Chemistry Chapter 5 Notes

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					Chapter 5 Notes


Solution – a homogeneous mixture in which the molecules or ions of the compnonents
freely intermingle

Solvent – usually taken to be the component present in largest amount and is the medium
into which the solutes are mixed or dissolved

Solute – is any substance dissolved in the solvent

Concentration –the ration of the amount of solute either to the amount of solvent or to the
amount of solution

Dilute solution – the ratio of solute to solvent is small, sometimes very small

Concentrated solution – the ratio of solute to solvent is large. Ex. Syrup

Saturated solution – if more solute is added, it simply rests at the bottom of the solution
because its present temperature it cannot dissolve anymore solute.

Solubility – is usually described by the number of grams that dissolve in 100g of solvent
at a given temperature to make a saturated solution.

Unsaturated solution – a solution that contains less than required for saturation. It is able
to dissolve more solute

Supersaturated solution – a solution that actually contains more solute than required for
saturation at a given temperature.

Precipitate – the solution becomes highly supersaturated and the substance separates form
the solution as a solid

Precipitation reaction – a reaction that produces a precipitate


Electrolytes – solutes that yield electrically conducting aqueous solutions. Their ability to
conduct electricity suggests the presence of electrically charged particles that are able to
move through the solution.

Dissociation – the generally accepted reason is that when an ionic compound dissolves in
water, the ions separate from each other and enter the solution as more or less
independent ionic compound.
Strong electrolytes – solutions that contain so many ions that they are strong conductors

Nonelectrolytes – aqueous solutions of most molecular compounds do not conduct

Hydrated – a solute particle is surrounded by water molecules

Ionic reaction – seeing the reaction between two ions

Molecular equation – written with the ions together, as if the substances in solution
consist of neutral molecules.

Ionic equation – in which all soluble strong electrolytes are written in “dissociated” form.

Spectator ions – ions that do not actually take part in a reaction

Net ionic equation – which is obtained by eliminating spectator ions from the ionic

Metathesis – the reaction between Pb(NO3)2 and KI, is just one example of a large class
of ionic reactions in which cations and anions change partners. Also sometimes called
double replacement reactions. Metathesis reactions in which a preceipitate forms are
sometimes called precipitation reactions

Acids – generally have a tart(sour) taste, some are poisonous and others, such as sulfuric
acid in battery fluid, are extremely corrosive to animal tissue.

Acid-base indicators – affect the colors of certain natural dye substances.

Bases – have somewhat a bitter taste, and they turn litmus blue. They also have a soapy

Neutralization – one of the most important properties of acids and bases is their reaction
with each other

Acid-base neutralization – when acidic and basic properties of the solutes disappear; the
solution of the produces is neither acidic nor basic.