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					              Volume 3 Issue 2                                                                June-August, 1999

  Message from the Administrator
Dear Colleagues:                         encourage each and every one of you to          Internationally he has presented, co-
It is with great pleasure that this      become as active in the division as pos-        ordinated, and organized numerous
latest issue of Intercambios gives       sible. It will take all of us to make our di-   seminars and workshops on the Span-
me the opportunity to again be in        vision what we want it to become. Bring         ish language. Since 1990, he has
contact with all of you, the members     your ideas, your interests, your talent,        taught several courses to the staff of
of the Spanish Language Division of      and your leadership to this newsletter.         the Ministry of Public Administration
the American Translators Associa-        We will need that and much more.                in Spain regarding ways to modernize
tion.                                       Plans are already underway for the           the administrative language they use.
   This summer our newsletter is         ATA Annual Conference in St. Louis. As          He has also contributed to the Virtual
celebrating its second anniversary.      you will see in the preliminary program         Center of the Cervantes Institute, and
Over the past two years, Intercam-       that soon will be arriving in your mailbox,     is the author of the Vademécum del
bios has continued to provide timely     there will be a good number of excellent        Español Urgente and co-author of the
articles of interest to our profession   presentations and workshops related to          Manual de Español Urgente of the
and has become an important com-         Spanish translation at this year’s confer-      Agencia EFE in Madrid. He has coor-
munication tool and a membership         ence. Our thanks to Andre Moskowitz,            dinated and compiled several publica-
service of excellent quality. Once       our Assistant Administrator and Chair of        tions for the Agencia EFE on linguis-
more, our thanks to Pilar Saslow, our    the Division Conference Committee, and          tic matters, including El Idioma
dedicated editor, and to all our col-    to committee member Harvie Jordan, for          Español en las Agencias de Prensa
leagues who help her put our news-       helping coordinate the scheduling of            (1990), El Neologismo Necesario
letter together.                         sessions and organizing our social event.       (1992), and El
   Our division has again reached           I am also pleased to announce that           Idioma Español en el Deporte (1992),
new pinnacles with more than 1378        philologist Alberto Gómez Font, director        and he is also the founder and mo d-
members. My most profound grati-         of the Departamento del Español Urgente         erator of the discussion forum on the
tude and welcome to all of you who       of the Agencia EFE in Madrid, Spain, has        use of Spanish “Apuntes” at
have put your confidence in our          accepted our invitation to be the official      <> on the Internet.
division and joined its ranks. We        guest speaker for the division. He will         It will be a privilege and an honor to
continue to draft new plans to offer     present a session on the Departamento           have him speak especially for our divi-
new services to the membership,          de Español Urgente and a preconference          sion at the St. Louis conference.
and while some of them are not ma-       seminar entitled “Names and Places and          Please do not miss this opportunity to
terializing as soon as expected, we      Their Inhabitants: Tradition, Translation       listen to such an important personality
will not give up until they become a     and Transcription.” Alberto has contrib-        and authority on Spanish.
reality. Again, I enthusiastically       uted several articles to Intercambios.

                                                      IN THIS ISSUE

  Calendar of events                                   2          Searching the Internet                               11
  Third Forum in Vic, Spain, Hailed a Success          3          The Bottom Line                                      13
  Where do the Missouri and the Mississippi Meet       3          Nosotros: perfil profesional                         15
  Book Review: Multicultural Spanish Dictionary        4          Numbers: Mix and Match                               17
  Quality Cannot Be Reviewed Into a Translation        5          ¿Quién o qué es “Emilio”, “E-mail”o “Imeil”?         19
  Community translation & interpretation in rural                 De las letras mayúsculas                             21
  areas                                                7          Centro de Información Victoria Ocampo                22
  Localización y traducción de software                9          Diez errores típicos en traducción                   23


           I ntercambios                                             Calendar of Professional Events
              Volume 3, No.2                                         compiled by Daniel MacDougall
           June-August, 1999
ATA Headquarters
225 Reinekers Lane, Ste. 590                Rogelio Camacho Seminars for Trans-           has translated the works of Isabel Allende,
Alexandria, VA 22314                        lators & Interpreters: Check dates for        Carlos Fuentes, and many others into Eng-
Phone:     703-683-6100                     your city in 1999 in USA, Mexico, and         lish. Tel: 305-274-3434, Fax: 305-648-0602,
                                            Canada. Seminar topics are: Translating       e-mail:
Fax:       703-683-6122
                                            Crime Scene Investigation Terminology,
                                            Translating Personal Legal Documents,         September
Website:              Translating Contracts for the U.S./           El curso Gestión de terminolgía y traduc-
                                            Mexican Market, Criminal Investigation in     ción se llevará a cabo en Alumñecar
Administrator                               Mexico City, Criminial Prosecution in         (España) entre el 30 de agosto y 3 de sep-
Alicia Marshall                             Mexico City, Crime Scene Investigation        tiembre de 1999. Organizado por la Univer-
1550 Asbury Avenue,                         Protocol in Mexico, and English to Span-      sidad de Granada . Para más información
Evanston, Il 602                            ish Translations for the Private Sector       pueden escribir a
Phone:     847-869-4889                     Tel: 619-420-4200, Fax: 619-420-5200, e-
                                            mail: URL: www.             Entre septiembre y octubre de 1999, el De-
E-mail     AliciaMarshall
                                                              partamento de Traducción de la Universi-
                                                                                          dad Autónoma de Barcelona (Edificio K,
                                            The Southern California School of In-         08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Va llés),
Assistant Administrator                     terpretation offers state certifications as   Barcelona. Tel: 93 581 27 61/62 Fax: 93 581
Andre Moskowitz                             a medical, administrative hearings, or        27 62) organizará un Curso de traducción
1040 Evelyn Avenue, Apt. 2                  court interpreter. For details: Tel: 562-     jurídica al castellano. Para obtener infor-
Albany, CA 94706                            863-0026 Fax: 310-544-8288 URL: http://       mación detallada, disponen del si-guiente
Phone:     510-527-8659            .                        correo electrónico:
Fax:       510-527-8662
E-mail:                  The University of Charleston, SC offers       SpanSIG bimonthly meeting of AATIA
                                            both a Graduate Certificate and Master of     (Austin Area Translators and Interpreters
                                            Arts program in court interpreting. For       Association) Saturday, September 11, from
Newsletter Editor
                                            further information and application forms     10AM-12 noon at the Austin History Cen-
Pilar Saslow
                                            contact the Graduate School Office via e-     ter, Guadalupe & 9th streets, Tel.: 512-441-
289 Meadowlark Drive
                                            mail: or via telephone:      5582, Fax: 512-441-3983 or e-mail: HarvieJor-
Ballston Sp a, NY 12020                     843-953-5614 or URL:   URL: http://aatia.
Phone:     518-884-8072                     ~legalint.                                    org/
Fax:       518-884-9507
E-mail:    pilarsaslow                      August                             Terminología médica para fines de tra-        Special thanks to Theresa López, Carlo Ori-
E-mail:             ducción e interpretación, August 16-20        ana, Harvie Jordan, and Diane Teichman
                                            1999 7PM-9PM Enrollment and fees are          for providing information for this column.
                                            due by August 13. Location: CESLAA
                                            Centro de Estudios de Lingüística Apli-       The writer of this column has been in-
Patricia Jacobs, Cristina Lambert, Di-
                                            cada (CESLAA), Matías Romero 102,             volved in the translation, teaching, and
ana Sherer.
                                            Colonia del Valle                             interpretation of Spanish for more than
                                            Ciudad de México, D.F. 03100                  twenty years. He resides in South Carolina.
Opinions expressed in this Newsletter       Tel.: 00-52-5-575-1588
are solely those of their authors. Art i-   Fax: 00-52-5-575-1132
cles submitted become the property of       E-mail:                   If you would like your events listed in this
Intercambios and are subject to                                                           calendar, please forward pertinent infor-
                                            Literary Translation Weekend                  mation to Daniel MacDougall
editing.   Materials     for publication
                                            FLATA is sponsoring this event. Friday,
               -mailed or faxed to
may be mailed, e
                                            August 27 through Sunday, the 29th. Its
the editor at the address listed above.     main presenter is Margaret Sayers Peden,
Suggested length limits: articles 1200      a highly acclaimed U.S. translator. She
words, reviews 500 words, letters 300


                                      Third Forum in Vic, Spain, Hailed a Success
                                                 By Vernon Collins

