentage is 18 but the incidence among agricultural
                                                                                                                 10
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

     families is 23% and 14% and is 25% among employed and housewives. (Table.5.2.3.)

     Similarly even uterine cancer has shown much variation among different professions.

      At Bikaner Hospital throat cancer is more common than other types among males.

     When rural urban analysis done, it showed equal distribution 39% & 38% respectively

     among both groups (Table.5.7.1)

     Similarly even among females at Bikaner uterine cancer is 29% among rural

     population and 31.7% among urban population.                               This also clearly shows any bias

     against rural community which is mostly agriculture dependant. (Table.5.7.2)

     A similar distribution is observed in Hyderabad among males. the incidence of throat

     cancer and liver / abdominal cancer is equally distributed among rural and urban

     population. (Table.5.7.3)

     Where as among female population at Hyderabad, the incidence of uterine cancer is

     low(35%) among urban population in comparison to rural population ( 43%

     Table.5.7.4) however this difference is statistically not significant.



Conclusions

     1.   The incidence of cancer of different varieties has almost equal distribution among

          different socio – economic groups and it did not show any specific preference to

          urban or rural, agriculture or non-agriculture south or north of India.

     2.   the study at both places                proved that rural population does not suffer from any

          extra incidence of any type of cancer than urban population

     3.   The study also has proved that people who are in agriculture profession have no

          higher incidence of any type of cancer comparing to non agriculture profession.

     4.   Acharya Tulsi Hospital at Bikaner caters to more number of patients from

          Rajasthan than Punjab .




                                                                                                             11
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

     5.    Patients from Bhatinda are coming to this hospital as it is close to Bikaner with

          good transport and very cheap services and the argument that Bhatinda has

          higher incidence of cancer could not be validated.




                                                                                                   12
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




   III PROFILE OF THE HOSPITALS SURVEYED AND SAMPLE STUDIED

As mentioned earlier, the study has been conducted in two renowned Cancer hospitals,
namely Acharya Tulsi Regional Cancer Treatment and Research Institute, Bikaner and MNJ
Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center, Hyderabad.


About Acharya Tulsi Regional Cancer Treatment and Research Institute, Bikaner:

Acharya Tulsi Regional Cancer Treatment and Research Institute were started by Raja
Ganga Singh before independence. Later this hospital has been given the status of
Regional Cancer Center by the Govt. of India.


This hospital draws thousands of patients daily not only from Rajasthan but also from
other surrounding states. The hospital is very famous for its low cost treatment, cheaper
food facilities and also room facilities. The diagnosis is conducted very fast in this hospital
and patients are given their medical reports with in twelve hours.


The other reason for its popularity is lack of government specialty hospital in Oncology in
surrounding states. More patients from Bhatinda district come to this hospital for
treatment because of convenient transportation with direct passenger trains. Another
advantage of Bikaner hospital is that it is opened through out the year. Even on public
holidays out patients are examined between 9am to 11am.


About MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Center, Hyderabad:

MNJ Institute of Oncology is an autonomous and non profit Institution under the
Government of Andhra Pradesh devoted to improving Cancer treatment, prevention,
education and research. The hospital has been given the status of Regional Cancer
Center by the Govt. of India in 1996.


This 250 bedded hospital was started in 1955 with donations from several

Philanthropists. This hospital is named after a major donor, Mehdi Nawaz Jung

Bahadur a Noble in the Nizam government and later a politician in independent India.




                                                                                                   13
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

It has been a beacon of hope to a number of Cancer patients from the state of Andhra
Pradesh and border districts of the states of Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and
Orissa.


Profile of Cancer patients studied

Cancer patients studied in Bikaner hospital(1026) are from Rajasthan and surrounding
states. The state wise breakup is from Rajasthan (479), Punjab (362) and Haryana (159)
states.


In Rajasthan majority of Cancer patients are from Bikaner, Sri Ganganagar, and
Hanumangarh and Churu districts. Similarly Punjab Cancer patients are from Bhatinda,
Mansa, Ferozpur, and Muktsar districts. From Haryana patients are from Sirsa, Hisar and
Bhiwani districts.


The detail list of states and their districts from which Cancer patients are coming to
Acharya Tulsi Regional Cancer Treatment and Research Institute for treatment is given
below.


Bikaner hospital patients:


                                            State                    N             %
                                      Rajasthan                     479           46.7
                                      Punjab                        363           35.4
                                      Haryana                       159           15.5
                                      Uttar Pradesh                  9             0.9
                                      Delhi                          5             0.5
                                      Bihar                          3             0.3
                                      Uttaranchal                    3             0.3
                                      Himachal Pradesh               2             0.2
                                      Nepal                          2             0.2
                                      Gujarat                        1             0.1
                                      Total                         1026          100




                                                                                                   14
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

                                     State                         District                   N
                                                           Deharadun                          1
                                                           Udham singh nagar                  1
                                 Uttaranchal
                                                           Haridwar                           1
                                                           Total                              3
                                                           Saharanpur                         2
                                                           Saharanagar                        1
                                                           Moradabad                          1
                                                           Faizabad                           1
                                Uttar Pradesh
                                                           Etawah                             2
                                                           Etah                               1
                                                           Benpuri                            1
                                                           Total                              9
                                                           Motihari                           1
                                      Bihar                Gaya                               2
                                                           Total                              3
                                      Delhi                Delhi                              5
                                                           Ahemadabad                         1
                                    Gujarat
                                                           Total                              1
                                                           Kailali                            2
                                     Nepal
                                                           Total                              2
                                                           Kangra                             2
                             Himachal Pradesh
                                                           Total                              2

Haryana Districts:


                                    Haryana Districts                   N            %
                                   Sirsa                                58          36.5
                                   Hisar                                33          20.8
                                   Bhiwani                              25          15.7
                                   Kaithal                              8            5.0
                                   Fatehabad                            8            5.0
                                   Panipat                              5            3.1
                                   Ambala                               3            1.9
                                   Jhajjar                              3            1.9
                                   Jind                                 8            5.0
                                   Karnal                               2            1.3
                                   Rohtak                               2            1.3
                                   Sonipat                              2            1.3
                                   Gurgaon                              1            0.6
                                   Yamunanagar                          1            0.6
                                   Total                               159          100




                                                                                                   15
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




Punjab Districts:


                                     Punjab Districts                 N            %
                                     Bhatinda                        100          27.6
                                     Mansa                            71          19.6
                                     Ferozpur                         49          13.5
                                     Muktsar                          40          11.0
                                     Faridkot                         22           6.1
                                     Sangrur                          22           6.1
                                     Moga                             17           4.7
                                     Patiala                          17           4.7
                                     Jalandhar                        8            2.2
                                     Ludhiana                         9            2.5
                                     Fatehgarh                        2            0.6
                                     Kapurtala                        2            0.6
                                     Raipur                           2            0.6
                                     Amritsar                         2            0.6
                                      Total                          362          100

Rajasthan districts:


                                   Rajasthan districts                   N            %
                                   Bikaner                              147          30.7
                                   Sri Ganganagar                       108          22.5
                                   Hanumangarh                           70          14.6
                                   Churu                                 53          11.1
                                   Nagaur                                38           7.9
                                   Jhunjhunu                             23           4.8
                                   Jodhpur                               12           2.5
                                   Sikar                                 10           2.1
                                   Jaisalmer                             4            0.8
                                   Jaipur                                3            0.6
                                   Bhilwara                              2            0.4
                                   Kota                                  2            0.4
                                   Pali                                  2            0.4
                                   Alwar                                 1            0.2
                                   Tonk                                  1            0.2
                                   Udaipur                               1            0.2
                                   Barmer                                1            0.2
                                   Bundi                                 1            0.2
                                   Total                                479          100




                                                                                                   16
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

All most all of the Cancer patients studied in MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional
Cancer center in Hyderabad are from Andhra Pradesh. Few of them were from Karnataka,
Maharasthra, Delhi and Orissa states.
          Cancer patients from all districts of AP are coming to MNJ hospital. Karnataka
patients are from Bidar, Gulbarga and Raichur districts. Maharasthra patients are from
Nanded, Latur and Mumbai. Orissa patient is from Koraput.


Place of Hyderabad hospital patients:


                                            State                   N             %
                                      Andhra Pradesh               987           98.3
                                      Delhi                         2             0.2
                                      Karnataka                     11            1.1
                                      Maharastra                    3             0.3
                                      Orissa                        1             0.1
                                      Total                        1004          100

Andhra Pradesh districts:


                                       Districts of AP               N             %
                                      Hyderabad                     122           12.4
                                      Nalgonda                      103           10.4
                                      Mahabubnagar                  96             9.7
                                      Warangal                      84             8.5
                                      Medak                         77             7.8
                                      Khammam                       68             6.9
                                      Ranga reddy                   68             6.9
                                      Kurnool                       56             5.7
                                      Nizamabad                     53             5.4
                                      Guntur                        39             4.0
                                      Krishna                       38             3.9
                                      East godavari                 29             2.9
                                      Karimnagar                    29             2.9
                                      Kadapa                        24             2.4
                                      Adilabad                      22             2.2
                                      Nellore                       20             2.0
                                      West godavari                 20             2.0
                                      Ananthapur                    15             1.5
                                      Prakasam                       7             0.7
                                      Vizag                          6             0.6
                                      Chittoor                       5             0.5
                                      Srikakulam                     4             0.4
                                      Vijayanagaram                  2             0.2
                                       Total                        987           100

                                                                                                   17
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                           State             District              N
                                                           Bidar                   9
                                                           Gulbarga                1
                                        Karnataka
                                                           Raichur                 1
                                                           Total                   11
                                                           Latur                   1
                                                           Mumbai                  1
                                       Maharastra
                                                           Nanded                  1
                                                           Total                   3
                                                           Koraput                 1
                                          Orissa
                                                           Total                   1




                                                                                                   18
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

                  IV CENTER WISE RESEARCH & ANLYSIS FINDINGS:

                              BIKANER AND HYDERABAD CENTRES



                           Segment            Sample size covered in each group

                                             Bikaner         Hyderabad                 Total
                           Males                574                330                   904
                           Females              452                674                  1126
                           Total               1026               1004                  2030


4.1 Gender wise Age Details


In both Bikaner and Hyderabad hospitals sizeable percentages of the Cancer patients
studied are in 31-45 and 46-60 years of age group. Gender wise details of the age is
illustrated below. It is to be noted that people who are affected with cancer are in most
productive age group


Bikaner:
     Age range in years                  Bikaner              %           Male           %         Female   %
    1-15                                    45                4.4          32            5.6          13     2.9
    16-30                                   99                9.6          57            9.9          42     9.3
    31-45                                  292               28.5         129           22.5         163    36.1
    46-60                                  394               38.4         220           38.3         174    38.5
    >60                                    196               19.1         136           23.7          60    13.3
    Total                                 1026               100          574           100          452    100


Hyderabad:
     Age range in years                Hyderabad              %           Male           %         Female    %
    1-15                                  38                  3.8          20            6.1          18     2.7
    16-30                                 135                13.4          48           14.5          87    12.9
    31-45                                 352                35.1         100           30.3         252    37.4
    46-60                                 367                36.6         112           33.9         255    37.8
    >60                                   112                11.2          50           15.2          62     9.2
    Total                                1004                100          330           100          674    100




                                                                                                                   19
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

4.2 Education level


The details of education levels of the patients are depicted gender wise in the analysis
findings.


