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					The Biosphere
The Order of Things….
   Subatomic Particles  Atoms
    molecules  macromolecules 
    Organelles  Cells  tissues  Organs
     Organisms 
   (Ecological Order…) Populations 
    Communities  Ecosystems  Biomes
     Biosphere
Biogeography
   The study of the distribution of
   organisms and the processes that
   underlie distribution patterns (a
   central question – evolutionary
   and ecological answer -
Biogeographic Realms
Factors that Affect Distribution
        Geologic history
        Topography
        Climate
        Species interactions
Biosphere

   Sum total of the places in which

    organisms live

   Includes portions of the hydrosphere,

    lithosphere, and atmosphere
Climate

    Average weather condition in a region
    Affected by:
        amount of incoming solar radiation
        prevailing winds
        elevation
        precipitation
Climagraph, San Diego, CA
More Climagraphs
Fig. 5.4
The Atmosphere

    Three layers
        Outer mesosphere

        Middle stratosphere (includes ozone
         layer)

        Inner troposphere (where air is warmed
         by the greenhouse effect)
Earth’s Atmosphere
    Ozone Layer
         Region 17 to 27 kilometers above sea
          level in the stratosphere
         Molecules of ozone absorb most layers
          of ultraviolet light
         Protects living organisms from excess
          exposure to UV light
3O2 - 2O3 (ozone)
Warming the Atmosphere

   Solar energy warms the atmosphere
    and sets global air circulation patterns
    in motion




                                       Figure 49.4
                                        Page 890
Rotation and Wind Direction
   Earth rotates
    faster under the
    air at the equator
    than it does at the
    poles
   Deflection east
    and west
                          Figure 49.4
                           Page 890
    Global Wind Patterns




Trade winds, doldrums, and horse latitudes

Red Arrows Indicate Very Strong Winds
Seasonal Variation
   Northern end of Earth’s axis tilts toward
    sun in June and away in December
   Difference in tilt causes differences in
    sunlight intensity and day length
   The greater the distance from the
    equator, the more pronounced the
    seasonal changes
Earth’s Axis Tilts
Ocean Currents
   Upper waters move in currents that distribute
    nutrients and affect regional climates




                                           Figure 49.6
                                            Page 892
Rain Shadow

    Air rises on the windward side, loses
     moisture before passing over the
     mountain




                                             Figure 49.7
                                              Page 893
Monsoons
   A monsoon is defined as a seasonal shift in
    wind direction, being derived from the Arabic
    word "mausim", meaning season.
    Affect continents north and south of warm-
    water oceans
   Can cause seasonal variation in rains
Air Moves from Cool to Warm
Regions
Coastal Breezes
   Breeze blows in direction of warmer region
   Direction varies with time of day




Afternoon                        Night

                                           Figure 49.8
                                            Page 893
Biogeographic Realms
   Eight areas in which plants and
    animals are somewhat similar

   Maintain their identity because of
    climate and physical barriers that tend
    to maintain isolation between species
Biogeographic Realms
Biomes
   Regions of land characterized by
    habitat conditions and community
    structure
   Distinctive biomes prevail at certain
    latitudes and elevations
   A biogeographic realm generally
    composed of many biomes
Fig. 5.2
Olympic NP
   The most famous temperate rainforest
    is in the Olympic National Park of
    Washington state.
   It is locates on the western slope of an
    Olympic mountain where it gets about
    200 inches of rain per year.
            Temperate Rainforest Great
            Smoky Mountains NP
               Each 1,000 feet of elevation gained is
                the equivalent of moving 250 miles
                north. This creates a temperature
                gradient combined with
               additional precipitation (GT 100 inches
                per year) classifies small sections of the
                Park as a temperate rainforest.
http://www.great.smoky.mountains.national-park.com/info.htm
Forests in the Great Smoky
Mountains