                                         four to six-member panels of experts on     first and only conference that I have
The Third Forum on Translation in        translation and interpretation and cov-     attended where various theoretical
Vic, Spain, entitled “Training Trans-    ered such topics as didactics, transla-     camps in translation studies met and
lators and Interpreters: New Direc-      tion theory, institutional translating      discussed, face to face, their differ-
tions for the Millennium,” was held      and interpreting, literary translation,     ences. The broadest difference exists
on May 12-15, 1999 at the Universi-      new technology, research methodol-          between linguistics and cultural stud-
tat de Vic’s School of Translation       ogy, and cultural awareness. For this       ies. Current translation studies are
and Interpreting. Participants in the    article I asked some of the expert panel-   broadly fragmented into varieties of
forum included 20 professors from        ists for their insights. Mr. Lawrence       linguistics and of cultural studies. This
the Universitat de Vic’s Department      Venuti, the author of several books on      fragmentation was the most urgent is-
of Humanities, Translation and           translation (most recently The Scan-        sue debated at the Vic conference and
Documentation, which hosted the          dals of Translation: Toward an Ethics       it is likely to shape the coming debates
event, and 20 guest professors from      of Difference, 1998) and currently a        in translation studies in the new millen-
prestigious universities around the      Fulbright lecturer in translation studies   nium.”
world. Also in attendance were 55        at the Universitat de Vic, was kind            According to Mr. Venuti, however,
translators and interpreters from the    enough to tell me the following: “What      the most important result of the
United States, England, Hungary,         made the Vic conference unique was          conference was “…the general sense
Finland, Sweden, Italy, Kuwait,          not only the format---the idea that par-    that the different constituencies in
Mexico, Guatemala, and from Span-        ticipants were asked to read other par-     translation studies could fruitfully dis-
ish universities in the Canary Is-       ticipants’ papers beforehand in order       cuss their differences, even if
lands, Vigo, and Madrid.                 to discuss them at the conference---but     the conference produced no clear-cut
   The plenary sessions were led by      mainly the issues raised: this is the       compromises or reconciliations. It

                             Where Do the Missouri and the Mississippi Meet?
                             By Ann G. Macfarlane, ATA Conference Organizer

 Where do the Missouri and the             Wednesday (there is an extra fee for      events in the planning stages. If you
 Mississippi meet? In St. Louis, of        these three-hour, in-depth presenta-      are an interpreter, or work in science
 course, which is where we hope            tions). I offer my heartfelt thanks to    and technology, or love literature; if
 many members of the Spanish               those of you who are sharing your         you are in business for yourself, or if
 Language Division will meet for           expertise with your colleagues by         you want to know more about train-
 our fortieth annual conference            making presentations in November.         ing and pedagogy, St. Louis will have
 November 3 to 6, 1999. As confer-         Your generosity is very much appre-       much to offer.
 ence organizer, I’ve just put the         ciated.                                      The conference will have a number
 Preliminary Program “to bed,” and            Educational sessions are not the       of “extra-curricular activities” as well.
 I can report that we have a very          whole of the conference, however.         This year we will offer a bowling eve-
 strong slate of Spanish-language          In addition, there will be our custom-    ning for those who enjoy the sport,
 presentations.                            ary networking opportunities              as well as tours of local attractions
    Thanks to the efforts of Andre         through the Job Exchange, open            including St. Louis churches, the
 Moskowitz, chair of the Division          throughout the conference; the Net-       Cahokia Mounds, and Forest Park,
 Conference Committee, and the             working Reception on Thursday             home of the 1904 St. Louis Fair (a
 indefatigable Alicia Agnese and           evening; and the SPD reception, a         grand greensward larger than Central
 Pimpi Coggins, organizers of the          big hit in Hilton Head, which will be     Park). St. Louis is famous for its music
 Spanish Forum, we have nineteen           repeated again this year. (The first      around the world, but its interesting
 Spanish-language educational              two are open to all conference-           ethnic neighborhoods are perhaps
 presentations, a record for the           goers, but you will need to sign up       less well known. And of course, if
 ATA. And that’s not even count-           for the reception when you register       you like games of chance, there is
 ing four Spanish-specific pre-            for the conference).                      riverboat gambling available on the
 conference seminars, available on            Other divisions also have their        aforesaid Mississippi. The Regal


              (continued on page 4)
                                          Multicultural Spanish Dictionary
(continued from page 3)
                                          Schreiber Publishing, 1999
should be considered the first in a
                                          ISBN: 1-887563-45-8
series of dialogues that are
                                          Price: $24.95
necessary to advance translator re-
search and training.”
                                          Reviewed by Alicia Gordon
   Teresa Julio, the forum’s general
                                          This is a cute little glossary at a reasonable price, purporting to show the diversity
coordinator and a faculty member of
                                          of Spanish usage across the Spanish-speaking world. I can see it gracing the
the Universitat de Vic, echoed Mr.
                                          shelves of a Barnes and Noble, but gracing a translator’s shelf? What translator will
Venuti’s sentiments: “Personally, I
                                          not take them to task for the very example placed on the cover of the book and in
think this forum was a success be-
                                          the publicity:
cause we reached our intended goal
of generating debate among the par-
ticipants instead of having them sim-
                                          Mexico: Super               El Salvador: Pulpería
ply read their papers. In fact, the
                                          Spain: Supermercado         Colombia: Mercado
discussions were so spirited that
                                          Cuba: Bodega                Costa Rica: Compras
many of the sessions had to be ex-
                                          Puerto Rico: Colmado        Venezuela: Abastos
tended beyond their regularly sched-
                                          Dom. Republic: Víveres      Panama: Abarrotería
uled two and one-half hours. That
                                          Guatemala: Tienda           Uruguay: Almacén
alone says a great deal about the
participants’ interest in the subject
                                              My eye jumped to Spain, and granted it’s changed since the 10 years I lived
matter. Having the opportunity to
                                          there, but I never would have called the corner market a supermercado, nor would
hear world-renowned experts on
                                          residents today. I might wonder what ultramarinos are, but I won’t find that out in
translation and interpretation train-
                                          this book. So when it comes down to the crunch, will this glossary be helpful? Or
                                          could it lead to mistranslation?
share their views and insights with
                                              The editor seems to have approached this as an anecdotal exercise rather than
such openness and energy was truly
                                          as a serious research tool, and that’s fine and good, but it brings the book down to
                                          the level of a mini tour guide. One translator from each country—the book lists 18
   The Universitat de Vic’s School of
                                          contributors, and claims most are ATA members—is just not enough to provide
Translation and Interpreting cur-
                                          any depth of coverage or cross-checking for accuracy. An introductory disclaimer
rently has 380 students and offers
                                          in the glossary stating that it would be impossible to be exhaustive does not help
undergraduate, master’s, and doc-
                                          the issue.
toral degrees in translation and in-
                                          While lookup is easy and there are serviceable entries for terms such as “bus,”
terpretation, a master’s degree in
                                          “car,” “to drive,” “to park,” “refrigerator,” and so on, the terms I’ve dealt with in my
conference interpreting, and an in-
                                          work (for example, “school dropout”) are nowhere to be found. Others fail to alert
tensive course in liaison interpreting.
                                          you to the nuances words can have in different parts of the world, like chaqueta or
The First Forum in Vic concerned the
                                          coger. For those who do drug-related translations, would you think to look under
translation of philosophical materi-
                                          “marijuana cigarette,” or might you have hoped to find porro under “joint,” and are
als; the Second Forum dealt with
                                          there not other countries besides Argentina that call the thing a porro? And what
the translation of poetry. The Fourth
                                          about the habichuelas I used to eat in Spain? It would appear that word isn’t used
Forum in Vic, tentatively scheduled
                                          in the peninsula. Nor did it have the Mexican name for “aloe vera” that I could have
for 2000, will cover the subject of
                                          used with my gardeners the other day. In addition, no coverage is given to U.S.
translating for the theater.
                                          variants of Spanish.
                                              For a book like this to make sense, it needs to go the extra mile, aiming precisely
Vernon Collins is an ATA member
                                          for being comprehensive, and indicating nuances in meaning, accepted and unac-
and an in-house translator em-
                                          cepted usage, slang, and colloquialisms. Otherwise, we’re best off if we try to stick
ployed by Rotary International in
                                          to as neutral a form of Spanish as possible so we don’t put our foot in our mouth, or
Evanston, Illinois
                                          to pull out another resource if we need to look up the local name for some nuts and
                                              Imagine your script translation for the next James Bond film in Colombia, lis ting
                                          the stuntman as “aquel que realiza los trucos.” I can just see the credits rolling.