4.2.1 Education levels in male patients


                                Table : Education levels in male patients

                       Education                      Bikaner            %         Hyderabad              %
              Illiterate                                281             49.0          155                47.0
              Can read & write                           85             14.8          35                 10.6
              Up to 7th class                            96             16.7          80                 24.2
              Up to 10th or Matriculate                  77             13.4          39                 11.8
              Intermediate                               13              2.3           8                  2.4
              Graduate                                   12              2.1           7                  2.1
              Post Graduate                              10              1.7           5                  1.5
              Ph.D                                       0                0            1                  0.3
              Total                                     574             100           330                100


From the above table it can be concluded that more number of Cancer patients are
illiterates or have only basic education of reading and writing at both Bikaner and
Hyderabad Cancer centers.


Patients      with     education        levels     above      10th     class/matriculate           are   of   insignificant
percentages.


4.2.3 Education levels of females


                               Table : Education levels in female patients

                        Education                      Bikaner           %         Hyderabad              %
              Illiterate                                 334            73.9             518             76.9
              Can read & write                            35             7.7             47               7.0
              Up to 7th class                             57            12.6             78              11.6
              Up to 10th or Matriculate                   19             4.2             20               3.0
              Intermediate                                3              0.7              6               0.9
              Graduate                                    2              0.4              0               0.0
              Post Graduate                               2              0.4              4               0.6
              Diploma                                     0               0               1               0.1
              Total                                      452            100              674             100



                                                                                                                        20
  Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

  Education levels in female patients are much lower than males. Majority of the female
  patients are total illiterates at both Bikaner and Hyderabad centers.


  As expected at Government Hospitals it is the illiterate, poor who are coming to this
  hospitals at both the places.



  4.3 Marital Status of the patients

                                                  Table: Marital status

                      Marital Status                    Bikaner            %         Hyderabad          %
                Unmarried                                  70              6.8          76              7.6
                Married                                   944             92.0          864            86.1
                Separated/divorced                         0                0            2              0.2
                Widowed                                    12              1.2          62              6.2
                Total                                    1026             100          1004            100


  Marital status of the patients was asked to know people with what kind of marital status
  are more prone to Cancer. Most of the patients are married at both Bikaner and
  Hyderabad Cancer centers.


  4.4 Occupation of the Cancer patient


                                            Table: Occupation of patient

                    Occupation                                                Bikaner           %     Hyderabad    %
Land owner but not Farming                                                        1            0.1        0        0.0
Land owner and farming                                                          369            36.0      189      18.8
Farmer but only tenant                                                            3            0.3        3       0.3
Works as agriculture labour                                                     195            19.0      358      35.7
Self Employed (Like Shop, mechanic, electrician etc.)                            43            4.2       83       8.3
Business                                                                         28            2.7        9       0.9
Employee-Govt                                                                    38            3.7        6       0.6
Employee-Private                                                                 26            2.5       19       1.9
Housewife                                                                       167            16.3      187      18.6
Retired- Unemployed                                                              28            2.7        9       0.9
Student                                                                          30            2.9       42       4.2
Not in labour force                                                              90            8.8       92       9.2
Others                                                                            8            0.8        7       0.7
Total                                                                          1026            100      1004      100




                                                                                                                  21
 Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




 At Bikaner hospital, around 54% of the Cancer patients are from agricultural occupation
 as farmers or labour. Significant percentage of the patients are farming one’s own land.
 Percentage of farmers is more than agriculture labour among patients at Bikaner hospital.


 As in Bikaner hospital almost equal percentages of Cancer patients are into agricultural
 occupation as farmers or labor and in Hyderabad hospital also. But agricultural labour are
 more than farmers at Hyderabad Cancer center.



 Besides agriculture, there are patients who are from other occupations like business,
 government/private employees etc. though                          their percentage is considerably less when
 compared to patients from agriculture profession, the incidence of cancer among them is
 equal or some times more than the agriculture profession.


 Next to agricultural occupation, percentage of house wives is observed to be more among
 patients at both the Cancer centers.



 4.5 Father’s /Husband’s occupation details

                         Table: Occupation of father/husband of the patient

                    Occupation                                                Bikaner           %     Hyderabad    %
Land owner but not Farming                                                        9            0.9        6        0.6
Land owner and farming                                                          630            61.4      304      30.3
Farmer but only tenant                                                            2            0.2        3        0.3
Works as agriculture labour                                                     229            22.3      418      41.6
Self Employed (Like Shop, mechanic, electrician etc.)                            42            4.1       104      10.4
Business                                                                         31            3.0       22        2.2
Employee-Govt                                                                    37            3.6       18        1.8
Employee-Private                                                                 24            2.3       29        2.9
Retired- Unemployed                                                              16            1.6       14        1.4
Not in labour force                                                               3            0.3       41        4.1
Others                                                                            3            0.3       38        3.8
Did not mention                                                                   0            0.0        7        0.7
Total                                                                          1026            100      1004      100


 At Bikaner Cancer center majority of the patient’s guardian occupation is reported to be

 farming in own land, followed by agriculture labour ( 22% ).


                                                                                                                  22
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




At Hyderabad Cancer hospital, more number of patient’s father/husband is in agriculture

as labour. This is closely followed by people who are in full scale farming.



5.6 Personal habits of the patients



Personal habits of the patients has been studied to find out if people having habits like

smoking, tobacco chewing or alcoholic are more prone to Cancer.

Among the three habits studied, smoking habit was admitted by more percentage of

patients followed by alcohol and tobacco chewing respectively. More percentages of

Hyderabad patients are addicted to these personal habits than patients of Bikaner Cancer

center.



The statistics of the three personal habits are explained below in detail.

4.6.1 Smoking habit in male patients




                                  Smoking habit among Cancer patients

               100

                 75           63.6
                                                                              48.5                       47.9
           %




                 50
                                                        31.9
                 25
                                         3      1.6                                     3.3        0.3
                  0
                                         Bikaner                                       Hyderabad
                                                       Frequency of smoking

                                 No      Occasional        Daily less than five          More than five

***Base: Bikaner: 574, Hyderabad: 330




                                                                                                                23
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



Significant percentage of patients admitted to be daily smoking more than five at both
Bikaner and Hyderabad Cancer centers. The above chart explains other frequencies of
smoking in detail.


Patients who smoke have been further asked about the type and number of years of
smoking.



                                                       Table: Type

                           Type              Bikaner            %         Hyderabad                 %
                       Beedi                   182             87.1          131                   77.1
                       Cigarette                15              7.2          27                    15.9
                       Chutta                   1               0.5           9                     5.3
                       Banggu                   5               2.4           2                     1.2
                       Others                   4               1.9           0                      0
                       No response              2               1.0           1                     0.6
                       Total                   209             100           170                   100

**Total: those who smoke



Among male patients who smoke most of them are Beedi smokers at both Bikaner and
Hyderabad hospitals. Percentages of cigarette and chutta smokers are more in Hyderabad
center compared to Bikaner.



                                        Table: No. of years of smoking


               No. of yr.s of smoking                 Bikaner            %         Hyderabad               %
              Less than 5 yrs                            8               3.8           1                   0.6
              5-10 yrs                                   4               1.9           0                    0
              10-15yrs                                   7               3.3           1                   0.6
              More than 15 yrs                           44             21.1          20                  11.8
              Stopped now                               140             67.0          147                 86.5
              No response                                6               2.9           1                   0.6
              Total                                     209             100           170                 100


**Total: those who smoke




                                                                                                                 24
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

About 67% of Bikaner Cancer patients and around 87% of Hyderabad patients reported to
have stopped smoking currently. Bikaner patients having smoking habit for above 15
years are nearly double the percentage of Hyderabad patients.


4.6.2 Tobacco chewing habit in males

4.6.2.1 Tobacco chewing habit in males


                       Tobacco chewing habit among male Cancer patients

               100            92.5
                                                                              86.7

                 75
           %




                 50

                 25                                                                                      12.1
                                                         5.7
                                         1        0.7                                   0.9        0.3
                  0
                                         Bikaner                                       Hyderabad
                                                        Frequency of chewing

                                             No     Occasional        Once a week           Daily

***Base: Bikaner: 574, Hyderabad: 330



Tobacco chewing habit is admitted by only a few male patients at both Bikaner and
Hyderabad. Slightly high percentage of Hyderabad patients has tobacco chewing habit
than Bikaner patients. Though tobacco chewing is more common among youngsters, it is
not reflected here as their percentage is small.


4.6.2.2 Tobacco chewing habit in females


                                Table: Tobacco chewing habit in females

                   Tobacco chewing                 Bikaner           %         Hyderabad              %
                  No                                 445            98.5          579                85.9
                  Occasional                          1              0.2           2                  0.3
                  Once a week                         0              0.0           1                  0.1
                  Daily                               6              1.3          92                 13.6
                  Total                              452            100           674                100




                                                                                                                25
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

Tobacco chewing habit is reported by negligible percentage of female patients at Bikaner
center. Around 14% of the female patients at Hyderabad hospital admitted to be chewing
tobacco orally.




4.6.2.3 Number of years of chewing habit

                                      No. of years of chewing in males

               No. of yr.s of chewing                 Bikaner            %         Hyderabad        %
              Less than 5 yrs                            3               7.0           1            2.3
              5-10 yrs                                   4               9.3           2            4.5
              10-15yrs                                   5              11.6           0            0.0
              More than 15 yrs                           11             25.6           5           11.4
              Stopped now                                20             46.5          36           81.8
              Total                                      43             100           44           100

**Total: those who chew tobacco



Nearly 47% of Bikaner female patients and 82% of Hyderabad male patients reported to
have stopped chewing tobacco now. Sizeable percentage of Bikaner males said to be
having this habit for more than 10 years.



Most of the female patients at Hyderabad Cancer center stopped tobacco chewing habit
currently. Other details are shown in below table.


                               Table: No. of years of chewing in females


               No. of yr.s of chewing                 Bikaner            %         Hyderabad        %
              Less than 5 yrs                            0               0.0           1            1.1
              5-10 yrs                                   3              42.9           4            4.2
              10-15yrs                                   0               0.0           6            6.3
              More than 15 yrs                           2              28.6          10           10.5
              Stopped now                                2              28.6          74           77.9
              Total                                      7              100           95           100

**Total: those who chew tobacco




                                                                                                          26
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers


4.6.3 Alcohol habit

4.6.3.1 Alcohol habit in males


More percentage of male Cancer patients at Hyderabad center admitted to be alcoholics
than patients at Bikaner center. Percentages of daily and occasional consumers of alcohol
are more than once a week consumers at both the centers.




                               Alcohol habit among male Cancer patients

               100             88

                 75                                                            68.8
           %




                 50

                 25                                                                                      18.5
                                                         6.3                           10.3
                                         4        1.7                                              2.4
                  0
                                         Bikaner                                       Hyderabad
                                                  Frequency of consuming alcohol

                                             No     Occasional        Once a week           Daily

***Base: Bikaner: 574, Hyderabad: 330




4.6.3.1 Alcohol habit in females


                          Table: Alcohol consumption frequency in women

                      Alcohol habit                     Bikaner          %         Hyderabad              %
               No                                         449           99.3             625             92.7
               Occasional                                  3             0.7             32               4.7
               Once a week                                 0             0.0              4               0.6
               Daily                                       0             0.0             13               1.9
               Total                                      452           100              674             100

All most all Bikaner female patients are non-alcoholics. Around 7% female patients of

Hyderabad center admitted to be consuming alcohol.

                                                                                                                27
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers


4.7 Blood relation spouse before marriage


                                          Table: Blood relation to wife

                                            Bikaner            %          Hyderabad                 %
                       Yes                     13             2.3             8                     2.4
                       No                     561             97.7           322                   97.6
                       Total                  574             100            330                   100




Only about 2% of the male patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Cancer hospitals reported
that they were blood related to their wife before marriage.


