The War Between The States A Timeline of the Civil War 1860 Dec.20, 1860 – So. Car. secedes after the election of Lincoln –Followed by Miss, Fla, Ala, GA, LA, and TX The Progress of War: 1861-1865 1861 Feb. 9 – Confederate States of America formed –Jefferson Davis – President April 12 – Fort Sumter (S.C.) attacked by Confed. forces –Civil War begins 1861 15 – Lincoln calls for 75K April volunteers for the Union army – Command of Army offered to Robert E. Lee of VA. He refuses 17 – VA, AR, TN, NC join the April Confederacy 1861 April 19 – Lincoln begins naval blockade of Confederate states April 20 – Lee resigns from U.S. army – takes command of Confed. Forces in VA 1861 21 – Union forces under Irwin July McDowell defeated at Bull Run (Manassas) – Conf. General Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson a hero of the battle. Union troops & spectators flee back to Washington D.C. 1861 July 27 – Gen. George B. McClellan given command of Union Army of the Potomac McClellan soon given command of all Union forces Nov. 8 – 2 Conf. diplomats captured enroute to England to get British support – Lincoln lets them free after threats of war by England 1862 February – Union General Ulysses S. Grant wins victories in west at Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson – part of a push to divide the Confed. –Earns nickname – Unconditional Surrender Grant 1862 March 8/9 – Confed. Merrimac & Union Monitor fight to a draw in 1st battle of the Ironclads –Changes naval battle forever 1862 March – McClellan begins Peninsular Campaign to take Confed. capital city of Richmond, VA – typical slow, cautious advance by McClellan April 6/7 – Grant’s forces attacked at Shiloh (TN) – 23K casualties –Lincoln reluctantly relieves Grant of command 1862 April 24 – Union naval forces under David Farragut take New Orleans June 1 – Robert E. Lee assumes command of Confederate forces June 25-July 1 – Seven Days Battles – Lee forces McClellan to pull back to Washington 1862 Aug.29/30 – 75K Union forces under Gen. John Pope defeated by 55K Confed. troops under Jackson & Longstreet at 2nd Bull Run Union Gen. John Pope Confederate Gen. James Longstreet 1862 Sept. – Lee invades North (MD) & threatens Washington – McClellan pursues with copies of Lee’s battle plans Sept. 17 – Antietam – bloodiest day in U.S. military history –26K casualties – Lee forced to retreat to VA – McClellan fails to pursue Lee 1862 Sept.22 – Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation – Blacks will be allowed to join the Union Army in Black-only units Emancipation Proclamation 1862 Nov. 7 – McClellan relieved of command – New Gen. is Ambrose Burnside Dec. 13 – Burnside’s forces suffer terrible defeat at Fredericksburg, VA after 14 futile assaults on entrenched Confeds. "If you don't want to use the army, I should like to borrow it for a while.” - Lincoln "We might as well have tried to take hell.” - Union soldier at Fredricksburg "It is well that war is so terrible - we should grow too fond of it," states Lee during the fighting. 12,600 Union dead vs. 5300 Confederates 1863 Jan.1 – Emancipation Proclamation issued freeing all slaves in Confed. held territory War to preserve Union becomes struggle to end slavery 1863 Jan. 25 – Burnside replaced by Gen. Joseph Hooker Jan. 29 – Grant placed in command of Army of the West –Told to take Vicksburg on Miss. River March 3 – Congress enacts the military draft –Those who could pay $300 could hire a substitute 1863 May1-4 – Hooker’s forces defeated by Lee at Chancellorsville, VA “Stonewall” Jackson mortally wounded by his own troops June 28 – Gen. George Meade replaces Joe Hooker Confederate dead at the Sunken Road - Chancellorsville Union Gen. George Meade Military Strategy at Gettysburg Picketts Charge Musket Fire 1863 July1-3 – The Battle of Gettysburg – Union forces under Meade defeat Lee, forcing the Confeds. to retreat to VA – Meade fails to pursue and destroy the battered Confederate Army The battle is the turning point of the war Union dead at Gettysburg Little Round Top - Gettysburg A dead Confederate Sharpshooter - Little Round Top Confederate dead in the “Devil’s Den” Amputation being performed at a Union field Hospital Cannon Fire 1863 July 4 – Grant takes Vicksburg and takes control of the Miss. River Confederacy is split in two July 13-16 – Violent anti-draft riots in NYC 1863 Sept.19/20 – Union forces defeated at Chickamauga, TN – Union Gen. Rosecrans’ troops trapped in Chattanooga, TN Oct. 16 – Grant given control of all western armies 1863 Nov. 19 – Lincoln delivers his Gettysburg Address to dedicate a cemetery on the site of the battlefield 1863 Nov.23-25 – Grants forces break siege of Chattanooga – Union troops avenge the loss at Chickamauga 1864 March 9 – Grant given command of Union Army – Gen. William T. Sherman given control of armies of the west May – Coordinated campaign of all Union forces begins. 120K Union troops under Grant begin moving toward Richmond & Gen. Lee Beginning of a war of attrition Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman 1864 June3 – Battle of Cold Harbor (VA) – Grant foolishly attacks a strongly held Confed. position – loses 7K men in 20 mins. Union Gen. Ulysses Simpson Grant Planning the Cold Harbor Assault 1864 June 15 – Siege of Petersburg begins – Lee’s forces surrounded July 20 – Sherman reaches Atlanta – begins a 3-month struggle to take the vital southern city Aug. 29 – Democrats nominate McClellan to run against Lincoln The 13-inch Union mortar "Dictator" mounted on a railroad flatcar at Petersburg. Its 200-pound shells had a range of over 2 miles 1864 Sept. 2 – Sherman captures Atlanta – a boost for Lincoln’s re-election campaign Sherman destroys Atlanta’s warehouses and railroads Nov. 8 – Lincoln re-elected president Nov. 15 – Sherman begins his “March to the Sea” Dec. 21 – Sherman reaches Savannah, GA, leaving behind scorched earth in his wake General Sherman (Rt) surveys the damage at Atlanta (below and next slide) Field Hospitals Northern Home front Southern Home front 1865 Jan. 31 - 13th Amendment to the Constitution passed Congress & sent to states for ratification - outlaws slavery in the U.S. March 4 - Lincoln inaugurated for 2nd term April 2 - Lee evacuates Petersburg - Richmond also evacuated - Grant's forces advance April 4 - Lincoln tours Richmond & Confederate White House Union troops at Petersburg (left) and Richmond (below) The Confederate “White House” in Richmond 1865 April 9 - Lee surrenders at Appomatox Courthouse, VA April 14 - Lincoln shot at Ford's Theater Lee, shortly after his surrender The Civil War started on the property of Wilmer McLean in Manassas, VA and ended with the surrender of Lee’s forces in the parlor of McLean’s home in Appomatox Courthouse, VA.
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