Chapter 5 Notes 5.1 Solution – a homogeneous mixture in which the molecules or ions of the compnonents freely intermingle Solvent – usually taken to be the component present in largest amount and is the medium into which the solutes are mixed or dissolved Solute – is any substance dissolved in the solvent Concentration –the ration of the amount of solute either to the amount of solvent or to the amount of solution Dilute solution – the ratio of solute to solvent is small, sometimes very small Concentrated solution – the ratio of solute to solvent is large. Ex. Syrup Saturated solution – if more solute is added, it simply rests at the bottom of the solution because its present temperature it cannot dissolve anymore solute. Solubility – is usually described by the number of grams that dissolve in 100g of solvent at a given temperature to make a saturated solution. Unsaturated solution – a solution that contains less than required for saturation. It is able to dissolve more solute Supersaturated solution – a solution that actually contains more solute than required for saturation at a given temperature. Precipitate – the solution becomes highly supersaturated and the substance separates form the solution as a solid Precipitation reaction – a reaction that produces a precipitate 5.2 Electrolytes – solutes that yield electrically conducting aqueous solutions. Their ability to conduct electricity suggests the presence of electrically charged particles that are able to move through the solution. Dissociation – the generally accepted reason is that when an ionic compound dissolves in water, the ions separate from each other and enter the solution as more or less independent ionic compound. Strong electrolytes – solutions that contain so many ions that they are strong conductors Nonelectrolytes – aqueous solutions of most molecular compounds do not conduct electricity. Hydrated – a solute particle is surrounded by water molecules Ionic reaction – seeing the reaction between two ions Molecular equation – written with the ions together, as if the substances in solution consist of neutral molecules. Ionic equation – in which all soluble strong electrolytes are written in “dissociated” form. Spectator ions – ions that do not actually take part in a reaction Net ionic equation – which is obtained by eliminating spectator ions from the ionic equation. Metathesis – the reaction between Pb(NO3)2 and KI, is just one example of a large class of ionic reactions in which cations and anions change partners. Also sometimes called double replacement reactions. Metathesis reactions in which a preceipitate forms are sometimes called precipitation reactions Acids – generally have a tart(sour) taste, some are poisonous and others, such as sulfuric acid in battery fluid, are extremely corrosive to animal tissue. Acid-base indicators – affect the colors of certain natural dye substances. Bases – have somewhat a bitter taste, and they turn litmus blue. They also have a soapy “feel.” Neutralization – one of the most important properties of acids and bases is their reaction with each other Acid-base neutralization – when acidic and basic properties of the solutes disappear; the solution of the produces is neither acidic nor basic.