   Five forest types dominate the Great Smoky
    Mountains.
   The spruce-fir forest caps the Park's highest
    elevations. (4500 – 5500 ft)
   A northern hardwood forest dominates the middle
    to upper elevations from 3,500- 5,000 feet.
   Drier ridges in and around the Park hold a pine-oak
    forest.
   A hemlock forest often grows along stream banks.
   The cove hardwood forest lines the valleys
    throughout the Park.
Fig. 5.3
Hot Spots
   Portions of biomes that show the
    greatest biodiversity

   Conservationists are working to
    inventory and protect these regions

   24 hot spots hold more than half of all
    terrestrial species
Conservation International’s
Definition
   Conservation International defines
    hotspots as "regions that harbor a great
    diversity of endemic species and, at the
    same time, have been significantly
    impacted and altered by human
    activities."
    Hotspots Map




http://www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/sectors/env/biodiversity_eastasia.html
    Ecoregions
   Large areas of globally important
    biomes or water provinces

   Currently vulnerable to extinction

   Targeted by World Wildlife Fund for
    special study and conservation efforts
      WWF global 2000 Project
          “WWF has ranked the terrestrial Global 200
           ecoregions by their conservation status -
           classifying those ecoregions that are
           considered critical, endangered, or vulnerable
           as a result of direct human impacts, and
           those that are relatively stable or intact.
           Nearly half (47%) of the terrestrial
           ecoregions are considered critical or
           endangered; another quarter (29%) are
           vulnerable; and only a quarter (24%) are
           relatively stable of intact.”
http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/global200/pages/mapdownload.htm#map3
Map of WWF’s Ecoregions
Soil Characteristics
       Amount of humus
       pH
       Degree of aeration
       Ability to hold or drain water
       Mineral content
        Soil Profiles
   Layer structure of soil
   Soil characteristics
    determine what plants
    will grow and how well



                              Rainforest   Desert    Grassland

                                                    Figure 49.12
                                                     Page 896
Deserts
   Less than 10 centimeters annual
    rainfall, high level of evaporation
   Tend to occur at 30 degrees north and
    south and in rain shadows
   One-third of land surface is arid or
    semiarid
Sonoran Desert
Temperate Grasslands
Precipitation less than 60 centimeters per
  year and greater than 10 cm per year

Temperature range -5 to 20 C0 (usually)
Grasslands
Dry Shrublands
and Woodlands
   Semiarid regions with cooler, wet
    winters and hot, dry summers


   Tend to occur in western or southern
    coastal regions between latitudes of
    30 and 40 degrees
Dry Scrubland
      Savannas
         “A savanna is a rolling grassland, dotted
          with trees, which can be found between
          a tropical rainforest and desert biomes.”

         “There are actually two very different
          seasons in a savanna; a very dry
          season (winter), and a very wet season
          (summer).”
http://www.rain.org/global-garden/biomes/BIOME_SA.HTM
Map of Savannas
African Savanna
Forest Biomes
 Tall trees form a continuous canopy
     Evergreen broadleaves in tropical
      latitudes
     Deciduous broadleaves in most
      temperate latitudes
     Evergreen conifers at high temperate
      elevations and at high latitudes
Evergreen Broadleaf Tropical
Forest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Evergreen Forest, Pacific
Coast
Taiga
   Biome that borders the artic tundra
   Few trees
   Most common tree is the black spruce
   Can be considered an ecotone
   Low bio - productivity and diversity
Taiga
Taiga
Arctic Tundra

   Occurs at high
    latitudes
   Permafrost lies
    beneath           Do not post
                      on Internet
    surface
                          Arctic tundra in Russia in summer
   Nutrient
                                                  Figure 49.19
                                                    Page 903
      Alpine Tundra
   Occurs at high
    elevations
   No underlying
    permafrost
   Plants are low
    cushions or mats as
    in Arctic tundra      Do not post
                          on Internet
                                 Figure 49.19
                                  Page 903
 Lakes
       Bodies of standing freshwater
       Eutrophic: shallow, nutrient-rich, has
        high primary productivity
       Oligotrophic: deep, nutrient-poor, has
        low primary productivity
                 Lake Zonation
LITTORAL                                 LITTORAL
                     LIMNETIC
                     PROFUNDAL               Figure 49.21
                                              Page 904
Thermal Layering
   In temperate-zone lakes, water can
    form distinct layers during summer