                                          After a stint as a sound engineer, commercial producer and artist manager in the
                                          entertainment industry, Alicia found her true love translating Spanish and French


                                Quality Cannot Be Reviewed Into a Translation
                                           By Mercedes M. Pellet

Dr. W. Edwards Deming revolution-          right type of dictionaries and refer-      the translator, NOT the text -as-approved-
ized post-war Japan with the basic         ence material. If, for instance, our       by-the-marketing-and-legal departments.
concepts of the modern quality             area of expertise is computer technol-     On the other hand, if the text is part of a
movement. One of his 14 Points for         ogy, we may be able to handle a gen-       required legal process, it will be neces-
Management summarizes a simple             eral medical translation but we might      sary to maintain the ambiguities that have
concept: “Stop dependence on in-           be out of our depth when translating       been purposely drafted into the docu-
spection to achieve quality. Eliminate     a highly technical paper on genetic        ment.
the need for inspection... by building     engineering. I have found that it is           The U.S. is an essentially monolingual
quality into the product in the first      not always wise to take the client’s       country that is still trying to identify the
place.”                                    word regarding the type of text that       place of translation as a business. There-
    Five years after Dr. Deming’s          needs to be translated. There have         fore, we in the translation business
death, the translation industry is still   been many instances where I have           should not raise our eyebrows when a
trying to determine who has the ulti-      been prepared to do a translation of       client expresses something that we know
mate responsibility for quality. Is it     a piece on electronics, only to find       to be fallacious. For instance, when I hear
the client? The translator? The trans-     that the subject is quality or cus-        that a document has to be translated into
lation company? The independent            tomer service. The only electronic         Portuguese Spanish, I recognize that I
reviewer? The client’s reviewer? To        terminology is the one used by the         need to be very inquisitive to make sure
apply Dr. Deming’s concept to trans-       client in the purchase order.              that the translation is what the client
lation, we have to start with us — as          The targets of the source text         wants and needs. That is why the ques-
translators, we are the ones that must     and the translated text may be differ-     tion of “Where is the translated text go-
build quality into the product in the      ent. This difference was brought           ing” is important.
first place. And the way to do that is     home to me many years ago when I
by disciplining ourselves to system-       translated a training course for Latin     Pre-Translation Check
atically analyze the source text before    American mechanics. The target                After these basic questions have been
even thinking about translation.           audience of the English program            answered, I use a simple checklist for
                                           consisted of unionized mechanics,          each translation to make sure that I follow
What Are We Looking For?                   with an average annual salary of           a systematic approach while doing the
   When reviewing a text that is go-       $30,000 and firmly entrenched in the       text -specific analysis.
ing to be translated, there are four       U.S. middle class. However, the tar-          Some of these questions have helped
basic questions that have to be an-        get of the Spanish program may have        me to incorporate quality into the basic
swered at the beginning:                   an annual salary ten times lower and       translation. I am sure that many of you
• What type of text is it?                 belonged to the lowest economic            have similar checklists, either on paper or
• Who is the target of the source          and social class. The examples used        as mental guidelines. As anybody who
      text and the translated text?        in the video would not work, regard-       has ever had to correct a bad translation
• Why does someone want to pay             less of how well I translated them,        can attest, Dr. Deming was right: It is a lot
      to have this text translated?        unless they were adapted to a differ-      easier — and cheaper — to incorporate
• Where is it going?                       ent target audience.
   It is not a coincidence that these          The “why does someone want to          INTERCAMBIOS IS PRINTED AND
are the same questions that every          pay to get a text translated” is sig-
young reporter is taught to ask when       nificant to the translator because it        MAILED FROM ATA HEADQUAR-
covering a story. These are the ques-      signals how much flexibility the            TERS. THEREFORE, IF YOU HAVE
tions that lead to the essential facts,    translator has in stretching the text        ADDRESS CHANGES CONTACT :
which, as translators, can be called       to meet the end user, rather than
“positioning facts” because they           leaving it up to him or her to figure it
                                                                                             225 Reinekers Lane, Ste. 590
serve as preliminary guidelines.           out. For instance, if a client wants a
   The type of text is important be-       corporate English text to be used to                  Alexandria, VA 22314
cause it determines whether it is go-      market a product to France, a highly                Phone:    703-683-6100
ing to require special research,           accurate translation that sticks to the             Fax:      703-683-6122
whether we are going to know how to        original like Velcro might be a disas-              E-mail:
handle it, and whether we have the         ter and the unhappy client will blame


 Message from the Admin-
                                                            (continued on
                                            I am sure you will all enjoy page 6)
                                                                          it and find      continued efforts.
                                           it useful now that it is operational.                           1.
 istratror...                                                                                   (
                                           Once Espalista is successfully work-
 (continued from page 1)                   ing, we will devote our energies to            JOINff OTHER MEMBERS
                                           developing our web page and expect             OF THE SPANISH LAN-
      More details about the 1999          to have it operational in the course of              f
 Annual Conference, including a            the year. Please contact Xosé or Cris-          GUAGE DIVISION VIA
 brief description of all of the Span-     tina if you are interested in helping or             l
 ish-related sessions, will be in-         if you have any questions or com-
 cluded in our next newsletter is-         ments or, more importantly, if you             ♦ Do lyou have to verify usage of a
 sue. And while on the subject of          wish to volunteer your talents.                  term?
 the Annual Conference, let’s not               We certainly look forward to              ♦ Do fyou need to know how a
 forget our great event last year. I       your participation and input to make                 f
                                                                                            word is spelled?
                                           our division the great professional                  f
 encourage each of you to take                                                            ♦   Do you need to contact other
 advantage of the educational op-          resource we want it to become.                     colleagues who mainly translate
 portunities offered last year by                                                             English & Spanish?
 obtaining a copy of the SPD publi-                            Alicia Marshall                    .
 cation compiling several of the
 Spanish-related papers presented                                                         All you Ineed is an e-mail account and
 at Hilton Head. Many copies have                                                         willingness to participate.
 already been sold, and at $10 each               ATTENTION                                        a
                                                                                          So far, we have 300 suscribers and the
 it is an excellent buy. Place your           DO NOT MISS THE                             discussions and questions have been
 order with ATA Headquarters.                                                             very interesting.
      ATA Headquarters has ad-               SPANISH LANGUAGE
 vised us that the division roster          DIVISION RECEPTION!                           To suscribe send the message:
 should be in our hands soon after                                                                e
                                                                                          suscribe to:
 the ATA Membership Directory is         Make sure you sign up for the recep-
 distributed. So be patient and          tion when you register for the confer-
                                         ence. Last year the tickets were sold                    o
 watch your mailbox. Regarding
                                                                                          If you have any technical questions,
 Espalista, we thank Xosé Castro         out!
                                                                                          contact the list moderator:
 and Cristina Márquez for their                                                                   w

                                         draws you, too, to the meeting place of         Jornadas de traducción e
                                         the two great rivers, the Mississippi
(continued from page 3)                                                                       interpretación
                                         and the Missouri. I’d love to meet you
                                         in St. Louis!                                       inglés – español
Riverfront, a pleasant establishment
                                         Useful sources:
offering us a highly favorable room
                                 and www.                   Washington, D.C.
rate ($118 plus tax), is just minutes
                                                                    Octubre de 1999
from the river, the Gateway Arch,
                                          See also the April 16, 1999 issue of the
and the Museum of Westward Ex-
                                         New York Times for a lengthy article                     organizadas por
                                         by R. W. Apple, Jr. (pp. B29 and 38)
   Recent issues of the ATA
                                         and the April 1999 issue of Gourmet               alicia agnese & associates
Chronicle have carried more details
about transportation, history, and       for “St Louis: A Dining Guide” (pp. 70-
                                         79).                                                     presentadas por
ambience in St. Louis. A few other
                                                                                         Traducción       Interpretación
sources for interesting details about
                                                                                        Alicia Agnese      Eta Trabing
the city and its attractions are given
                                                                                        Pimpi Coggins Cristina
below. I hope that you will find that
the combination of a great set of
                                                                                        Si desea más información, diríjase
Spanish-language sessions, net-
working with your lively colleagues,
and a fascinating historical city


