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					IMAGINE
Increasing Mainstreaming of Games In Learning Policies

     Educational Value of Digital Games
            IMAGINE ROUND TABLE MEETING IN ISPARTA – TURKEY:
               EDUCATIONAL GAMES IN VOCATIOANL SECTOR




M.Demirbilek, Ph.D.
Educational Technology
Suleyman Demirel University
                            This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
                      This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held
                              responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
Agenda
•   What is a game?
•   History
•   Structural Elements of Games
•   Games and Learning
•   Instrinsic Motivation
•   Educational value of games
•   Educational Game Principles
•   Game Genres
•   Advantages/Disadvantages
What is Game?
Games are a fundamental part of human
 existence
General Definition
  A series of choices or as rule based play
Educational Definition
  Applications using the characteristics of video and
   computer games to create engaging and immersive
   learning experiences for delivering specified
   learning goals, outcomes and experiences.
What is Game?
• Online Game: (Massively Multiplayer Online
  Game)
  • Online games involve complex graphics and virtual
    worlds that are used by large numbers of players
    simultaneously
• Mobile Game
  • A mobile game is an electronic game played on a
    mobile phone, smartphone, PDA, handheld
    computer or any type of handheld or wireless
    device.
What is Game?
• Serious Game:
  • A serious game is a game in which education (in its
    various forms) is the primary goal, rather than
    entertainment’ (Michael and Chen,2006)
• Simulation:
  • A computer simulation is a way of modeling a real-
    world situation on a computer.
History
• First electronic educational game
  • Spacewar (Simulation)
     • 1960, Steve Russell (MIT)
Structural Elements of Games

1. Rules which make things both exciting and
   fun.
2. Goals and objectives.
3. Outcomes and feedback
4. Conflict, challenge/opposition and competition
5. Interaction of the player and computer
6. Representation or story (Prensky, 2001)
Games and Learning
• Prensky says, computer games can now be
  used to teach subjects that are not “intrinsically
  motivating” (2001 p. 20).
• Games support
  •   Active learning
  •   Experiential learning
  •   Problem-based learning
  •   Immediate feedback
  •   Learner-centered
Seven Key Factors: Instrinsic Motivation

•   Challenge
•   Curiosity
•   Control
•   Fantasy
•   Cooperation
•   Competition
•   Regcognation
Educational value of games
• Produce increased motivation (Cordova & Lepper, 1997;
  Malone, 1985)
• Effective within inquiry framework (Clark, 1983; White &
  Frederickson, 1998)
• Social interactions produce learning (Johnson &
  Johnson, 1985)
• Large disconnect between “state-of-the-art” and
  educational games (Squire, 2002)
• “Emerging pedagogies” (Squire & Reigeluth, 1999)
   •   Problem Based Learning (Barrows et al, 1999)
   •   Anchored Instruction (Bransford et al, 1992)
   •   Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, 1996)
   •   Case-Based Reasoning
Educational value of games              (cont)

  Improve           Wood & Stewart (1987)
  reasoning skill

  Serve as          Kennedy, Bittner, Harbeson, &
  performance       Jones (1982)
  tests
  Enhance basic     Brownfield & Gretchen
  literacy skills   (1983)

  Enhance the       Greenfield, de Winstanley,
  ability to divide Kilpatrick, & Kaye (1996)
  attention
Educational Game Principles
• Admit that games don't teach, they
  illustrate
• Don't make games that are too much
  fun
• Don't make games that take too long
• Don't make games that obscure the
  principles you want to illustrate
Educational Game Principles              (cont.)


• Include advisors
• Don't forget the value of creative
  play
• Don't try to serve chocolate-covered
  broccoli
 • A computer game can't make someone take
   an interest in a subject purely by dressing it
   up with fancy graphics and audio.
   Furthermore, educational software cannot
   ever compete with multimillion-dollar
   commercial games
Game Genres
•   Action-adventure games
•   Role-playing games
•   Sports
•   Massively Multiplayer Online games
•   Platform games
•   Simulation games
•   Strategy
•   Racing
•   Shooters
•   Fighting
•   Puzzle
•   Matching            Resource:wikipedia
Advantages
• Digital games provide a great incentive for
  students to learn (Bowmaw,1982) (Bracey,1992)
• enhance the effectiveness of learning (Appleman &
  Goldsworthy, 1999; Saltzman, 1999).

• Games provide competition, and competition
  can be a very effective method in motivating
  individuals. (Deci, Beteley, Kahle, Abrams, & Porac, 1981; Malone &
  Lepper, 1987).
Advantages                 (cont)


• Games support, reinforce and accelerate
  learning, and support higher-order cognitive
  development (de Freitas & Oliver, 2006; de Freitas, 2005; Klabbers, 2003;
  Shawn Green & Bavelier, 2003).

• Game-based learning stimulates critical
  thinking, information gathering and sharing, and
  collective problem-solving (Harris,1994) (Walliser,1998)
Advantages        (cont)


• Video games can stimulate real-time
  brainstorming thereby enhancing students’
  abilities to develop ideas. (Bork and King,1998)
• The process of playing games can familiarize
children with the environment they live in and
  create their worlds of imagination (Piaget,1965)
Advantages       (cont)


• The use of learning games as a learning tool
  and concluded that game-like formats could be
  more effective at capturing learners’ attention
  than traditional media such as textbooks. (Wood,
 2001)
Disadvantages
• The public perception on games are mostly in a
  very negative sense
• Violence and gender equity issues
• Most current games can be very sedentary
  activities
• Time consuming
• Cost
• Take some time to implement
      Effective Learning:
1% Inspiration, 99% Perspiration?
• Questions - Comments
• THANKS…

				
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