                                     Table: Blood relation to husbands

                                            Bikaner            %          Hyderabad                 %
                       Yes                     6              1.3             10                    1.5
                       No                     446             98.7           664                   98.5
                       Total                  452             100            674                   100


Except a few, no female patient is blood related to her husband before marriage at both

Bikaner and Hyderabad centers. Hence it can be concluded that consanguineous marriages

is not a reason for their Cancer.


4.8 Death of family members in the last 5 years


                                            Bikaner            %          Hyderabad                 %
                       Yes                     49             4.8             40                    4.0
                       No                     977             95.2           964                   96.0
                       Total                 1026             100           1004                   100


Only around 5% and 4% patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Cancer hospitals respectively
reported death of their family members in the last 5 years.


More percentages of Bikaner patients lost their father and mother and more percentages
of Hyderabad patients lost their father and husband in the last 5 years. The death of a
family member with any specific reason related to cancer is an important indication of ill



                                                                                                          28
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

health in the family. Certain diseases including cancer known to be running in families to
certain extent. However, no significant percentage of association could be established.



The details of other relations are given below.



                    Relationship with
                                                       Bikaner            %       Hyderabad        %
                         the patient
                   Father                                  18           36.7              6        15.0
                   Mother                                   7           14.3              4        10.0
                   Son                                      4           8.2               3         7.5
                   Uncle                                    3           6.1               3         7.5
                   Aunty                                    2           4.1               2         5.0
                   Brother-in-law                           3           6.1               1         2.5
                   Daughter                                 2           4.1               3         7.5
                   Husband                                  3           6.1               9        22.5
                   Sister                                   2           4.1               1         2.5
                   Brother                                  1           2.0               2         5.0
                   Grandfather                              1           2.0               2         5.0
                   Wife                                     1           2.0               0         0.0
                   Grand son                                0            0                1         2.5
                   Co-sister                                0            0                1         2.5
                   Grand son                                0            0                2         5.0
                   Did not mention                          2           4.1               0          0
                   Total                                   49           100              40        100




                                               Table: Cause of death

          Cause of death of the relative                    Bikaner            %         Hyderabad         %
         T.B                                                   1               2.0           0              0
         Heart diseases                                        1               2.0           0              0
         Accidental                                            3               6.1           4            10.0
         Old age/normal                                        18             36.7           8            20.0
         Cancer                                                14             28.6           8            20.0
         Paralysis/brain stroke                                0               0.0           1             2.5
         Heart Attack                                          0               0.0           3             7.5
         Jaundice                                              0               0.0           2             5.0
         Kidney problem                                        6              12.2           4            10.0
         Others                                                6              12.2          10            25.0
         Total                                                 49             100           40            100



Majority percentage of relatives of the Bikaner Cancer patients died normally due to old
age and another 29% of them died due to Cancer.

                                                                                                                 29
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



Similar percentage of Hyderabad patients reported that their relatives died in the last 5
years due to old age and Cancer.




Accidents and Kidney problem are other important causes of relative's death of Bikaner
patients. Kidney problem, accidents and Heart attack are other considerable reasons for
death of Hyderabad patient’s relatives.



                                               Table: Place of death

                      Place of death            Bikaner           %          Hyderabad              %
                     Residence                     40            81.6           30                 75.0
                     Hospital                      7             14.3            7                 17.5
                     Others                        1              2.0            3                  7.5
                     Did not mention               1              2.0            0                   0
                     Total                         49            100            40                 100




Most of the relatives of both Bikaner and Hyderabad patients died at residence in the last

5 years. Percentage of hospital deaths is less.


                                                Table: Year of death

                      Year of death            Bikaner            %         Hyderabad               %
                     5 years back                 18             36.7          11                  27.5
                     4 years back                 7              14.3           9                  22.5
                     3 years back                 9              18.4           6                  15.0
                     2 years back                 7              14.3           5                  12.5
                     Last year                    2               4.1           1                   2.5
                     This year                    4               8.2           7                  17.5
                     Did not mention              2               4.1           1                   2.5
                     Total                        49             100           40                  100


Substantial percentage of relatives of Bikaner patients and Hyderabad patients died 5
years back.




                                                                                                          30
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                          Table: If death related to Cancer, type of Cancer

                     Type of Cancer              Bikaner          %         Hyderabad               %
                    Breast                           4           28.6           1                  12.5
                    Mouth                            2           14.3           0                   0
                    Bone                             1            7.1           0                   0
                    Liver/Abdomen                    0            0.0           2                  25.0
                    Throat                           4           28.6           4                  50.0
                    Lung                             1            7.1           0                   0
                    Uterus                           2           14.3           1                  12.5
                    Total                           14           100            8                  100



More number of relatives of Bikaner patients died due to Cancer than relatives of
Hyderabad patients. Breast and Throat Cancer is reported as the type of Cancer of the
relatives by equal percentages of Bikaner patients.


Throat Cancer is the reason for death in half of the Cancer deaths of the relatives of
Hyderabad patients in the last 5 years. Other Cancers types of the relatives are
Liver/Abdomen, Breast and Uterus.


Throat cancer is more common type of cancer both at Hyderabad and Bikaner. Even the
few relatives of the patients who died of cancer were found to have died of cancer of Head
and Neck region.




4.9 Details of Cancer types of the patients studied

Cancer can originate from any organ or part of the body. The patients have been asked
about their type to find out which Cancer is more prevalent.


Throat, Liver/Abdomen and Mouth Cancer is recorded in more number of male patients.
Breast, Uterus, Throat and Liver/Abdomen Cancer types are reported by more number of
female patients. The details of Cancer types of the patients, number of years of treatment,
symptoms observed by patients are illustrated in this section.




                                                                                                          31
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



4.9.1 Male respondents type of Cancer




                                    Types of Cancer among male patients
           100
            75
                                           38
       %




            50                                                                             27 29
                                      20                                          17
            25        5 7 11 4                  3 5 7 0.2 0.2             3 3          8           2 3 8 0 0
              0
                                       Bikaner                                             Hyderabad
                                                             Cancer types


                  Chest                             Blood                              Mouth
                  Bone                              Liver/abdomen                      Throat
                  Skin                              Lung                               Others
                  Head                              Liver/abdomen &blood
**Base: Bikaner: 574, Hyderabad: 330



Throat Cancer is the major Cancer type among male patients in Bikaner hospital followed
by Liver/Abdomen Cancer in 20% patients. Mouth Cancer is in about 11% male patients.
Male patients with other types of Cancer types are of less percentage.


29% of male patients are suffering with Throat Cancer and around 27% patients have
Liver/Abdomen Cancer at Hyderabad Cancer center.


Mouth and Liver/Abdomen Cancer types are reported by slightly more percentages of
Hyderabad male patients. Throat Cancer is more in Bikaner patients by about 9%.


The incidence of cancer head and neck region among males is the leading cause. This is
observed equally in both regions. Though our sample duration is only 10 days, as similar
observation is made during one full year data collection by Bikaner Hospital and cancer
atlas India. (Ref Bikaner data and cancer atlas data in Annexure)




                                                                                                               32
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers


4.9.2 Female respondents type of Cancer

                                      Cancer types among female patients

            100
             75
                                                                                                     41
        %



             50       28                      30
                                                                          18           15 11
             25             4 5 3 10 13 1.31.5   4 0.2                         2.4 7 3       0.60.6       3 0
              0
                                        Bikaner                                          Hyderabad
                                                              Cancer types

               Breast                             Blood                              Mouth
               Bone                               Liver/abdomen                      Throat
               Skin                               Lung                               Uterus
               Others                             Liver/abdomen & throat

***Base: Bikaner: 452, Hyderabad: 674



Breast and Uterus Cancer is reported in more number of female patients at both Bikaner
and Hyderabad Cancer centers. Overall, Uterus Cancer is observed in slightly more
percentage of females than Breast Cancer. Uterus Cancer is reported by slightly more
percentage of Hyderabad patients and Breast Cancer is recorded in about 10% more
patients of Bikaner hospital.


The high incidence of cancer uterus and breast among females is as per the national
cancer index and also corroborates one year statistics from Bikaner Hospital, where our
percentages are substantiated.




                                                                                                                33
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




4.9.3 Duration of suffering with Cancer


                                         Period of suffering with Cancer

            100                                93.3                                                89.5
                     80.5                                                 77
             80
             60
        %




             40
                          12.9                                                 14.4
             20               4.4 2.3                5.2 0.6 0.9                   4.4 4.2            7.1
                                                                                                            1.3 2.1
               0
                           Bikaner                Hyderabad                    Bikaner              Hyderabad

                                   Male patients                                     Female patients
                                                           Priod of suffering

                       Below 1 yr       Between 1 and 2 yrs             Between 3 and 5 yrs           Above 5 yrs

*Base: males: Bikaner: 574, Hyderabad: 330, Females: Bikaner: 452, Hyderabad: 674




Most of the male and female patients are suffering with Cancer for a period of less than 1
year at both Bikaner and Hyderabad centers.



4.9.4 Period of treatment


Period of treatment is less than 1 year for most of the male and females at both the
hospitals. The details of period of treatment for male patients and female patients is
shown in the below table.
The reason being, the cancers which has a good 5 year survival rate, need not be treated
beyond one year.



                                           Table: Period of treatment

                                                     Males in %                         Females in %
            Period of treatment
                                                Bikaner Hyderabad                    Bikaner   Hyderabad
        Below 1 yr                                86.8       96.1                      85.8        93.5
        Between 1 and 2 yrs                       10.3        2.4                      8.6         4.5
        Between 3 and 5 yrs                        2.1        0.9                      3.5         0.7
        Above 5 yrs                                0.9        0.6                      2.0         1.3
        Total                                     574         330                      452         674

                                                                                                                      34
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers


4.10 Symptoms of Cancer observed in patients

The signs and symptoms of Cancer depend upon the body part affected by the disease.
The primary tumour or the spread of tumour to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body
may cause symptoms. In general, Cancer has a tendency to start as a nodule or mass of
tissue, which keeps on growing. With further growth, Cancers, which affect external or
internal body surfaces, can from wounds or ulcers leading to dirty discharge, bleeding etc.


Different symptoms observed in the patients are illustrated in this section.


4.10.1 Symptoms observed in male patients

                     Symptoms                         Bikaner            %         Hyderabad        %
              Loss of appetite                          105             18.3          55           16.7
              Loss of weight                            108             18.8          14            4.2
              Fever and cough                           132             23.0          107          32.4
              Head ache                                  11              1.9           7            2.1
              Non healing ulcer                          17              3.0           8            2.4
              Any other symptoms                        236             41.1          151          45.8
              Severe Pain                                5               0.9           0             0
              Total                                    574**                         330**

**multiple responses, so Total won’t tally to 100%


Continuous fever and dry cough is reported by considerable percentage of male patients of
both Bikaner and Hyderabad centers. Other symptoms observed are loss of appetite, loss
of weight, non healing ulcers, severe pain, blood motions, blood vomiting etc.


4.10.2 Symptoms observed in female patients

                     Symptoms                         Bikaner            %         Hyderabad        %
              Loss of appetite                           78             17.3          51            7.6
              Loss of weight                             54             11.9          19            2.8
              Bleeding                                   85             18.8          231          34.3
              Fever and cough                            73             16.2          140          20.8
              Head ache                                  5               1.1           7            1.0
              Non healing ulcer                          20              4.4           6            0.9
              Any other symptoms                        175             38.7          238          35.3
              Pain                                       5               1.1           0             0
              Total                                    452**                         674**


**multiple responses, so Total % won’t tally to 100%


                                                                                                          35
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



Heavy bleeding, loss of appetite, continuous fever and cough are recorded in more
number of female patients of Bikaner center. Sizeable percentage of female patients at
Hyderabad hospital reported heavy bleeding, continuous fever and unbearable cough as
the symptoms faced by them.