                            Community translation and interpretation in rural areas
                                            By Katharine Allen
This article outlines some of the       interpreters to be individuals who         nity interpreter can be more complex
challenges unique to the rural com-     either work for social service agen-       and varied. Isolation is usually two-
munity interpreter and translator,      cies (usually in some primary capaci-      fold. First, there are challenges related
which I consider myself to be.          ty other than as an interpreter) or        to the job, either within an agency or
While the challenges are many, I        work as freelance interpreters hired       as a freelancer. Second, there are pro-
will focus on the following: isola-     by a variety of social service agen-       fessional development issues. (While
tion and its consequences, ethical      cies and other service providers. In       much of this discussion may not seem
issues, and pay. Discussion is          neither case are they “neutral inter-      to be strictly relevant to interpretation
based on my own experiences and         preters,” but rather act as advocates,     issues, I feel they are. As a community
musings, as well as observations        teachers and brokers for their cli-        interpreter, almost all facets of your job
from several colleagues. Over the       ents, helping them to gain access to       are connected to the goals of commu-
past few years, as I have gained        services and to facilitate better com-     nicating and advocating for your cli-
access to professional organiza-        munication and cultural understand-        ents.)
tions, the breadth and scope of the     ing. A community translator plays              In rural areas, social service provid-
translation and interpretation field    the same role, except with the written     ers generally are underfunded, under-
has become much more clear to me.       word. I understand that “community         staffed, and have difficulty recruiting
Rarely, however, do I see the reali-    translator” hasn’t exactly made it         qualified personnel. Agencies are
ties faced by rural interpreters and    into the lexicon of accepted speciali-     lucky to have any bilingual staff at all.
translators reflected in articles, at   zations in the translation field. None-    Usually, one person is hired to “serve”
seminars and conferences, or in                                                    the ethnic minority, often to fulfill state
online discussions. I believe the                                                  or federal mandates attached to fund-
challenges to the rural language
professional are relevant to the
                                              In neither case are                  ing. If you are this lone bilingual em-
                                                                                   ployee, it is likely that you will experi-
field in general and are worthy of               they “neutral                     ence several consequences. To begin
discussion.                                                                        with, regardless of what you were
    I live in an “extreme rural”               interpreters”, but                  hired to do, you become the Hispanic
county in central eastern California,
with just over 10,000 people living
                                                 rather act as                     “expert” on staff and are expected to
                                                                                   cover all the needs of Hispanic clients.
in an area three times the size of            advocates, teachers                  Your coworkers assume you have a
Rhode Island. Hispanics comprise                                                   complete understanding of Hispanic
15 to 20% of the population. They               and brokers for                    culture as well as complete command
are a very new, fast-growing mi-                                                   of written and spoken Spanish (which,
grant community, working in low-                                                   of course, is rarely the case). They ex-
paid service sector jobs in a tour-                                                pect you to know what the community
ism-based economy. I work as a          theless, I believe they exist in any       thinks about all kinds of issues, and
Spanish language freelance com-         kind of social service setting, in         how they will react to current events,
munity interpreter and translator,      translating forms, letters, flyers, bro-   planned services or the like. Further-
hired primarily by the local schools,   chures, and newsletters. Top priority      more, it is often difficult to get the con-
health department, office of educa-     is placed on effectively outreaching       cept across that the “Hispanic commu-
tion, lawyers, early intervention       the target population, even if it          nity” is not monolithic, but is com-
agencies, and medical providers.        means significantly altering or add-       prised of many groups from differing
My professional background is in        ing to the original document. For          provinces and nationalities and that
the social service, mental health,      convenience, I will use the term com-      there can be a big difference between a
and community development are-          munity interpreter to apply to both        client who comes from a rural, versus
nas. I have also lived and worked in    interpretation and translation.            urban environment. Your agency may
Argentina and Chile. I have been        Isolation                                  be resistant to the notion that it also
involved in the translation and in-        Isolation is a major challenge to       needs to be educated as to how to
terpretation field for more than 10     most service providers in rural areas      best serve Hispanic clientele. So even
years, yet consider myself a new-       and many of the points made here           though you are hired to implement cul-
comer to the profession.                will apply to the non-bilingual work-      turally appropriate services, it can be
    For the sake of clarity in this     er as well. However, the conse-            difficult to change how services are
discussion, I consider community        quences of isolation for the commu-        provided to make them more accessi-


(continued from page 8)

         (continued on page 10)
Pre-translation Check

1. Terminology                      El subjuntivo
                                 specific terms? Have they been translated be-
Are there industry and companypor Vicente Verdú
En varias oportunidades recientes, leyendo libros o artículos, he tropezado con autores
Is there any existing terminology? Can the client provide it? In what format? del sub-
que, como los ecologistas de la lengua, alertan sobre la creciente desaparición
juntivo. En los diarios, en las conversaciones, en la radio o la televisión, se habla o es-
2. English Text
cribe ya sustituyendo el subjuntivo por el presente de indicativo o, cuando no, en las
Is there any text that should not be translated? If so, how will it be handled?
frases de condicional, empleando el subjuntivo en lugar del pretérito imperfecto. Curio-
(For example, English, followed byespañol. language in parentheses, and then
samente, no es sólo un fenómeno the target
consistent use of italicized English)
    En francés, por ejemplo, han dejado de emplearse corrientemente verbos tan
evocadores como los que terminan en eussent o assent. Quienes pretenden
3. Acronyms usándolos, pasan ahora por extravagantes. Pero en italiano sucede prác-
hablar francés
Are there any unexplained acronyms? cuando se debería expresiones como se io an-
ticamente lo mismo. Tampoco se utilizan
Should they be expanded or translated? subjuntivo ha dejado de existir entre los inmi-
dassi. Finalmente, en cuanto al inglés, el
Are there los más jóvenes.
grantes y equivalent acronyms in the target language?
    A los muchachos españoles que hablan castellano les resulta igualmente difícil, lo
4. Type of expresarse diciendo "estaremos allí cuando ella venga" y dicen: "Estaremos
que se ve, Text/Tone of English
      Type                     Tone
allí cuando ella viene". De la misma manera, a menudo, no se usa la forma "si me tocara
      Informative              Formal
la lotería me compraría un piso", sino "si me tocaba la lotería me compraría un piso". El
      Literature hundiéndoseInformal pez enfermo bajo la superficie del idioma.
subjuntivo va                   como un
      Instructional            Motivational
    Pero ¿tan grave resulta la pérdida del subjuntivo?, le preguntaron a Umberto Eco
para Technical                 Elegant
      el libro titulado significativamente El fin de los tiempos. Y Eco contestó: "Me
      Marketing                Colloquial
parece muy importante el subjuntivo porque él es el único que expresa el tiempo de la
                               Legalis tisc
hipótesis y de lo posible, de lo no-real". El subjuntivo es, en efecto, el tiempo que crea
en el habla y la escritura la Humourous
                                escena cóncava de la suposición. Gracias al subjuntivo se
añade una trasrealidad como el forro de raso a un vestido de noche o, en suma, como la
dimensión donde se desdobla el soñado cuerpo del lenguaje. La última novela de Juan
5. Unclear English/Contextual Problems
José Millás, El orden alfabético, está obsesivamente centrada en el extravío de
There are some unclear phrases/sentences su the sourcesiente el pavor de laclari-
palabras y formas. Y con la experiencia de in lectura se text which require mutilación.
fication before translating. suave del cerebro y del espíritu por el continuado desmedro
El pavor a la disgregación
Some of the source text may need to be modified to adapt it to the target audi-
del habla.

6. Colloquial Expressions
There are some colloquial expressions in the source text that will need special
handling: either by using a parallel colloquial expression in the target language,
by changing the expression to standard language or by explaining what the
expression means in the source language.
7. Contact Information
Are there any local toll-free numbers and special in-country contact references
What will be necessary for an international caller/visitor to establish contact?

8. Conversions/Measurements
Should all measurements be converted into those used in the target country?

9. Examples
Are there examples that contain country-specific names? Can they be trans-


                                           Localización y traducción de software
                                                  por Graciela Steinberg