             THERMOCLINE




                                    Figure 49.22
                                     Page 904
Seasonal Overturn
   In spring and fall, temperatures in the
    lake become more uniform
   Oxygen-rich surface waters mix with
    deeper oxygen-poor layers
   Nutrients that accumulated at bottom
    are brought to the surface
Eutrophication
   Enrichment of a body of water with
    nutrients

   Can occur naturally over long time span

   Can be triggered by pollutants
Streams

   Begin as springs
    or seeps
   Carry nutrients                 Do not post

    downstream                      on Internet


   Solute concentrations influenced by
    streambed composition and human
    activities                      Figure 49.23
                                           Page 905
      Ocean Provinces
                  neritic              oceanic
                  zone                 zone
   intertidal
   zone
                   continental
                   shelf
                                                       0
                                       PELAGIC         200
                            bathyal
                            shelf      PROVINCE
                BENTHIC
                PROVINCE                               1,000
                                                       2,000
                                      abyssal
                                      zone
                                                       4,000
                                          hadal zone

                                            deep-sea
Figure 49.24                                trenches   11,0000
 Page 906                                              depth (meters)
    Phytoplankton

   Floating or weakly swimming
    photoautotrophs; form the base for
    most oceanic food webs

   Ultraplankton are photosynthetic
    bacteria
Plankton Nets
Diatoms and Dinoflagellates
Primary Productivity
   Primary producers are usually the
    phytoplankton
   Productivity can vary seasonally
north temperate
                       north polar



       tropical


                                        Figure 49.25
                                         Page 906
Deep Ocean Food Webs
   Regions too dark for photosynthesis
   Marine snow supports a detrital food
    web
   Organic matter drifts down from
    shallower water
   Diverse species migrate up and down in
    water column daily
       Hydrothermal Vents
   Openings in ocean floor
    that spew mineral-rich,                       Do not post
    superheated water                             on Internet

   Primary producers are
    chemoautotrophic
    bacteria; use sulfides as
    energy source
                                Tube worms at hydrothermal vent

                                                     Figure 49.26
                                                       Page 907
Mangrove Wetlands
   Tropical saltwater ecosystem
   Form in nutrient-rich tidal flats
   Dominant plants are salt-tolerant
    mangroves
   Florida, Southeast Asia
Estuary
   Partially enclosed area where
    saltwater and freshwater mix
   Dominated by salt-tolerant plants
   Examples are Chesapeake Bay, San
    Francisco Bay, salt marshes of New
    England
    Estuarine Food Webs

   Primary producers are phytoplankton
    and salt-tolerant plants
   Much primary production enters detrital
    food webs
   Detritus feeds bacteria, nematodes,
    snails, crabs, fish
    Intertidal Zones

   Littoral zone is submerged only during
    highest tides of the year
   Midlittoral zone is regularly submerged
    and exposed
   Lower littoral is exposed only during
    lowest tides of the year
       Rocky
       Intertidal
   Grazing food webs
    prevail
   Vertical zonation is
    readily apparent
   Diversity is greatest
    in lower littoral zone            Do not post
                       Figure 49.29   on Internet
                        Page 909
Sandy Coastlines
   Vertical zonation is less obvious than
    along rocky shores
   Detrital food webs predominate
Beaches
      Beach Processes
          “Sandy beaches form by the accretion
           of sand particles, the product of
           erosion, which have been carried in
           and deposited by waves.
           Once it forms, a beach changes
           continuously. Winds are constantly
           blowing the sand - often in the opposite
           direction of the waves.”
http://www.amyingalls.net/jekyll/pages/beach/sandy_b.html
          Accretion
             Accretion: the process of growth or enlargement by
              gradual buildup. Barrier islands grow through the
              process of accretion. Currents wash the sand from
              the northern end of the island and deposit it on the
              southern tip.