White discharge, dissimilar size of breasts, loss of sensation in breasts and severe low
back pain are the other symptoms complained by female patients at both hospitals.




4.11 Treatment in another hospital

                                        Bikaner           %          Hyderabad              %
                             Yes          576            56.1           659                65.6
                             No           450            43.9           345                34.4
                             Total       1026            100           1004                100



Majority of the patients had prior treatment in another hospital before getting treatment
at current study hospitals of Bikaner and Hyderabad. They were local government or
private hospitals not necessarily specialty hospitals for Cancer treatment.



4.12 Reason for choosing current study hospital for Cancer treatment


                   Table: Reason for choosing hospital for Cancer treatment

                   Reasons                                           Bikaner           %           Hyderabad    %
Very near                                                              120            11.7            43       4.3
There is no other hospital for Cancer                                    9            0.9              3       0.3
treatment
Local doctors suggested                                                614            59.8            648      64.5
Low cost treatment                                                     341            33.2            44        4.4
Very good doctors                                                      240            23.4            211      21.0
My relatives/friends suggested                                         246            24.0            126      12.5
Popular hospital                                                       287            28.0            102      10.2
Good transport and Dharmasala                                            1            0.1              1        0.1
No response                                                             63            6.1              0         0
Total                                                                1026**                         1004**

**multiple responses, so Total % won’t tally to 100%


                                                                                                                      36
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




Majority of the patients are coming to current study hospitals of Bikaner and Hyderabad
on the suggestion of their local doctors.


Other reasons quoted by considerable percentage of Bikaner patients are ‘low cost
treatment, ‘good doctors’, ‘friends/ relatives suggested’ and ‘popular hospital’.


Others reasons mentioned by Hyderabad patients for their choosing the hospital for
Cancer treatment are ‘good doctors’, ‘friends/relatives suggested’, and ‘popular hospital’.



4.13 Specific details related to female patients

Details like marriage age, number of deliveries and gynaec complaints among female
patients are enquired to find out whether stress of early marriages, more deliveries and
gynaec problems is influencing the chances of Cancer in women.


                                              Table: Age at marriage

                  Age at marriage                     Bikaner            %         Hyderabad        %
              <18 years                                 331             75.2          335          52.3
              18-22 years                               105             23.9          303          47.3
              22-25 years                                3               0.7           2            0.3
              Above 25 years                             1               0.2           1            0.2
              Total                                     440             100           641          100




Age of marriage of females is very less among Bikaner patients than Hyderabad patients.
Nearly three fourths of the Bikaner female patients got married below 18 years, while that
percentage is 52% in Hyderabad patients.


Another substantial percentage of women patients of both centers got married between
18-22 years.



Hence it can be concluded that majority of the female patients got married at an early
age.




                                                                                                          37
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



More than half of the female patients of Bikaner hospital had more than three deliveries
and another 23% of them had three deliveries. Even in Hyderabad hospital more number
of them had above three deliveries.



                            Number of deliveries in female Cancer patients

                  100

                    75
                                                            51
                                                                                                        43
              %




                    50
                                                     23                                            26
                    25                        16                                           18
                                 3      6                                     5      8
                     0
                                            Bikaner                                  Hyderabad
                                                           No. of deliveries

                                        None       One     Two       Three        More than three

***Base: Bikaner: 452, Hyderabad: 674


This indicates that majority of the female patients have under gone the pressure of early
marriage and more deliveries.


                                            Table: Gynaec complaints

                 Gynaec complaints                    Bikaner            %         Hyderabad             %
              Heavy bleeding                             37              8.4          96                15.0
              White discharge                            4               0.9          115               17.9
              Low back pain                              15              3.4          23                 3.6
              Low abdomen pain                           7               1.6          12                 1.9
              Bleeding after intercourse                 1               0.2           3                 0.5
              Itching in private parts                   0               0.0           0                  0
              Irregular periods                          1               0.2           4                 0.6
              None                                      379             86.1          421               65.7
              Total                                    440**                         641**

**multiple responses, so Total % won’t tally to 100%



Most of the patients at Bikaner hospital reported that they do not have any kind of
Gynaec complaint. Only few of them reported heavy bleeding and low back pain.




                                                                                                               38
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

Majority of the Hyderabad patients said that they do not have Gynaec problems. But
around 18% of them complained of white discharge and nearly 15% have the problem of
heavy bleeding.




    V RESEARCH & ANALYSIS FINDINGS: COMPARISON OF TYPES OF
                    CANCER WITH OTHER INFLUENCING FACTORS

Types of Cancer of patients studied are further compared with their age, occupation and
area of living to draw a clear sketch of the Cancer patients. This would help to identify
which age group, which occupations and which living area is more afflicted to prevalent
Cancer types.


The analysis findings of the comparisons are explained in this section.


5.1 Gender wise comparison of Cancer types with patient’s age


5.1.1 Cancer type Vs 31-45 years age patients at Bikaner hospital


            Cancer type                      Total          %         Males           %            Females    %
      Breast/Chest                            59           20.2         7            5.4             52      31.9
      Blood                                   14           4.8          7            5.4              7      4.3
      Mouth                                   24           8.2          17           13.2             7       4.3
      Bone                                     7           2.4          3            2.3              4      2.5
      Liver/Abdomen                           42           14.4         28           21.7            14      8.6
      Throat                                  70           24.0         51           39.5            19      11.7
      Skin                                     3           1.0          2            1.6              1      0.6
      Lung                                     8           2.7          7            5.4              1      0.6
      Uterus                                  52           17.8         0            0.0             52      31.9
      Others                                  11           3.8          6            4.7              5      3.1
      Head                                     1           0.3          1            0.8              0      0.0
      Liver/Abdomen & Throat                   1           0.3          0             0.0             1       0.6
      Total                                   292          100         129           100             163     100


At Bikaner hospital about 40% of the middle age male patients are suffering with Throat
Cancer followed by Liver/Abdomen Cancer in nearly 22% patients. Significant percentage
of mid age females is suffering with Breast and Uterus Cancer.




                                                                                                                    39
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




5.1.2 Cancer type Vs 46-60 years age patients at Bikaner hospital


         Cancer type                     Total            %           Males           %            Females       %
   Breast/Chest                            58            14.7          11            5.0              47        27.0
   Blood                                   12            3.0            7            3.2              5         2.9
   Mouth                                   33            8.4           24            10.9             9          5.2
   Bone                                    11            2.8            8            3.6              3         1.7
   Liver/Abdomen                           61            15.5          39            17.7             22        12.6
   Throat                                 123            31.2          100           45.5             23        13.2
   Skin                                    9             2.3            6            2.7              3         1.7
   Lung                                    14            3.6           10            4.5              4         2.3
   Uterus                                  51            12.9           0            0.0              51        29.3
   Others                                  21            5.3           14            6.4              7         4.0
   Blood & Liver/Abdomen                   1             0.3            1             0.5              0         0.0
   Total                                  394            100           220           100             174        100



Nearly 46% male patients who are of 46-60 years age are afflicted to Throat Cancer.


Slightly high percentage of male patients between 46-60years of age is suffering with
Throat Cancer than male patients of 31-45 years. Nearly 4% more 31-45 years male
patients are having Liver/Abdomen Cancer than 46-60 years patients at Bikaner.


Percentage of patients with Breast and Uterus Cancers is slightly reduced in 46-60 years
of females compared to 31-45 years age females at Bikaner center.



5.1.3 Cancer type Vs 31-45 years age patients at Hyderabad hospital


           Cancer type              Total            %           Males           %         Females        %
          Breast/Chest               62             17.6           4             4.0         58          23.0
          Blood                       6             1.7            3             3.0          3           1.2
          Mouth                      30             8.5            21           21.0          9           3.6
          Bone                       13             3.7            10           10.0          3           1.2
          Liver/Abdomen              63             17.9           30           30.0         33          13.1
          Throat                     49             13.9           20           20.0         29          11.5
          Skin                        4             1.1            3             3.0          1           0.4
          Lung                        5             1.4            4             4.0          1           0.4
          Uterus                     113            32.1           0             0.0         113         44.8
          Others                      7             2.0            5             5.0          2           0.8
           Total                     352            100           100           100          252         100


                                                                                                                       40
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




More number of male patients between 31-45 years is afflicted with Liver/Abdomen
Cancer followed by Mouth and Throat Cancers. Uterus Cancer is recorded in nearly 45% of
the women patients between 31-45 years.


Throat Cancer is reported by slightly more percentage of Bikaner male patients who are in
the same age group. Presence of Liver/Abdomen and Mouth Cancer is slightly high in
Hyderabad male patients of 31-45 years.


Similarly percentage of Uterus Cancer patients of 31-45 years is slightly more at
Hyderabad center.             Slightly less percentage of them is suffering with Breast Cancer
compared to Bikaner women patients of 31-45 years.


5.1.4 Cancer type Vs 46-60 years age patients at Hyderabad hospital


Nearly equal percentages of male patients at Hyderabad hospital who are between 46-60
years of age are afflicted to Throat and Liver/Abdomen Cancers. Mouth Cancer is reported
by another considerable percentage.


Uterus Cancer is recorded in about 45% females of 46-60 years. Liver/Abdomen Cancer is
observed is marginally more percentage of patients than Breast Cancer.


           Cancer type              Total            %           Males           %          Females    %
          Breast/Chest               42             11.4           2            1.8           40      15.7
          Mouth                      45             12.3           24           21.4          21       8.2
          Bone                       11             3.0            8            7.1            3       1.2
          Liver/Abdomen              80             21.8           35           31.3          45      17.6
          Throat                     57             15.5           34           30.4          23       9.0
          Skin                        2             0.5            1            0.9            1       0.4
          Lung                        5             1.4            3            2.7            2       0.8
          Uterus                     115            31.3           0            0.0           115     45.1
          Others                     10             2.7            5            4.5            5       2.0
           Total                     367            100           112           100           255     100


Throat Cancer is recorded in slightly less percentage of male patients of 31-45 years than
patients of 46-60 years. Almost equal percentages of both age groups are afflicted to
Mouth and Liver/Abdomen Cancers at Hyderabad.


                                                                                                             41
           Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



           Almost equal percentages of women patients in both age groups are suffering with Uterus
           Cancer. Breast Cancer and Throat is reported by slightly high percentage of


           Women at 31-45 years compared to 46-60years age women.                                         The scenario is vice-a-
           versa for Liver/Abdomen Cancer.


           When compared between Hyderabad and Bikaner patients of 41-60 years, the same
           scenario of 31-45 years age patients is repeated in both males and females.


           5.2 Gender wise comparison of Cancer types with patient’s occupation


           Occupation of the patients is compared with their Cancer type to find out whether any
           particular type of Cancer is prevalent among farming community. This comparison has
           been done gender wise and hospital wise.


           From the comparison it is observed that more number of male patients are suffering with
           Throat, Liver/Abdomen and Mouth Cancers irrespective of their occupation.
           The findings are furnished in this section in detail.


           5.2.1 Cancer type Vs Occupation in male patients of Bikaner Hospital

           More percentage of male patients in each occupation is afflicted to Throat Cancer, except
           tenant      famers and          students. Liver/Abdomen                 Cancer is reported                by    considerable
           percentages of male patients of Bikaner center, who are land owners and farmers, farmers
           in rented land, self employed and not in labour force.