Algunas reflexiones sobre el curso            informática comienzn a pensar en la          veinte idiomas”.
dictado en Buenos Aires durante el            comercialización de software y hard-             El papel preponderante de la ter-
mes de junio de 1999 por las traduc-          ware para el usuario final, IBM percibe      minología dentro de la localización
toras Angela Ciocca, Graciela Gian-           la importancia de la traducción en ese       de software puede analizarse desde
natelli de White y Cristina Márquez           proceso y crea el Centro de Traduccio-       distintos ángulos: la necesidad de
Arroyo                                        nes para América Latina. Este Centro se      administrar terminología y lograr que
                                              creó sobre la base del Centro de Tra-        el equipo de traducción trabaje con
Durante la última conferencia en Hil-         ducciones de Montreal, Canadá, que ya        coherencia por un lado, y la necesi-
ton Head, a la cual asistí en represen-       en 1980 tenía sistemas de traducción en      dad de crear nombres para los
tación del Colegio de Traductores de          línea y un equipo de traductores que         nuevos conceptos por el otro, ya
la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (CTPCBA),           compartía bases de datos con termi-          que la creación de nuevos produc-
tuve el placer de conocer a muchos            nología por productos entre Francia y        tos conlleva la necesidad de generar
colegas, entre ellos a Cristina Márquez       Canadá”.                                     nombres para denominarlos. Por esta
Arroyo. Desde hace unos cuantos                   Cristina recordaba que la primera        razón, actualmente, la figura del ter-
años, Cristina trabaja en localización        “localización” de un producto IBM fue        minólogo está adquiriendo una gran
de software.                                  la traducción de los teclados y manua-       importancia dentro del equipo de
    En la Argentina, este tema aparecía       les de una serie de máquinas de escribir     localización. “Generalmente, esta
principalmente en las revistas interna-       con memoria fabricadas en Lexington,         función la desempeña un represen-
cionales que habitualmente recibimos.         Kentucky. “Si en ese momento lo llama-       tante del cliente, al que los traducto-
Pero, en general, era y sigue siendo un       mos 'localización' fue porque no pudi-       res entregan sus glosarios para con-
tema desconocido para la mayoría de           mos lograr una traducción única en           validar los términos que serán poste-
nuestros colegas. En el CTPCBA pen-           español que pudiera cubrir las necesida-     riormente distribuidos entre todos
samos que una de las principales her-         des de todos los países de habla his-        los integrantes del equipo”.
ramientas para conseguir el grado de          pana. Se produjeron traducciones
reconocimiento profesional que todos          'locales' para España y el resto de Amé-     El traductor frente al terminólogo:
esperamos es la permanente capaci-            rica Latina, respectivamente.”                  El traductor es un productor de
tación profesional. Así fue que, des-             En la actualidad, las cosas han cam-     texto. Trabaja con conceptos y tér-
pués de mucho insistir, tres argentinas       biado: en la era del outsourcing, las em-    minos (términos que está producien-
pioneras en el campo de la locali-            presas tercerizan (en Argentina), o ex-      do el terminólogo). No obstante,
zación, Cristina Márquez Arroyo, Gra-         ternalizan (en España) los servicios de      necesita comprender la tarea del ter-
ciela Giannatelli de White (ambas             traducción, y las agencias, que ahora        minólogo para tomar decisiones so-
desde Estados Unidos) y Angela                son “language engineering compa-             bre neologismos o distintas formas
Ciocca (desde Argentina), antiguas            nies”, contratan al traductor-localizador.   de expresión. En realidad, muchas
compañeras de trabajo en IBM, se                   En pocas palabras, “la localización     veces, el traductor realiza tareas de
unieron electrónicamente para diagra-         es el proceso de adaptación y traduc-        terminólogo.
mar el curso que darían en Buenos             ción de aplicaciones de software a otro         “El terminólogo se inició profe-
Aires. Y no tuvo desperdicio. Durante         idioma a fin de que resulten adecuadas,      sionalmente como traductor y pro-
cuatro días nos sumergimos en un              desde el punto de vista cultural y           duce conceptos. Registra hechos de
área que se recorta claramente como           lingüístico, para un mercado local es-       la 'lengua', pero puede utilizar los
una nueva especialización del traduc-         pecífico”.                                   actos de la 'palabra' para extraer la
tor. Indudablemente, nuestra profe-               Detrás de un proyecto de locali-         información que necesita documen-
sión busca redefinirse dentro de este         zación de software generalmente hay          tar; aísla los términos del contexto y
nuevo escenario globalizado y adap-           todo un equipo que involucra no sólo al      los asocia a conceptos”. La tarea de
tarse a las nuevas necesidades con la         traductor, sino a programadores,             investigación y compilación de glo-
celeridad que hoy requiere el                 diseñadores, traductores, terminólogos       sarios y diccionarios exige una gran
tratamiento de la información. La exp e-      etc. Nuestras colegas destacaron la im-      capacidad de organización y experi-
riencia que tienen las tres es muy            portancia de las agencias en la organi-      encia práctica en consulta de dic-
sólida, porque participaron en la             zación y administración de este volu-        cionarios e identificación de neolo-
“cocina” de la localización. Así nos          men de proyectos: “la traducción debe        gismos.
comentaban: “cuando las empresas de           hacerse simultáneamente a más de                  Después de recorrer rápidamente


Community interpretation...                    sulate.” You may work for a domestic vio-       faced by the community interpreter re-
(continued from page 7                         lence agency, but clients will come to you      lates to the difficulty of continuing pro-
                                               with their immigration and legal papers,        fessional development. Forming any kind
    Other consequences of being the only       taxes, electric bills, medical woes, and em-    of network with other bilingual employees
bilingual staff member include being           ployment and housing problems, to name          doing the same kind of work or with other
asked to do time-consuming                     but a few. In order to gain their trust and     freelance translators is extremely problem-
written translations of all kinds of agency    do the job you were actually hired to do,       atic. Training, conferences and seminars
documents, without the dictionaries or         you can’t just turn them away. Most of          all take place at least a five hour’s drive
resources necessary to do a good job,          your clients come from countries without        away from the rural area I live in. In the
and without receiving extra pay for speak-     social service infrastructure, and their un-    winter, mountain passes are closed due to
ing two languages (even when this is the       familiarity with the U.S. system is a con-      snowfall, making the distances even
norm at the agency’s urban counter-            stant interpretation and teaching chal-         greater and the travel more hazardous. So
parts). Also, if you happen to be His-         lenge. I have become an expert resource         even if you are on the mailing list of
panic, you face varying degres of overt        and referral source, compiling phone num-       groups providing training, you can rarely
and covert racism, as well as just plain       bers of people from all over the state who      attend. As an employee, you are forced to
cultural ignorance within the agency and       might actually be able to provide some          “recreate the wheel” when designing
are further tokenized for being the only       kind of help.                                   service programs, even though you know
minority on staff. (The freelance commu-           As a freelancer, jack-of-all-trade issues   others are doing the same thing els e-
nity interpreter faces most of the same        affect you somewhat differently. You have       where and probably already have a lot of
consequences of being the lone staff in-       more freedom to meet the needs of your          the kinks worked out.
terpreter, except they are spread out over     clients because you aren’t restricted by            As a freelancer, access to professional
the various agencies that hire him or her. I   any agency mandates. However, people            development is very challenging. Where I
often find that educating the agency that      call on you for all kinds of interpreting and   live, there is only one other freelance in-
hires me to serve their Hispanic client is a   translating, whether or not you are familiar    terpreter, and he works mostly for the
much bigger challenge than interacting         with the subject matter. If I lived in an ur-   courts. I am the only licensed translation
with the client.)                              ban area, I would probably refer these          business in a two-county area. My only
    Another result of being the only bilin-    calls to someone more qualified. In a rural     link to the profession is online and
gual staff member is the “jack-of-all-         area, there usually isn’t anyone else. The      through professional publications, and
trades phenomenon.” On your side, you          choice for the client becomes either less       that access is relatively recent. Four years
inevitably end up providing services or        than perfect communication or none at all.      ago, there was no local Internet provider
performing job duties for which you are        So I often accept the job, educate myself       and access to the World Wide Web was
not qualified, and your clients sometimes      as best I can, and explain over and over to     a dream. Professional development there-
suffer because of it. On the client’s side,    the person hiring me what my limitations        fore becomes a challenge in creativity.
you become what my colleagues and I            are.                                            Correspondence and e-mail classes are
half-jokingly refer to as the “foreign con-        The second type of isolation problems       usually the only way of furthering trans-

los elementos de búsqueda termi-                      (pero que también funciona para           ual para ingenieros.
nológica disponibles, nuestras                        ahorrar costos)                             Nuestras colegas no ahorraron ma-
                                                   El proceso de localización es un ver-        terial a la hora de “poner manos a la
         (continúa en la página 10)            dadero desafío. A diferencia de la traduc-       obra”: repasamos una gran variedad
                                               ción convencional, el traductor se ve            de casos, distintos formatos, tipos de
  Localización y traducción...                 sumamente limitado por los espacios              archivos, sistemas de ayuda y la im-
  (viene de la página 9)                       asignados a su trabajo. En el caso del           portancia del control de calidad.
                                               firmware, que son los mensajes que
colegas destacaron la importancia de la        aparecen en el panel de control o pantalla       Herramientas de traducción
educación terminológica del cliente; es        de cristal líquido (LCD) de un dispositivo,         Los avances tecnológicos no nos
decir, cuando se lanza un nuevo pro-           el desafío es aún mayor. Como siempre, la        dejarán sin trabajo. Por el contrario,
ducto, el cliente debe tener en claro la       imaginación es nuestra gran aliada. Una          deberemos trabajar mucho más, por-
existencia e importancia de los distintos      vez definidos estos puntos es imp ortan-         que ahora se nos exige no sólo mane-
tipos de español según el mercado:             tísimo saber cuál es el registro de lengua       jar con eficiencia las complejidades de
   • América Latina (Argentina/                que se dará a la traducción; es decir, no        la lengua sino también la permanente
       México)                                 es lo mismo traducir un juego electrónico        adaptación a las nuevas herramientas
   • España                                    para niños que un manual para usuarios           tecnológicas. La necesidad de traducir
   • Neutro, o sea sin sabor regional          finales sin experiencia técnica o un man-        productos globalizados en poco


                                          SEARCHING THE INTERNET:
                                "Stumped? The answer may be on the Net...somewhere!"