The growth of the islands in this manner causes the islands to migrate
up and down the coast.
Jekyll Island is migrating south toward Florida.
Erosion

   Erosion:
    Erosion: the process
    or state of being
    slowly worn away.
    Soil is eroded by
    wind and water .
     Biotic Factors
        Crabs and other
         animals are moving
         sand from the
         bottom up as they
         emerge from their
         burrows. Crabs can
         move several tons of
         sand in one day
  http://www.amyingalls.net/jekyll/pages/beach/sandy_b.html
THE GHOST CRAB, Ocypode quadrata
Beach Dynamics
   Through the seasons, the waves
    constantly rework the sand and reshape
    the beach.
   During spring and summer, gentle
    waves deposit sand onto the beach
    platform forming a broad sandy slope
    called a berm.
Summer Sand Accretion
   During the summer, the gentle waves
    build up sand on the beach platform.
Berm

 A berm is a narrow shelf or ledge of
 sand and debris running parallel to the
 beach. It is made by the building up, or
 accretion, of sand.
Winter Sand Removal
   Through the seasons, the waves
    constantly rework the sand and reshape
    the beach.
   During the Winter, storms often remove
    sand from the berm.
   The Southerly long shore current tends
    to move the entire barrier island
    southward.
Sand Dunes
   Sand dunes are vital to the barrier
    island ecosystem. They provide shelter
    for shorebirds and sea turtles.
Dune Sand Reservoirs
   Dunes also provide the necessary sand
    supply for the constantly changing
    beach.
    This supply of sand helps to control
    beach erosion - a problem many
    beaches experience.
    Sand dunes provide the first line of
    defense from severe storms and
    hurricanes.
Dune Zonation
   There are three different zones in the
    sand dunes: primary dunes,
    secondary dunes, and the interdune
    meadow.
   As the dunes get older, they migrate
    back toward the maritime forest.
Interdune Meadows
    Between the dunes in a interdune
    meadow, water will begin to collect. If
    there is enough soil to hold this water,
    a swamp will form.
   These swamps are called sloughs
    (pronounced slews).
Role of Freshwater
   Because they are far enough back from
    the ocean, sloughs contain fresh, and
    not salt water.
   Fresh water allows more animals and
    plants to live and grow.
   If enough time passes, the slough will
    find itself in a maritime forest.
      Later, alligator - 9-footer
      comes ashore on St. Simons

       Fri, Aug 23, 2002
       By KAREN SLOAN
       The Brunswick News
          Tourists were not the only ones who wanted to enjoy
          the sun and surf on the beach near the old U.S.
          Coast Guard Station on St. Simons Island Thursday.
          A 9-foot alligator was found about 10 a.m. lingering
          in the waters about 20 feet from the beach….



http://www.thebrunswicknews.com/local/278347593804907.php
    Upwelling
Upward
movement of
water along a
coast; replaces
surface waters
that move away
from shore

                  Figure 49.31
                   Page 910
ENSO
   El Nino Southern Oscillation

   Climactic event that involves changes in
    sea surface temperature and air circulation
    patterns in the equatorial Pacific Ocean
    (Western Pacific waters become warmer)
    Between ENSOs

   Warm water and heavy rainfall move
    west across the Pacific
   Warm moist air rises in the western
    Pacific causing storms
   Upwelling of cool water along western
    coasts
    During an ENSO

   Trade winds weaken and warm water
    flows east across the Pacific
   Sea surface temperatures rise
   Upwelling along western coasts ceases
   Heavy rainfall occurs along coasts,
    droughts elsewhere
       Cholera Connection
   Cholera outbreaks
    correlate with rises in
    sea temperature
   Copepod population
    increases when
                                                  Do not post
                                                  on Internet
    phytoplankton             Copepod host of Vibrio cholerae
    increase in warming       harbors dormant stage

    seas                                              Figure 49.34
                                                        Page 913

				
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