                                 Tota
         Cancer Type                        1         2        3        4         5        6         7         8      10       11    12     13
                                   l
Chest                             4.7      0.0       5.9      0.0      1.0       7.7     10.5      0.0        5.6     3.6     4.3    4.5    16.7
Blood                             6.6      0.0       5.9      0.0      5.8       7.7      5.3      5.9        0.0     3.6     26.1   9.1    0.0
Mouth                            11.3      0.0       9.8     33.3      15.4     17.9      0.0      17.6       22.2    0.0     8.7    9.1    0.0
Bone                              4.4      0.0       3.9      0.0      1.9       5.1      0.0      2.9        5.6     17.9    13.0   2.3    0.0
Liver/Abdomen                    19.7      0.0      25.5     33.3      9.6      30.8     15.8      14.7       11.1    14.3    4.3    20.5   16.7
Throat                           38.3      0.0      40.4      0.0      41.3     20.5     36.8      44.1       27.8    42.9    17.4   45.5   50.0
Skin                              2.8      0.0       1.6      0.0      2.9       0.0     10.5      0.0        16.7    3.6     8.7    2.3    0.0
Lung                              4.9      0.0       2.7      0.0      9.6       7.7     15.8      5.9        0.0     7.1     0.0    2.3    0.0
Others                            7.0      100       3.5     33.3      12.5      2.6      5.3      8.8        11.1    7.1     17.4   4.5    16.7
Head                              0.2      0.0       0.4      0.0      0.0       0.0      0.0      0.0        0.0     0.0     0.0    0.0    0.0
Blood & Liver/Abdomen             0.2      0.0       0.4      0.0      0.0       0.0      0.0      0.0        0.0     0.0     0.0    0.0    0.0
Total                             574        1      255        3       104       39        19       34        18      28       23    44      6



                                                                                                                                     42
    Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

    ***Occupation codes: 1: Land owner, but not farming 2: Land owner and farming 3:
    Farmer but only tenant, 4: Works as agriculture labour, 5: Self Employed (Like Shop,
    mechanic, electrician etc.), 6: Business, 7: Employee-Govt, 8: Employee-Private, 10: Retired /Unemployed, 11:
    Student, 12: Not in labour force 13: Others




    5.2.2 Cancer type Vs Occupation in female patients of Bikaner Hospital


    Except students and business women, substantial percentages of patients from all other
    occupations are suffering with Uterus Cancer.                        Sizeable percentages of women from all
    occupations other than students and who are not in labour force are afflicted to Breast
    Cancer.


    More number of female students reported Bone Cancer, followed by Liver/Abdomen
    Cancer.



     Cancer types                   Total        2        4         5        6         7        8        9     11     12     13
Chest / Breast                      27.9       21.1     28.6      25.0     55.6      25.0     25.0     34.1    0.0   19.6   50.0
Blood                                3.8        2.6      6.6       0.0     11.1       0.0      0.0      3.0    0.0    2.2   50.0
Mouth                                5.1        5.3      2.2       0.0     11.1       0.0     12.5      5.4    0.0    8.7    0.0
Bone                                 2.9        2.6      2.2       0.0      0.0       0.0      0.0      3.0   42.9    0.0    0.0
Liver/Abdomen                       10.4       13.2      9.9       0.0     11.1      25.0      0.0     10.2   28.6    4.3    0.0
Throat                              12.8        9.6     11.0      25.0      0.0      25.0     25.0     13.2    0.0   23.9    0.0
Skin                                 1.3        1.8      1.1       0.0      0.0       0.0      0.0      0.0   14.3    4.3    0.0
Lung                                 1.5        0.0      0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0     12.5      2.4   14.3    2.2    0.0
Uterus                              29.6       39.5     34.1      50.0     11.1      25.0     25.0     24.6    0.0   23.9    0.0
Others                               4.4        3.5      4.4       0.0      0.0       0.0      0.0      4.2    0.0   10.9    0.0
Liver/Abdomen & Throat               0.2        0.9      0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0      0.0      0.0    0.0    0.0    0.0
Total                                452       114       91         4        9         4        8      167      7     46      2


    ***Occupation codes: 2: Land owner and farming 4: Works as agriculture labour, 5:
    Self Employed (Like Shop, mechanic, electrician etc.), 6: Business, 7: Employee-Govt,
    8: Employee-Private, 9: Housewife, 11: Student, 12: Not in labour force, 13: Others




                                                                                                                        43
  Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers


  5.2.3 Cancer type Vs Occupation in male patients of Hyderabad Hospital


  Not only farmers, substantial percentage of male patients with other occupations are also
  affected to Throat, Liver/Abdomen and Mouth Cancers.


  The details are furnished in the below table.

  Cancer types             Total         2        4         5        6         7        8        10      11     12     13
  Chest                     3.0         6.7      1.1       3.6      0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0     0.0    3.1    0.0
  Blood                     2.7         0.0      1.1       3.6      0.0       0.0      8.3       0.0    19.2    0.0    0.0
  Mouth                    17.3        11.2     21.1      25.5     12.5      33.3     16.7      22.2     0.0   25.0    0.0
  Bone                      7.6         7.9      6.7       9.1     25.0      33.3      0.0       0.0    15.4    0.0    0.0
  Liver/Abdomen            27.3        29.2     26.7      25.5     12.5      33.3     50.0      22.2    15.4   31.3   33.3
  Throat                   28.8        30.3     36.7      23.6     25.0       0.0     16.7      44.4    19.2   21.9   33.3
  Skin                      2.1         2.2      2.2       1.8      0.0       0.0      8.3       0.0     0.0    3.1    0.0
  Lung                      3.3         5.6      2.2       1.8     12.5       0.0      0.0       0.0     0.0    6.3    0.0
  Others                    7.9         6.7      2.2       5.5     12.5       0.0      0.0      11.1    30.8    9.4   33.3
  Total                     330         89       90        55        8         3       12         9      26     32      6

  ***Occupation codes: 2: Land owner and farming 4: Works as agriculture labour, 5:
  Self Employed (Like Shop, mechanic, electrician etc.), 6: Business, 7: Employee-Govt,
  8: Employee-Private, 10: Unemployed, 11: Student, 12: Not in labour force, 13: others.


  5.2.3 Cancer type Vs Occupation in female patients of Hyderabad Hospital

 Cancer types           Total        2         3        4        5        6        7         8         9     11     12    13
Breast                  18.0       23.0       0.0     14.2     25.0      0.0      0.0       0.0      25.1    0.0   10.0   0.0
Blood                    2.4        0.0       0.0      3.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      14.3       1.6   25.0    0.0   0.0
Mouth                    6.8        5.0       0.0      7.5     10.7      0.0      0.0       0.0       5.3    6.3   11.7   0.0
Bone                     2.5        3.0       0.0      1.1      0.0      0.0      0.0       0.0       3.2    6.3    6.7   0.0
Liver/Abdomen           14.5       22.0      33.3     16.8      0.0      100     33.3      14.3      10.2    6.3   11.7   0.0
Throat                  10.5       11.0       0.0      9.7     17.9      0.0      0.0      14.3      11.2   18.8    6.7   0.0
Skin                     0.6        1.0       0.0      0.4      0.0      0.0      0.0       0.0       0.5    6.3    0.0   0.0
Lung                     0.6        1.0       0.0      0.7      0.0      0.0      0.0       0.0       0.5    0.0    0.0   0.0
Uterus                  41.4       33.0      66.7     45.9     46.4      0.0     66.7      42.9      40.1    0.0   46.7   0.0
Others                   2.7        1.0       0.0      0.7      0.0      0.0      0.0      14.3       2.1   31.3    6.7   100
Total                    674       100         3      268       28        1        3         7       187     16     60     1

  ***Occupation codes:                  2: Land        owner and farming 3: Farmer but only tenant, 4:
  Works as agriculture labour, 5: Self Employed (Like Shop, mechanic, electrician etc.), 6:
  Business, 7: Employee-Govt, 8: Employee-Private, 9: Housewife, 11: Student, 12: Not in
  labour force 13: Others




                                                                                                                          44
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



Considerable percentages of female patients at Hyderabad center are diagnosed with
Breast Cancer, who are farmers and land owners, self employed and house wife.


Hyderabad patients other than students and business women, females of all occupations
are afflicted to Uterus Cancer.


5.3 Gender wise comparison of Cancer types with patients who are farmers and land
owners

Prevalence of Cancer types among patients who are farmers and land owners have been
studied to find out the prominent Cancer type among them.


5.3.1 Land owner and farming Vs Cancer type


       Cancer types                      Total          %          Bikaner           %             Hyderabad    %
 Breast                                    68          12.2           39            10.6              29       15.3
 Blood                                     18          3.2            18             4.9               0        0.0
 Mouth                                     46          8.2            31             8.4              15        7.9
 Bone                                      23          4.1            13             3.5              10        5.3
 Liver/Abdomen                            128          22.9           80            21.7              48       25.4
 Throat                                   152          27.2          114            30.9              38       20.1
 Skin                                      9           1.6            6              1.6               3        1.6
 Lung                                      13          2.3            7              1.9               6        3.2
 Uterus                                    78          14.0           45            12.2              33       17.5
 Others                                    20          3.6            13             3.5               7        3.7
 Head                                      1           0.2            1              0.3               0        0.0
 Blood & Liver/Abdomen                     1           0.2            1              0.3               0        0.0
 Liver/Abdomen & Throat                    1           0.2            1              0.3               0        0.0
 Total                                    558          100           369            100               189      100



Cancer types like Throat, Liver/Abdomen, Breast and Uterus are reported more among the
land owner and farming patients at both centers.


Percentage of Throat Cancer patients is slightly high in patients of farmers with own land
at Bikaner center than counter parts of Hyderabad hospital. Incidence of other Cancer
types like Liver/Abdomen, Breast and Uterus is more in Hyderabad patients.




                                                                                                                      45
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




5.3.2 Land owner and farming Vs Cancer type of Bikaner patients



                       Cancer types                        Male            %          Female            %
                 Breast                                     15            5.9            24            21.1
                 Blood                                      15            5.9            3              2.6
                 Mouth                                      25            9.8            6              5.3
                 Bone                                       10            3.9            3              2.6
                 Liver/Abdomen                              65            25.5           15            13.2
                 Throat                                    103            40.4           11             9.6
                 Skin                                        4            1.6            2              1.8
                 Lung                                        7            2.7            0              0.0
                 Uterus                                      0            0.0            45            39.5
                 Others                                      9            3.5            4              3.5
                 Head                                        1            0.4            0              0.0
                 Blood & Liver/Abdomen                       1            0.4            0              0.0
                 Liver/Abdomen & Throat                      0            0.0            1              0.9
                  Total                                    255            100           114            100


Throat Cancer is diagnosed in about 40% of male patients who own land and are into
farming. One-fourth of them are ill with Liver/Abdomen Cancer. Uterus Cancer in 40% and
Breast Cancer in 21% patients are the major Cancer types diagnosed in female land
owners and farmers of Bikaner center.



5.3.3 Land owner and farming Vs Cancer type of Hyderabad patients


                     Land owner and farming Vs Cancer type of Hyderabad
                                          patients

            50
            40                       29 30                                                                  33
            30                                                            23             22
        %




            20             11 8                                                               11
                       7                       2    6          7                5    3
            10                                           0                                         1    1        1
             0
                                        Male                                              Female
                                                          Type of Cancer

        Breast/Chest           Mouth                    Bone                   Liver/abdomen           Throat
        Skin                   Lung                     Uterus                 Others

***Base: Male patients: 89, Female patients: 100



                                                                                                                     46
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




Throat, Liver/Abdomen and Mouth Cancer are reported by more number of male Cancer
patients of Hyderabad center who are farmers and land owners. Besides Uterus and Breast
Cancer, Liver/Abdomen Cancer is diagnosed by considerable percentage of female patients
who are farmers and land owners.