How can we use the vast but u n-            longing to an individual (the quality          all lower case when entering your
wieldy resources the Internet offers        varies, so use your judgment)                  keywords.Another option is the "wild
us? What criteria can we translators           .se, .fr, .uk, .es, etc. specific country   card"(indicated by an * [asterisk] in
use with maximum efficiency in order        extensions                                     the middle of a word).
to find the most relevant, valid, cur-         Judge the quality of the language              This will yield spelling variants
rent and authoritative sites, glossa-       used on the page as to grammar, spell-         such as those between U.K. and U.S.
ries, and terms which are appropriate       ing, and use of specialized terminology.       English. The asterisk can replace up
to the register, languages, fields,         Was the page written by a native               to five letters and is good way to re-
countries, and other specifications         speaker of the respective language?            place diacriticals, which tend to turn
that our work may require?                     Evaluate the page’s content for its         into gibberish over the Internet.
   On March 27, 1999, Susan Larsson         relevance and quality: Does the page              The “percent sign” (%) replaces
repeated the popular workshop that          belong to your client company? Are the         one letter only, in Northern Light and
she and Manon Bergeron presented            links "live"and well maintained? Is it         a few other search engines. This op-
at the American Translators Associa-        current? When was the page last up-            tion is good for replacing one ac-
tion's conference last November. In         dated? Look for citations of references,       cented letter in a given word.
less than two hours, a room filled          bibliographies, and credentials.
with translators and interpreters                                                          Alta Vista
learned from, and occasionally con-         Choosing engines                                 The Boolean command "NEAR"
tributed to, Ms. Larsson's treasury of        Several search engines were dis-             means that you are searching for uses
tips and tools for searching the Inter-     cussed in specific detail. Many of the         of your keywords within the same
net. Participants also benefitted from      options and tools can be used on vari-         sentence, and within ten words of
handouts giving search-engine               ous search engines.                            each other. You can search by lan-
URLs, outlining supplementary               To search, for example, Alta Vista , one       guage; Alta Vista offers the most ex-
points, and giving concrete examples        of the best of the search engines, you         tensive list of languages.
of specific search engines, commands        must ask the right question, using one           By selecting "Set Preferences," you
and procedures.To better ensure that        or more of the following:                      can customize the Alta Vista page
a given web page or search has                                                             and you can separate pages for differ-
yielded valid information, ask your-        1   Boolean logic: "AND" "OR" "AND             ent languages or for text only, etc.
self certain questions, such as:                NOT" (.) “NEAR” (These must ap-            Then you can bookmark (save the
   Does the purpose of the page                 pear in upper case between your            URL of) your customized page in or-
match the purpose of the text you are           keywords.)                                 der to return directly to the options
translating?                                                                               you have pre-selected.
   Is the nature of the site research-      2   Symbols: _ - + "[.]"(The hyphen is           You can also search for a picture. If
oriented, commercial, technical, etc.?          equivalent to the Boolean "AND             you are looking for a picture of
(Try to match your search results to            NOT" filter. The quotation marks           Shakespeare, try typing in image:
the kind of job you are doing.)                 "lock in" the enclosed words as an         Shakespeare
   Who is the author of the site and            entire phrase so that the elements
what is that author's agenda?The                or words will not be searched for
URL (address of the web page) itself            separately.)                               Northern Light
will give you some clues when you                                                             This is one of Ms. Larsson's favor-
look at the extension, such as:             3   Truncation: cutting a word short;          ite search engines. It helps break
   .com commercial (gives you infor-            for example, policy>polic>poli             down your search results into folders.
mation from a company's point of                (etc.). (Most search engines will          There are also other categories
view)                                           allow for this technique.)                 ("folders") at the left of the screen
   .edu educational (this extension                                                        which mostly correspond to the ex-
may be ".ac" if the institution is in the     As for case sensitivity, when search-        tensions mentioned above
U.K.)                                       ing for a proper name, it is better to use     (commercial, personal, governmental,
   .gov governmental                        capital letters to begin each word             educational sites, conferences, etc.)
   .org organizationalor non-profit         (assuming that is the standard spelling           On the right of the screen the spe-
~[a proper name]a personal page be-         of the name). It is fine otherwise to use      cific pages found in your search are


listed. A power search allows you to          can sometimes "hack back" a URL's            Los traductores reclaman en
specify, among others, the date, field        extensions in order to find the home         Gijón sus derechos de autor
         (continued on page 12)               page, which may offer a search or                   por Rafael Quirós
SEARCHING THE INTER-                          index feature.
NET...                                           Consider switching to a 33.3 kbps
                                              modem, which will noticeably speed           Los traductores de libros reclaman sus
(continued from page 11)
                                              up your search.                              derechos de autor y consideran que la
                                              You do not need to confine yourself          traducción literaria también es una obra
(title, URL), certain languages, countries,   to a single browser. For example, the        de arte. El presidente de la Sociedad
subject, and news. You can also search        Opera browser is good.                       Mundial de Traductores y director del
by industry.                                                                               centro británico, Peter Bush, espera que
                                              Bookmark Management                          del encuentro que estos especialistas
HotBot                                           Bookmarks (URLs saved in a desig-         mantienen en el marco del II Salón del
  HotBot is a good alternative to Alta        nated place for future reference) are        Libro Iberoamericano de Gijón surja una
Vista, depending on your language. In         known by different names in different        iniciativa que permita reconsiderar las
HotBot, you can use Boolean commands          browsers; for example, the bookmarks         relaciones entre las editoriales y los
or symbols, and you can search by date.       in Opera are called the "Hotlist."           traductores de libros. Maite Solana,
There is also a drop-down menu of               Start a new folder of bookmarks for        directora de la Casa del Traductor de
choices for search terms or options. Un-      each translation project. In Netscape,       España, con sede en Tarazona, cree que
like other search engines, HotBot will        you can edit and add folders, and you        hasta ahora el traductor ha venido
usually list the home page as the first       can also edit bookmarks.                     siendo un mero puente entre lenguas, al
page in your search results.                  Bookmark both your queries and your          que se le pide que pase desapercibido y
   Other search tools include Inference       finds.                                       a quien se le acusa frecuentemente de
FIND ["IF"] Use IF when you don't                If you have clients requiring trans-      interpretar libremente la obra original,
know what you are looking for. IF does        lation into British English, you can         en el caso de que ésta no obtenga una
not allow Boolean or other filters, but it    check British English usage with the         buena acogida en el mercado. Solana
searches the Internet using six different     following command: host:uk. To               cita al escritor Milan Kundera, quien
search engines. The results are grouped       check Spanish usage in Mexico, or            considera que “los traductores son los
by categories. An important conclusion        per-       haps to see how common a          que nos permiten vivir en el espacio
is that each search engine is different.      term is, try:
Don't use just one!                           host:mx                                                NUEVOS LIBROS

More Tips                                     Meta-Search Engines                        Comunidades Europeas
Here are more tips that Ms. Larsson             These allow you to search lots of        Libro de estilo interinstitucional
shared with the participants.                 search engines from one location, and      (Vademécum del editor)
                                              include MetaFind, Dogpile, Beau-           Oficina de Publicaciones Oficiales de las
To find a glossary in a specific field, try   coup, and                      Comunidades Europeas, Luxemburgo, 1998
the command: +[field]+glossary [or the           The mabercom website also has           ISBN 92-78-14949-7
equivalent word for "glossary" in your        links to various translator tools, such
desired language]. Note: without the          as Examine                                 Valentín García Yebra
plus signs, the above command would           (a search tool for old translations),      Diccionario de galicismos prosódicos y
mean "EITHER [field] OR glossary."            glossary management tools, and Alki        morfológicos
                                              Software proofreading tools for MS         Gredos, Madrid, 1999
For a term in a particular language, try:     Word.                                      ISBN 84-249-1999-8
+[term]+[language].                             Each member of the audience at the
                                              presentation summarized above left         Rebecca Posner
  These procedures do not always yield        with a full plate of utilitarian devices   Las lenguas romances
perfect results, so keep asking questions     and the challenge of employing them        Cátedra, Madrid, 1998
of your search engines until you find         profitably.                                ISBN 84-376-1635-2
what you need. It is important to know
how the particular search engine works,                                                  Libro de Estilo
whether by text, keyword, country, lan-                                                  El Informador (Diario independiente)
guage, URL, or other search criteria. You                                                Unión Editorial, S.A, de C.V., Guadalajara
                                                                                         (México), 1999


                                           The Bottom Line
                       by Fire Ant and Worker Bee (Chris Durban & Eugene Seidel)