5.4 Gender wise comparison of Cancer types with patients who are agricultural labours
Prevalence of Cancer types among patients who are agricultural labour is studied to find
out the predominant Cancer type among them.



5.4.1 Agricultural labour Vs Cancer type


                                       Agricultural labour Vs Cancer type

            50
            40                                                                                              34
                                            27
            30                                                                             19 17
        %




                    14                                   16
            20                9        10                      9         11       11
                          6                          5
            10                     2             2                            3        3            1   1        1
             0
                                       Bikaner                                          Hyderabad
                                                              Cancer types

       Breast      Blood      Mouth      Bone     Liver/abdomen         Throat      Skin     Lung   Uterus       Others

**Base: Bikaner: 195 Hyderabad: 358



Percentages of Uterus Cancer and Liver/Abdomen Cancer are nearly double among
patients who are into agricultural labour at Hyderabad compared to Bikaner center.




                                                                                                                          47
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers


5.4.2 Agriculture labour Vs Cancer type of Bikaner patients


                          Agriculture labour Vs Cancer type of Bikaner patients

            50                               41
            40                                                                                                34
                                                                           29
            30
        %




                               15                              13
            20                          10            10                                     10 11
                           6                      3                             7                                  4
            10        1             2                      0                        2    2            1   0
             0
                                        Male                                                 Female
                                                               Cancer type

         Breast                 Blood                  Mouth                    Bone                  Liver/abdomen
         Throat                 Skin                   Lung                     Uterus                Others

***Base: Male patients: 104, Female patients: 91


More percentage of male patients who work as agriculture labour are suffering with Throat
and Mouth Cancers at Bikaner hospital. Uterus, Breast and Throat Cancer is diagnosed in
more number of female agriculture labour.


5.4.3 Agriculture labour Vs Cancer type of Hyderabad patients


Mouth and Liver/Abdomen Cancer is diagnosed in slightly high percentages of male
patients at Hyderabad center who are from agricultural labour than their counter parts in
Bikaner hospital. In female patients of Hyderabad hospital who work as agriculture
labours, incidence of Uterus and Liver/Abdomen Cancer is slightly more than Bikaner.




                          Cancer types            Male               %          Female              %
                          Breast                    1               1.1           38               14.2
                          Blood                     1               1.1            8                3.0
                          Mouth                    19               21.1          20                7.5
                          Bone                      6               6.7            3                1.1
                          Liver/Abdomen            24               26.7          45               16.8
                          Throat                   33               36.7          26                9.7
                          Skin                      2               2.2            1                0.4
                          Lung                      2               2.2            2                0.7
                          Uterus                    0               0.0           123              45.9
                          Others                    2               2.2            2                0.7
                          Total                    90               100           268              100




                                                                                                                       48
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

5.5 Gender wise comparison of Cancer types with patients who are into occupations other
than agriculture

5.5.1 Other occupations Vs Cancer type


         Cancer types              Total         %         Bikaner           %          Hyderabad    %
         Breast / Chest             150         16.4          87            19.0           63       13.9
         Blood                      41          4.49          25             5.4           16        3.5
         Mouth                      87          9.53          38             8.3           49       10.8
         Bone                       44          4.82          21             4.6           23        5.1
         Liver/Abdomen              130         14.2          60            13.1           70       15.4
         Throat                     180         19.7         111            24.2           69       15.2
         Skin                       17          1.86          12             2.6            5        1.1
         Lung                       23          2.52          18             3.9            5        1.1
         Uterus                     179         19.6          58            12.6           121      26.7
         Others                     62          6.79          29             6.3           33        7.3
          Total                     913         100          459            100            454      100



No Cancer type is reported by statistically valid percentage of patients who are into other
occupations apart from agriculture. Even in them Throat, Liver/Abdomen, Breast and
Uterus Cancer types are diagnosed more.


5.5.2 Other occupations Vs Cancer type of Bikaner male patients

Throat and Liver/Abdomen Cancer types are recorded in more percentage of Bikaner male
patients who are into other occupations like self employment, business, student etc.


  Cancer types   Total                      1     5            6      7     8   10     11   12     13
  Breast / Chest  5.1                      0.0   7.7         10.5 0.0      5.6  3.6   4.3   4.5 16.7
  Blood           7.9                      0.0   7.7          5.3   5.9    0.0  3.6 26.1 9.1       0.0
  Mouth          11.2                      0.0  17.9          0.0 17.6 22.2 0.0       8.7   9.1    0.0
  Bone            6.0                      0.0   5.1          0.0   2.9    5.6 17.9 13.0 2.3       0.0
  Liver/Abdomen  17.7                      0.0  30.8         15.8 14.7 11.1 14.3 4.3 20.5 16.7
  Throat         34.4                      0.0  20.5         36.8 44.1 27.8 42.9 17.4 45.5 50.0
  Skin            4.2                      0.0   0.0         10.5 0.0 16.7 3.6        8.7   2.3    0.0
  Lung            5.1                      0.0   7.7         15.8 5.9      0.0  7.1   0.0   2.3    0.0
  Others          8.4                     100    2.6          5.3   8.8 11.1 7.1 17.4 4.5 16.7
   Total          215                       1    39           19     34    18   28     23    44     6
***Occupation codes: 1:                   Land owner         but not farming 5: Self Employed (Like Shop,
mechanic, electrician etc.), 6: Business, 7: Employee-Govt, 8: Employee-Private, 10:
unemployed 11: Student, 12: Not in labour force 13: Others



5.5.3 Other occupations Vs Cancer type of Bikaner female patients
                                                                                                           49
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers


Except students, sizeable percentages of female patients of all other occupations are
suffering with Breast and Uterus Cancer.


          Cancer types            Total        5         6        7         8        9        11     12     13
          Breast                  30.8       25.0      55.6     25.0      25.0     34.1       0.0   19.6   50.0
          Blood                    3.2        0.0      11.1      0.0       0.0      3.0       0.0    2.2   50.0
          Mouth                    6.1        0.0      11.1      0.0      12.5      5.4       0.0    8.7    0.0
          Bone                     3.2        0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0      3.0      42.9    0.0    0.0
          Liver/Abdomen            9.3        0.0      11.1     25.0       0.0     10.2      28.6    4.3    0.0
          Throat                  15.0       25.0       0.0     25.0      25.0     13.2       0.0   23.9    0.0
          Skin                     1.2        0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0      0.0      14.3    4.3    0.0
          Lung                     2.8        0.0       0.0      0.0      12.5      2.4      14.3    2.2    0.0
          Uterus                  23.5       50.0      11.1     25.0      25.0     24.6       0.0   23.9    0.0
          Others                   4.9        0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0      4.2       0.0   10.9    0.0
          Total                    247         4         9        4         8      167         7     46      2

***Occupation codes:                    5: Self Employed (Like Shop, mechanic, electrician etc.),
6:Business,7:Employee-Govt,8:Employee-Private,9:Housewife,11: Student, 12: Not in
labour force 13: Others


5.5.4 Other occupations Vs Cancer type of Hyderabad male patients

The below table clearly explains the prevalence of different Cancers among male patients
at Hyderabad center who are from occupations other than agriculture.


          Cancer types            Total        5        6        7          8       10        11     12     13
          Breast/chest             2.0        3.6       0        0          0        0         0     3.1     0
          Blood                    5.3        3.6       0        0         8.3       0       19.2     0      0
          Mouth                   18.5       25.5      12.5     33.3      16.7     22.2        0    25.0     0
          Bone                     7.9        9.1      25.0     33.3        0        0       15.4     0      0
          Liver/Abdomen           26.5       25.5      12.5     33.3      50.0     22.2      15.4   31.3   33.3
          Throat                  23.2       23.6      25.0      0        16.7     44.4      19.2   21.9   33.3
          Skin                     2.0        1.8       0        0         8.3       0         0     3.1     0
          Lung                     2.6        1.8      12.5      0          0        0         0     6.3     0
          Others                  11.9        5.5      12.5      0          0      11.1      30.8    9.4   33.3
          Total                    151        55        8        3         12        9        26     32      6

***Occupation codes: 5: Self Employed (Like Shop, mechanic, electrician etc.),
6:Business,7:Employee-Govt,8:Employee-Private,9:Housewife,10: Retired/not employed
11: Student, 12: Not in labour force 13: Others




                                                                                                                  50
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

5.5.5 Other occupations Vs Cancer type of Hyderabad female patients


        Cancer types             Total         5         6          7        8         9       11      12     13
       Breast/chest              19.8        25.0       0.0        0.0      0.0      25.1      0.0    10.0    0.0
       Blood                      2.6         0.0       0.0        0.0     14.3       1.6     25.0     0.0    0.0
       Mouth                      6.9        10.7       0.0        0.0      0.0       5.3      6.3    11.7    0.0
       Bone                       3.6         0.0       0.0        0.0      0.0       3.2      6.3     6.7    0.0
       Liver/Abdomen              9.9         0.0       100       33.3     14.3      10.2      6.3    11.7    0.0
       Throat                    11.2        17.9       0.0        0.0     14.3      11.2     18.8     6.7    0.0
       Skin                       0.7         0.0       0.0        0.0      0.0       0.5      6.3     0.0    0.0
       Lung                       0.3         0.0       0.0        0.0      0.0       0.5      0.0     0.0    0.0
       Uterus                    39.9        46.4       0.0       66.7     42.9      40.1      0.0    46.7    0.0
       Others                     5.0         0.0       0.0        0.0     14.3       2.1     31.3     6.7    100
       Total                      303         28         1          3        7       187       16      60      1


***Occupation codes: 5: Self Employed (Like Shop, mechanic, electrician etc.),
6:Business,7:Employee-Govt,8:Employee-Private,9:Housewife, 11: Student, 12: Not in
labour force 13: Others


At Hyderabad Cancer center, Uterus and Breast Cancer is recorded in more percentage
even in female patients who are into occupations other than agriculture.



5.6 Gender wise comparison of Cancer types with patients who are farming in own lands
or rented lands

5.6.1 Land owner and tenant farmers vs Cancer type of Bikaner male patients


         Cancer types                     Total         %         Land owner               %         Tenant     %
   Breast/chest                            15          5.8            15                  5.9
   Blood                                   15          5.8            15                  5.9
   Mouth                                   26          10.1           25                  9.8          1       33.3
   Bone                                    10          3.9            10                  3.9
   Liver/Abdomen                           66          25.6           65                  25.5         1       33.3
   Throat                                  103         39.9          103                  40.4
   Skin                                     4          1.6             4                  1.6
   Lung                                     7          2.7             7                  2.7
   Others                                  10          3.9             9                  3.5          1       33.3
   Head                                     1          0.4             1                  0.4
   Blood & Liver/Abdomen                    1          0.4             1                  0.4
   Total                                   258         100           255                  100          3       100




                                                                                                                      51
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



Bikaner male patients who are farmers in own land or rented land are affected with
Cancer types like Throat, Liver/Abdomen and Mouth in more number. The detailed
statistics are illustrated in the above table.


(*** Note: There are no female patients of Bikaner center and male patients at
Hyderabad hospital who are farming a rented land, so the cross tabs are not taken)


5.6.2 Land owner and tenant farmers vs Cancer type of Hyderabad female patients


          Cancer types             Total           %          Land owner                %          Tenant   %
         Breast/Chest                23           22.3            23                   23.0
         Mouth                       5             4.9             5                    5.0
         Bone                        3             2.9             3                    3.0
         Liver/Abdomen               23           22.3            22                   22.0          1      33.3
         Throat                      11           10.7            11                   11.0
         Skin                        1             1.0             1                    1.0
         Lung                        1             1.0             1                    1.0
         Uterus                      35           34.0            33                   33.0          2      67.7
         Others                      1             1.0             1                    1.0
          Total                     103           100            100                   100           3      100



Liver/Abdomen, Throat Cancers is also observed in some female patients of Hyderabad
center who are farming in own land or rented land besides Uterus and Breast Cancer
patients.



5.7 Gender wise comparison of Cancer types with patients of urban and rural areas


Comparison of Cancer types with patient’s area of living is studied to find if people from
rural areas are more inclined to Cancer.


5.7.1 Urban and rural areas vs Cancer type of Bikaner male patients

Nearly equally percentages of male patients at Bikaner center coming from urban and
rural areas are suffering with Throat cancer. Mouth Cancer is marginally more in urban
patients and Liver/Abdomen Cancer is slightly high in rural male patients of this hospital.
This percentage difference being very small can be neglected.




                                                                                                                   52
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                 Urban and rural areas vs Cancer type of Bikaner male patients

            50                             39                                                  38
            40
            30                                                                            20
        %


                             17       15
            20                                                                   11
                                                5 7 5                    5 7                            7
            10       2 5          5
                                                           0 0
                                                                                      4             3 5   0.20.2
             0
                                       Urban                                                Rural
                                                            Cancer types


            Breast                                Blood                                Mouth
            Bone                                  Liver/abdomen                        Throat
            Skin                                  Lung                                 Others
            Head                                  Liver/abdomen & Throat

***Base: Urban males: 59, Rural males: 515




5.7.2 Urban and rural areas vs Cancer type of Bikaner female patients

       Cancer types                         Total              %           Urban           %          Rural     %
  Breast                                     126              27.9           17           31.5         109     27.4
  Blood                                       17              3.8            6            11.1          11      2.8
  Mouth                                       23              5.1            3             5.6          20      5.0
  Bone                                        13              2.9            4             7.4          9       2.3
  Liver/Abdomen                               47              10.4           5             9.3          42     10.6
  Throat                                      58              12.8           8            14.8          50     12.6
  Skin                                        6               1.3            0             0.0          6       1.5
  Lung                                        7               1.5            0             0.0          7       1.8
  Uterus                                     134              29.6           8            14.8         126     31.7
  Others                                      20              4.4            3             5.6          17      4.3
  Liver/Abdomen & Blood                       1               0.2            0             0.0          1       0.3
   Total                                     452              100            54           100          398     100



Urban female patients at Bikaner center are afflicted to Breast Cancer in substantial
percentage. Uterus and Throat Cancer is at 15% each. Uterus Cancer is in more
percentage than Breast Cancer among rural patients.




                                                                                                                      53
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




5.7.3 Urban and rural areas vs. Cancer type of Hyderabad male patients


                      Urban and rural areas vs Cancer type of Hyderabad male
                                              patients

            50
            40
                                  27                                                               28 30
            30                                22 24
        %




            20                                                                         15
                                         9                       10
                                                                                              7                           7
            10                                               3             3     3                            2      3
                       2     2                          2
             0
                                             Urban                                                Rural
                                                                 Canc er types

            Breast     Blood           Mouth     Bone       Liver/abdomen        Throat         Skin      Lung       Others

***Base: Urban males: 59, Rural males: 271


In both rural and urban male patients, Liver/Abdomen and Throat Cancers are diagnosed
in almost equal percentages at Hyderabad center. Percentages of male patients with these
Cancer types are marginally more from rural areas than urban areas. But this marginal
difference in percentage is statistically not valid.


Mouth Cancer is accounted in around 12% more male urban patients than rural patients.



5.7.4 Urban and rural areas vs Cancer type of Hyderabad female patients

                      Urban and rural areas vs Cancer type of Hyderabad female
                                               patients

            50                                                                                                    43.4
            40                                              34.8
                   26.5
            30
        %




                                                                         15.4                     16
            20                   8.4       9.710.3                                                     10.6
                                                                 5.2                  6.4 2.7
            10             2.6         1.9        0.6 0                         2.3                        0.6 0.8       1.9
             0
                                             Urban                                                Rural
                                                                 Cancer types

        Breast       Blood       Mouth        Bone    Liver/abdomen      Throat        Skin       Lung     Uterus        Others

***Base: Urban females: 155, Rural females: 519

                                                                                                                                  54
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




Breast Cancer is reported in nearly 11% more urban females. Percentages of patients of
Hyderabad hospital with Uterus and Liver/Abdomen Cancers are observed to be slightly
high among rural females.




                                                                                                   55
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                VI CONCLUSIONS



The conclusions drawn from the study are explained in this section.



          Sizeable percentages of Bikaner and Hyderabad patients are in middle age and
          above middle age.


          Literacy rates are low among patients. Most of them are married.


          In Bikaner hospital, more number of patients is land owners and farmers, where as
          at Hyderabad center more number of patients is agricultural labours.


          Besides agriculture, there are patients who are from other occupations like
          business, government/private employees etc. But their percentage is considerably
          less when compared to patients from agriculture profession.


          Next to agricultural occupation, percentage of house wives is observed to be more
          among patients at both the Cancer centers.


          Majority of fathers/husbands of Bikaner patients are from farming and more
          number of fathers/husbands of Hyderabad patients are agriculture labours.


          Patients      with     personal      habits      like    smoking,       tobacco          chewing   and   alcohol
          consumption are less in both Bikaner and Hyderabad. Majority of the patients
          having such habits have stopped them currently.


          Except few, patients of both hospitals are not related to their spouse before
          marriage.


          Only around 5% and 4% patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Cancer hospitals
          respectively reported death of their family members in the last 5 years.




                                                                                                                       56
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

          More percentages of Bikaner patients lost their father and mother and more
          percentages of Hyderabad patients lost their father and husband in the last 5
          years.


          More number of them died due to old age and Cancer. Accidents and Kidney
          problem are other considerable causes of relative's death of Bikaner patients.
          Kidney problem, accidents and Heart attack are other considerable reasons for
          death of Hyderabad patient’s relatives.


          In family members who died due to Cancer, Throat and Breast was more in
          patient’s relatives of Bikaner center and Throat Cancer was more in relatives of
          Hyderabad patients.


          More number of male patients is suffering with Throat Cancer followed by
          Liver/Abdomen and Mouth Cancers. Uterus and Breast Cancers is reported by more
          number of female patients.


          Mouth and Liver/Abdomen Cancer types are reported by slightly more percentages
          of Hyderabad male patients. Percentage of Throat Cancer is slightly high in Bikaner
          patients.


          Uterus Cancer is reported by slightly more percentage of Hyderabad patients and
          10% more female patients of Bikaner hospital are afflicted to Breast Cancer than
          Hyderabad patients.


          But this percentage differences being small are not statistically valid. Hence it can
          be concluded that geographical locations of the patients have no influence on their
          type of Cancer.


          Symptoms like continuous fever and cough, loss of appetite and loss of weight;
          non healing ulcers, blood motions, severe Throat pain etc. are complained by male
          patients. Women patients observed symptom like heavy bleeding, white discharge,
          dissimilar Breast sizes, loss of sensation of Breasts, severe back pain continuous
          fever, loss of weight etc.




                                                                                                   57
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

          Patients chose current study hospitals on the suggestion of their local doctor,

          friends/ relatives and also because of their popularity and availability of good

          doctors.

          Majority of the patients had prior treatment in another hospital before getting
          treatment at current study hospitals of Bikaner and Hyderabad. They were local
          government or private hospitals not necessarily specialty hospitals for Cancer
          treatment.


          Age of marriage of females is very less among Bikaner patients than Hyderabad
          patients. Nearly three fourths of the Bikaner female patients got married below 18
          years, while the percentage is 52% in Hyderabad patients. Hence it can be
          concluded that majority of female patients got married at an early age.


          More than half of the female patients of Bikaner hospital had more than three
          deliveries and another 23% of them had three deliveries. Even in Hyderabad
          hospital more number of them had above three deliveries.                                 This indicates that
          majority of the female patients have under gone the pressure of early marriage
          and more deliveries.


          Majority of the women at both hospitals said that they do not have any Gynaec

          problem, but some of them complained problems like heavy bleeding and white

          discharge. Percentage of women with Gynaec complaints is slightly high in

          Hyderabad center.



          Irrespective of age more percentages of patients are suffering with Throat,

          Liver/Abdomen, Uterus and Breast Cancers. But the percentage is slightly varying

          between patients of 31-45 years and 46-60 years.



          Occupation has no influence on patient’ kind of Cancer, as irrespective of their

          profession more or less equal percentages are suffering with Throat,




                                                                                                                   58
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

     Liver/Abdomen, Uterus and Breast Cancers. Bone Cancer is reported by students.



          Marginally high percentage of urban females is prone to Breast Cancer and slightly

          more percentage of rural females is afflicted to Uterus Cancer.



          Percentages of Liver/Abdomen Cancers are marginally more in male patients of

          rural area, where as it is Throat Cancer in male patients of urban area.




                                                                                                   59
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers



                                         VII RECOMMENDATIONS


     1. A large number of cancer cases can be prevented with suitable health education
          and early case detection. As mentioned earlier the literacy rates of the patients are
          very poor. Health education of a person can be improved only by improving one’s
          literacy levels.


     2. Each and every disease has some symptoms to indicate its incidence in a person.
          The signs and symptoms of cancer depend upon the body part affected by the
          disease. But certain symptoms are common to all kinds of Cancer. Increase in
          awareness about these symptoms can only help in early detection of Cancer. Early
          detection would help to cure Cancer.


          In India, majority of the patients are getting treatment in their later stages and
          hence difficult to treat.


     3. Some more studies of this nature are to be conducted in different parts of the
          country especially all the regional cancer hospitals in the public sector.. Unless
          large data is collected it is not possible to emphatically prove the relation ship of
          socioeconomic conditions and professional /occupational relation ship to cancer.


     4. The duration of the study is also to be enlarged such that we have more conclusive
          proof about the various factors influencing and not influencing the incidence of
          cancer.




                                                                                                   60
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                     Annexure

Sno        Name of the                                           Population
           districts                     Male                      Female                    Total
1          Hyderabad                18,89,469                 17,85,965                  36,75,434
2          Bikaner                  9,13,379                  8,13,931                   17,27,310
3          Bathinda                 6,44,732                  5,57,651                   12,02,383


Sno       Name of village                 No of                    No of           No of            Populat
                                          households               cancer          Cancer           ion
                                                                   cases           death’s
1         Jajjal                          540                      12              28               3000
2         Karaghsinghwala                 467                      2               16               2700

Rajasthan total cancer cases: 479
Top-5 Districts.

Name of state                Name of district                No of cancer cases                     Percentage
Rajasthan                    Bikaner                         147                                    30.7%
                             Sri ganganagar                  108                                    22.5%
                             Hanumangarth                    70                                     14.6%
                             Churu                           53                                     11.1%
                             Nagaur                          38                                     7.9%

Punjab total cancer cases: 363
Top-5 Districts.