A column with practical tips for        already got a preferred field: medical (+        HIV research, etc. etc.
practicing translators                  legal?). But even “medical” is vast. Try         Notice names—of companies,
                                        to identify some particularly attractive         people, products.
Q:                                      “translation products” (pharmaceutical           Clip relevant articles and set
Dear Fire Ant & Worker Bee,             inserts? research papers? medical re-            them aside.
                                        ports for insurance companies?...).              After two or three weeks, you
   I worked in-house at an agency       Build up a library of examples from dif-         will start to recognize names and
for four years but only went free-      ferent sources. Study them. Identify             issues that are hot.
lance (F>E) last spring.                what makes them good, then locate                [Note: 1 to 3 can be done on the
The transition has been difficult.      comp anies likely to commission such             Web, as one of our correspon-
My former employer and I are on         work.                                            dents reminds us. Your costs
excellent terms, but they don’t do         Networking with fellow translators is         will be lower. But a newspaper
much into-English. I met some           a good first step. But if you want to            will bring in a more varied haul
great translators through them          build up a clientele, you must target            and let you do your reading
and have kept in touch, but these       translation buyers, preferably direct            away from the screen].
people work in other directions         clients.
and I’ve had no referrals. I’ve done    Here are some suggestions.                  4.   Short-list the companies that
a Glenn’s Guide mailing and have                                                         seem to be most active or ag-
received many Translator Informa-       1.   Set aside 4 or 5 hours a week to            gressive in tackling markets
tion Sheets to fill in, but not a lot        find out who/where your custom-             where your language combina-
of actual jobs.                              ers are and what products they are          tion is needed.
    In short, I am beginning to won-         buying.
der how a fledgling freelancer can                                                  5.   Use the Net to obtain informa-
get her foot in the door! I know        2.   Take out a 3 or 6-month subscrip-           tion on them: order annual re-
that I am an excellent translator            tion to a business daily—even if            ports and/or brochures in your
(from glowing colleague/                     you are not targeting the business          language combinations. Study
proofreader/agency feedback), but            market, your potential clients are.         this material. If the bilingual
finding clients is turning out to be         The business pages of your local            documents are well translated,
much harder than I had imagined.             paper will not do the trick; if you         use them to build up subject-
   I should mention that my pre-             work into English, it’s got to be           specific glossaries. If they are
ferred subject matter is medical,            the Wall Street Journal or the Fi-          poorly done, you are in luck:
and I have also done quite a bit of          nancial Times. Remember; your               these people need your services.
legal translation. Do you have any           market is international. Ideally,
advice?                                      you will be working for comp anies     6.   Establish contact, preferably not
                                             outside the US, trying to sell their        as a workseeker, but as a lan-
Awaiting Big Break                           products and services to English-           guage expert seeking back-
                                             speaking buyers.                            ground information from them—
A:                                                                                       the subject-matter specialists.
Dear Awaiting,                          3.   Every day—every single day—                 The work arrives automatically
                                             skim through the paper for 30-45            when they see how informed
First the good news: the positive            minutes. Note developments in               and enthusiastic you are.
feedback you have received puts              your target markets. Watch for
you in a stronger position than              big-picture news—an EU deci-           Three options come to mind:
many fledglings. Without this, we            sion; release of an industry report,   • The glossary: contact your tar-
would have advised you to solicit            etc. But don’t neglect the details:        get companies. Explain that you
or commission a detailed critique of         Company A moving into market B,            are a translator, currently spe-
a few pieces from an agency or fel-          Institute C teaming up with Asso-          cializing in their field. Mention in
low freelance (or subject-matter             ciation D, launch of a new drug for        passing some international proj-
specialist).                                 treating malaria, breakthrough in          ect that they’ve got on the boil
   More good news is that you’ve


     (shows you’ve done your homework).          Q:                                      house and start building up a sta-
     You are working                             Thebin (who commissioned thatand
                                                      work just keeps rolling in         ble of contacts! Make sure that
                                                     poor translation, anyway?).
                                                 I can't keep up! There are only so      everybody profits from the refer-
                   (continued on page 14)            And—this a important —
                                                 many hours in is day. It seems like     ral. Your clients will appreciate
                                                     actually phone them.
                                                 a waste to let all those potential      your advice when you refer them
     The Bottom Line...                          earnings fall by the wayside.           to another good translator instead
     (continued from page 13)                    Good luck!                              of simply turning down work. You
                                                 FA&WB in Sweden
                                                 Swamped                                 can ask your colleague for a com-
     on a glossary. You have questions on                                                mission of, say, 15% (a common
     three or four terms. Could one of their     A:                                      practice in the PR profession). Or
     engineers/researchers help?                 Dear Swamped,                           barter your recommendation for a
           You can do this by e-mail, but                                                deposit in the "favor bank", to be
     phoning is more effective. Experts love     Yours is an enviable dilemma. For-      withdrawn when you need it. If
     to explain things; chances are, they will   tunately, there are many different      you want to simply "park" the
     be flattered by your request and genu-      strategies for coping with growth.      client with your colleague temp o-
     inely helpful.                                                                      rarily, be upfront and
     But do not wear out your welcome. Ask       1.Defer it if you can...                clear about that; in this case, the
     about three or four terms —no more.         Thank the caller for the inquiry and    colleague is doing you a favor so
     Offer to send your contacts a copy of       say, regretfully, that you would        do not expect a commission.
     your glossary as thanks for their assis-    love to take on the assignment... if     3. Cash in on the bonanza.
     tance. If the opportunity comes up,         they can extend the deadline. This      When you ask the boss for a raise
     visit their lab/plant/office.               does three things: (1) it signals to    and are turned down, it's tough.
•    Attend a trade fair or two in your spe-     the client that you are in demand,      On the other hand, being in busi-
     cialism, and hit the booths with your       confirming their choice of you as a     ness for yourself means that you
     glossary project or simply to collect       preferred supplier; (2) you come        get as many chances to do this —
     bilingual documentation. Any of these       across as a woman of her word,          and also try out different strate-
     contacts may develop into work; even        someone who would rather turn           gies—as there are clients. It's Eco-
     if they don’t, you will learn a lot.        down lucrative business than risk       nomics 101, folks: the best—some
•    The free trial offer. Locate a poorly-      delivering late and wreaking havoc      say the only—time to up your
     translated document in your field and       on a client's deadlines; (3) you        rates is when you are so busy,
     retranslate a chunk of it. Poor foreign-    never know: a couple of in-house        you are turning down work.
     language websites are obvious candi-        phone calls later, your client con-       Curiously (or perhaps not),
     dates. Send your translation + photo-       tact may be back in touch to tell       many translators are squeamish
     copy of original text + photocopy of        you that as it turns out, the dead-     about plunging in and charging
     first translation to the company. Your      line can be pushed back after all!      what the market will bear. They
     cover letter should be short but pleas-     2....Refer it if you can't.             claim that their clients will resent
     ant—a sentence or two indicating that       Be prepared to make referrals to        this and retaliate by not giving
     you know their industry, that you ap-       able colleagues. Yes, we have all       them business in leaner times
     preciate the outstanding quality of their   met the colleague from hell who         when the client no longer needs
     products/services, that you think the       turned out to be a venomous             them so badly. We beg to dis-
     text they’ve got does not do justice to     snake, badmouthing you to the           agree. For one thing, when the
     these products/services, that you think     client and trying to steal your busi-   cyclical downturn comes there will
     your text is more suitable. Do not ha-      ness. May she roast on a spit over      be less work anyway. You think
     rangue them about their original bad        an open fire for many millenniae.       clients will keep you busy then
     text.                                       Learn from this mistake and next        out of gratitude for your mo desty?
    Suggest that they show both versions         time pay attention to your gut in-         Moreover, charging not one
    to a language-sensitive mother-tongue        stinct. This                            penny less than what the market
    partner for an opinion. And end with a        is another reason why you should       will bear is the very essence of
    sentence like “I will take the liberty of    go often to translator meetings and     free enterprise, and as buyers of
    phoning you next week to discuss this        keep in touch with the expat com-       products and services we face it
    further.”                                    munity in your town. What is the        every day. Provided that you can
    Send your letter to the chairman of the      ratio of translators you personally     supply the quality to back up your
    company (w/copy to head of communi-          meet to translators who you can         high fee, you would be an idiot to
    cations). If you target the head of com-     safely refer your customers to?         surrender your chance to turn the
    munications alone, it may well go in the     About 50 to 1, so get out of the        principle to your advantage.