Name of state                Name of district                No of cancer cases                     Percentage
Punjab                       Bathinda                        100                                    27.6%
                             Manasa                          71                                     19.6%
                             Ferozpur                        49                                     13.5%
                             Muktsar                         40                                     11.0%
                             Faridkot                        22                                     6.1

Haryana total cancer cases: 159
Top-5 Districts.

Name of state           Name of district                 No of cancer cases                        Percentage
Haryana                 Sirsa                            58                                        36.5%
                        Hisar                            33                                        20.8%
                        Bhiwani                          25                                        15.7%
                        Kaithal                          8                                         5.0%
                        Fatehabad                        8                                         5.0%
                                                                                                                 61
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




Andhrapradesh total cancer cases: 987
Top-5 Districts.

Name of state               Name of district                No of cancer cases                     Percentage
Andhrapradesh               Hyderabad                       122                                    12.4%
                            Nalgonda                        103                                    10.4%
                            Mahabubnagar                    96                                     9.7%
                            Warangal                        84                                     8.5%
                            Medak                           77                                     7.8%




                                                                                                                62
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

                       Acharya tulsi regional cancer treatment & research institute, Bikaner.


                                                                Data of state wize 2005


                                           SLNO         STATE NAME                 NO OF CANCER CASES
                                               1        BIHAR                                                     2
                                               2        GUJRAT                                                    1
                                               3        HIMACHAL PRADESH                                         15
                                               4        HARYANA                                                 759
                                               5        MADHYA PRADESH                                            1
                                               6        MAHARASTRA                                                2
                                               7        NEW DELHI                                                 7
                                               8        PUNJAB                                                 1848
                                               9        RAJASTHAN                                              2870
                                              10        UTTAR PRADESH                                            46
                                              11        UTTARANCHAL                                               9
                                              12        WEST BENGAL                                               2
                                                        TOTAL                                                  5562


                                                                STATE WIZE CANCER CASES

                    3500


                    3000                                                                           2870


                    2500
  NUMBER OF CASES




                    2000                                                                    1848


                    1500


                    1000
                                                          759

                    500

                              2        1           15               1     2        7                      46          9   2
                      0
                                               H




                                                                    H



                                                                    A




                                                                                                             H



                                                                                                             L
                                                                                                             N




                                                                                                             L
                                                                   A




                                                                    I



                                                                                            B
                                              T
                          R




                                                                  H
                                            ES




                                                                                                            A
                                                                 ES




                                                                                                           A
                                                                  R




                                                                                                          ES
                                                                                                           A
                                             A




                                                                  N




                                                                                          JA
                         A




                                                                EL




                                                                                                          H



                                                                                                          G
                                                               ST




                                                                                                        TH
                                           JR




                                                               YA
                       IH




                                           D




                                                               D




                                                                                                         D



                                                                                                         C



                                                                                                        N
                                                                                         N
                                                              D
                                          A
                      B




                                                              A



                                                              A




                                                                                                       A



                                                                                                       N
                                         U




                                                                                                       S




                                                                                                      E
                                                             R




                                                                                        U
                                       PR




                                                           PR




                                                            R



                                                          EW




                                                                                                     A
                                                                                                    PR
                                                                                                    JA
                                        G




                                                                                                     B
                                                            A




                                                                                       P
                                                           A




                                                                                                   R
                                                          H




                                                                                                   T
                                                                                                  A
                                                         H




                                                                                                  A
                                     L




                                                         A




                                                         N




                                                                                                 R




                                                                                                ES
                                                                                                R
                                                        A
                                    A




                                                                                               TT
                                                       Y




                                                                                                A
                                                      M
                                   H




                                                      H




                                                                                              W
                                                                                             TT



                                                                                              U
                                  C




                                                     D
                                 A




                                                                                            U
                                                    A
                               IM




                                                   M
                              H




                                                                         NAME OF STATE




                                                                                                                              63
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

                                                             Data of Rajasthan district wize 2005


                                                     SLNO         DISTRICT NAME                    NO OF CANCER CASES
                                                       1          AJMER                                             10
                                                       2          ALWAR                                              9
                                                       3          BANSWADA                                           1
                                                       4          BARAN                                              4
                                                       5          BARMER                                             4
                                                       6          BHARATPUR                                          2
                                                       7          BHILWARA                                           4
                                                       8          BIKANEER                                         951
                                                       9          BUNDI                                              1
                                                      10          CHITORGARH                                         4
                                                      11          CHURU                                            424
                                                      12          HANUMANGARH                                      412
                                                      13          JAIPUR                                             7
                                                      14          JAISALMER                                          7
                                                      15          JALORE                                             1
                                                      16          JHALAWAR                                           9
                                                      17          JHUNJHANU                                        155
                                                      18          JODHPUR                                           38
                                                      19          KARAULI                                            1
                                                      20          KOTA                                               7
                                                      21          NAGAUR                                           183
                                                      22          PALI                                              19
                                                      23          SIKAR                                             88
                                                      24          SRIGANGAN                                        528
                                                      25          UDAIPUR                                            1
                                                                  TOTAL                                           2870

                                                                      DISTRICT WIZE CANCER CASES IN RAJASTHAN


                                 1000                                  951

                                  900


                                  800
           BER OF CANCER CASES




                                  700


                                  600
                                                                                                                                                     528
                                  500
                                                                                     424 412
                                  400
        NUM




                                  300

                                                                                                                                     183
                                  200                                                                           155

                                                                                                                                                88
                                  100
                                                                                                                      38
                                        10   9       4   4        4              4             7   7        9                  7           19
                                                 1            2              1                          1                  1                               1
                                    0
                                                    H
                                                   A




                                                   R




                                                   H




                                                   R

                                                   U




                                                                                                                                                 N
                                                   R
                                                   A


                                                   R




                                                   R




                                                                                                                                 R




                                                                                                                                                 R
                                                  LI
                                                  R
                                                  R




                                                  N




                                                  R




                                                   E
                                                  R




                                            N U




                                                                                                                                          A R
                                                                                                                                TA
                                                   I




                                                                                                                                                LI
                                                  R
                                                 D
                                                 U




                                                 R
                                                 D




                                                 A




                                                                                                                                                A
                                                 N
                                                 R




                                                 E
                                                 E




                                                                                                                                               U
                                                 R




                                                 U




                                                                                                                                U
                                                 A




                                                 A

                                                 E




                                                U
                                                 E




                                        M UR




                                                U




                                                                                                                                       R IKA
                                                A




                                                                                                                                              A
                                                N
                                               A




                                              TP




                                               A




                                              LM




                                                                                                                                              G
                                               W


                                               A
                                               E
                                               A
                                               M




                                               O




                                               P




                                                                                                                               A




                                                                                                                                             IP
                                             JM

                                             LW




                                               R




                                                                                                                              O
                                      JA IP




                                               A
                                              G




                                                                                                                                             P
                                     H BU

                                              G
                                             W




                                              N




                                            JH
                                             W




                                                                                                                                            N
                                             H




                                                                                                                             G
                                           LA
                                             A

                                             R




                                             L
                                    N CH




                                             R


                                                                                                                             K




                                                                                                                                           A
                                           JA
                                            A




                                                                                                                                           S
                                            A
                                            A




                                            R




                                          JA




                                           D
                                           A




                                           S


                                           B




                                                                                                                            A
                                           A




                                          IL




                                           A
                                           A




                                                                                                                                          D
                                          R




                                          A




                                          N
                                         IK




                                         IS
                                          O




                                                                                                                                        IG
                                          A




                                        JO
                                         N




                                                                                                                           N
                                         B




                                         K




                                                                                                                                        U
                                        H
                                        A




                                        U
                                       IT




                                      JH
                                       A




                                       B
                                       B
                                      H




                                     JH
                                      U
                                      B




                                                                                                                                      S
                                     B




                                    C




                                   A
                                  H




                                                                                        DISTRICT NAME




                                                                                                                                                               64
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                     Data of Punjab district wize 2005


                                              DISTRICT              NO OF CANCER
                               SINO           NAME                  CASES
                                        1     ABOHAR                                                   7
                                        2     AMBALA                                                  23
                                        3     AMRITSAR                                                33
                                        4     BATHINDA                                               377
                                        5     CHANDIGAR                                                2
                                        6     DURI                                                     1
                                        7     FARIDKOT                                               115
                                        8     FATEHBAD                                                18
                                        9     FAZILKA                                                  6
                                       10     FIROZPUR                                               280
                                       11     HOSHYARUR                                                5
                                       12     JALANDHAR                                               39
                                       13     JODHPUR                                                  2
                                       14     KAPURTHAL                                               11
                                       15     LUDHIANA                                                92
                                       16     MANASA                                                 186
                                       17     MOGA                                                    87
                                       18     MUKTSAR                                                175
                                       19     PATIALA                                                 73
                                       20     ROPAR                                                    8
                                       21     SANGAROOR                                              286
                                       22     SIRSA                                                   22
                                              TOTAL                                                 1848


                                            DISTRICT WIZE CANCER CASES IN PUNJAB


         400
                           377
         350


         300                                             280                                                        286

         250


         200                                                                             186
                                                                                                    175
         150
                                          115
         100                                                                        92         87
                                                                                                           73
                                                                   39
                   23 33
          50
                                                18                                                                           22
               7                 2    1              6         5           2   11                               8
           0
                                                 R




                                                 R
                                                 L
                      R




                                                 D




                                                 R




                                                 A
                    LA


                     R

                    TA




                                               SA




                                               LA
                                                 T
                     R




                                                 A


                                                 R




                                                 R
                                                 R




                                                 R




                                                                                                                        SA
                                                 A
                                                  I
                                     FA UR




                                                A
                                               O




                                               A




                                               O
                    A




                                               A




                                               U




                                               N
                   SA




                                              LK
                    A




                                               U




                                             PU




                                               A




                                             PA
                                               G
                                            TH
                  IN




                                              H
                   A




                                              A
                 IG




                                             A
                                             K


                                             B




                                             R




                                            IA




                                             O
                  H




                                           ZP




                                           TS




                                                                                                                       R
                                            O
                                            D
                 B




                                           D




                                           TI
                IT




                                           N
                                           ZI
                                          ID


                                           H




                                         YA
                O




                                           H




                                           R
                                           O




                                                                                                                     SI
              TH




                                          H




                                          M
               D




                                          R
                                         O




                                         N




                                         K
              M




                                         A
                                        TE




                                         D




                                         A
                                       PA
              B




                                       FA
              R




                                         R
              N




                                        R




                                        D
                                      PU




                                        U
                                     SH


                                      LA
                                       R




                                       M
             A




                                     JO




                                       G
            A
            A




            M




                                     LU
            A




                                    FA




                                     M
                                     FI
           B




                                     N
          A




          H




                                    A
                                   JA
                                    O




                                  SA
         C




                                   K
                                  H




                                                           DISTRICT NAME




                                                                                                                                  65
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




          MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Canter, Hyderabad.


                                       Total No of Cancer cases-2005.


                                          Male             %         Female           %            Total
                 OP-Patients               3709          40.5         5437          59.5           9146
                       IN-                 1922          40.7         2805          59.3           4727
               Patients{NEW}

                       IN-                 3815          41%          5489          59%            9304
               Patients{OLD}

                                             Grand Total                                           23177




                                                                                                           66
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers

                                                       Bathinda
                                                           map




                                                                                                   67
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                   Bikaner map




                                                                                                   68
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                Hyderabad map




                                                                                                   69
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                                                                   70
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                                                                   71
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                                                                   72
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                                                                   73
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                                                                   74
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                                                                   75
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                                                                   76
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                                                                   77
Study of Demographic profile of Cancer patients at Bikaner and Hyderabad Regional Cancer centers




                                                                                                   78

								
To top