NOSOTROS : PERFIL                      La Agencia Efe y Alberto Gómez Font
PROFESIONAL                                   por Xosé Castro Roig

                     ¿Qué es el Departamento de Español
                    de la Agencia EFE?                        ¿Habrá algún día un manual de estilo
                    Es una oficina que se encarga de la       común para toda la prensa hispano-
                    vigilancia del buen uso del español       hablante?
                    en las noticias de la agencia y de re-    Estoy casi seguro de que sí lo habrá, y
                    sponder las consultas que sobre ese       de que yo lo veré. El proyecto ya está
                    mismo uso le llegan a través del          en marcha; se llama Proyecto Zacate-
                    teléfono, el fax, el correo ordinario y   cas y lo presentamos en esa ciudad
                    el correo electrónico o emilio.           mexicana, en el Congreso Internacional
                                                              «El español y los medios de comuni-
                    ¿Cuándo empezaste a trabajar en el        cación» celebrado en 1997, el peri-
                    DEU y cuál es tu cometido?                odista de El País Álex Grijelmo y yo,
                    Comencé a trabajar el mismo día que       como responsables de los libros de
                    se fundó el departamento, en el mes       estilo de nuestros dos medios de co-
                    de octubre de 1988. Mi cometido, al       municación, y con el patrocinio del
                    igual que el del resto del equipo de      Instituto Cervantes y de la Asociación
                    filólogos, consiste, esencialmente, en    de Academias de la Lengua Española.
                    revisar las noticias de EFE, detectar     Y la cosa va caminando: ya hemos
                    los errores y elaborar informes con       recogido más de 70 manuales de estilo
                    comentarios y explicaciones sobre         y tenemos más de 40 medios de comu-
                    dichos errores. También nos ocu-          nicación adheridos al proyecto. Los
                    pamos de resolver las dudas que nos       materiales ya están en período de digi-
                    plantean sobre el uso del español,        talización, y espero que muy pronto
                    tanto los periodistas de la casa como     comencemos a ver los primeros resul-
                    los usuarios particulares de nuestro      tados.
                                                              ¿Se redacta y traduce bien en los me-
                    ¿Cuáles creen que han sido los may-       dios de comunicación de habla his-
                    ores logros del departamento?             pana?
                    Convencer a los periodistas de la         Sí. Lo habitual es que se haga bastante
                    Agencia EFE de la importancia que         bien. El problema se plantea cuando
                    tiene que una noticia esté bien hecha,    alguien, dentro de esos medios de co-
                    no sólo desde el punto de vista peri-     municación, lo hace mal, pues su error,
                    odístico o informativo, sino también      su mal uso del español, se difunde a
                    desde el punto de vista del buen uso      través de su periódico, su canal de
                    del español.                              televisión o su emisora de radio, y
                                                              llega a mucha gente, gente que muchas
                    Casi todos los manuales de estilo de      veces no tiene la suficiente formación
                    la prensa hispanohablante han to-         y toma como modelo de lenguaje
                    mado como referencia el Manual de         «bueno», modelo de prestigio, el que
                    español urgente de la Agencia EFE.        lee u oye en los medios de comuni-
                    ¿Por qué tiene tanto éxito vuestro        cación.
                    Puede explicarse en cuatro palabras:      ¿Cuáles son los principales errores
                    porque es el mejor. Y lo digo en serio,   de redacción con que se encuentra el
                    evitando cualquier atisbo de falsa        DEU?
                    modestia. Los dos mejores libros de       En la redacción no aparecen dema-
                    ese tipo son el nuestro y el Libro de     siados errores, excepto algunas locu-
                    estilo del diario El País, que también    ciones preposicionales ajenas al
                    son los dos más antiguos.                 español, y algunos tiempos verbales


Nosotros: Perfil Profesional...            Alberto Gómez Font                             Ejemplo de consulta a EFE
(viene de la página 15)
                                           Trabaja como corrector de estilo en el De-
Hay grandes aportaciones árabes en         partamento de Español Urgente de la            kosovar:
la agricultura, en la arquitectura y en    Agencia EFE (Madrid) desde su fun-
la gastronomía. Muchos mudéjares           dación, en 1980.                               Con las noticias sobre la guerra de
(musulmanes españoles conversos                                                           Yugoslavia ha aparecido un gentilicio
al cristianismo) viajaron a América        Coordinador y ponente en el seminario          sin tradición en español: el de Kósovo
en los primeros años posteriores al        internacional El idioma español en las         (para este topónimo preferimos la forma
Descubrimiento y allí se instalaron        agencias de prensa (Madrid l989). Organi-      acentuada a la no acentuada 'Kosovo'),
para seguir ejerciendo sus oficios         zador, coordinador y moderador del semi-       y parece ser que lo hemos tomado di-
artesanos. Más tarde, a principios de      nario El neologismo necesario (San Mil-        rectamente de la lengua hablada en esa
este siglo, hubo una gran emigración       lán de la Cogolla, 1991). Organizador, co-     región, que es el albanés, sin plantear-
árabe hacia América, el «mahyar».          ordinador y moderador del congreso El          nos la posibilidad de formarlo a partir de
Miles de árabes de lo que aún era el       idioma español en el deporte (Logroño,         formas de derivación más propias del
Imperio Otomano (de ahí que los            1992). Director de los talleres de comuni-     español. El gentilicio en cuestión es
llamen turcos), de Siria, Líbano, Pal-     cación en el II Coloquio de Lingüística:       kosovar, y desde su aparición en los
estina… llegaron a América y se in-        Lenguaje y comunicación (Caracas, 1994).       medios de comunicación no han cesado
stalaron allí para siempre, y ahora        Organizador y coordinador del seminario        de llegar consultas al Departamento de
vemos cómo los presidentes de Ar-          El idioma español ante el nuevo milenio        Español Urgente en las que se nos so-
gentina y Ecuador son de origen            (San Millán de la Cogolla, 1996). Coordi-      licita que expliquemos si esa es la forma
árabe.                                     nador y profesor del seminario Correción       correcta de llamar a los habitantes de
                                           de textos periodísticos (Salamanca, 1996).     Kósovo. La mayoría de los remitentes
Tú asistirás al próximo congreso de        Coordinador y ponente en el seminario El       de esas consultas aducen que habría
la ATA que se celebrará en una ciu-        español y las nuevas tecnologías (San          sido mucho más correcto decir kosovés,
dad gobernada por españoles du-            Millán de la Cogolla, 1997). Profesor en los   kosovense, kosoveño, o cualquier otra
rante cuarenta años. ¿Será en Saint        cursos de modernización del lenguaje ad-       forma más habitual en los gentilicios en
Louis, Missouri o en San Luis,             ministrativo organizados por el Ministerio     español, y tienen toda la razón, pero ha
Misuri?                                    de las Administraciones Públicas.              sido tal la difusión del término albanés
¡Caramba con la preguntita!                                                               en los medios de comunicación his-
Bueno… en fin… este… verás… es             Autor de los Vademécum de español ur-          panohablantes que ya no estamos a
que yo… ¿Y si se enfadan los de San        gente I y II (Madrid, Fundación EFE, 1992,     tiempo de ponerle coto, ya no podemos
Luis? Para mí eso es San Luis, en el       1995) y del Vademécum de español ur-           dar marcha atrás, y lo único que pode-
estado de Misuri, aunque estoy dis-        gente III (en prensa). Coautor de todas las    mos recomendar es que no se den por
puesto a transigir en el nombre del        ediciones del Manual de español u rgente       malas las formas antes señaladas, es
estado…                                    de la Agencia EFE (Madrid, Ediciones Cát-      decir, que si alguien opta por usar koso-
                                           edra). Coordinador y compilador de textos      vense en lugar de kosovar no se le cor-
Además de lingüista, eres un bar-          en las publicaciones de la Agencia EFE         rija, pues estará usando una forma cor-
man vocacional. ¿Qué cóctel                sobre cuestiones lingüísticas: El idioma       recta en español. De todas formas esa
idearías para un traductor?                español en las agencias de prensa              terminación en ar no es del todo ajena a
No hay que inventarlo, pues ya ex-         (Madrid, EFE y Fundación Germán San-           los gentilicios en nuestra lengua, pues
iste uno, el rey de los cócteles, el dry   chez Ruipérez, 1990); El neologismo nece-      tenemos balear, peninsular, magiar, po-
martini, cuyo nombre es intraducible,      sario (Madrid, EFE y Comunidad                 lar, insular, malabar?
pues no es lo mismo un dry martini         Autónoma de La Rioja, 1992), y El idioma
que un Martini dry… ahí queda eso.         español en el deporte (Logroño, EFE y
                                           Comunidad Autónoma de la Rioja, 1992).
                                           Coautor de la colección de fichas Informe
                                           sobre el lenguaje (ABRA Comunicación,
                                           Madrid 1992–1995).

                                           Moderador del foro de debate sobre el
                                           uso del español Apuntes (


                                               Numbers: Mix and Match
                                               By Charles “Mike” Stacy

The European languages have three         that prices and figures tend to be         comma in others, so we find both
ways to write higher numbers: words,      given entirely in numerals in advertis-    1'000,000.00 and 1'000.000,00. Note that
numerals and a mix of words and nu-       ing, scientific and technical writing,     the millions separator in Spanish is
merals. An example is ten million,        tables and charts (and a currency          neither a period nor a comma, but '!
10,000,000 and 10 million.                symbol or abbreviation is also used,          In the unlikely event that anyone is
  Rules govern which option may be        as applicable). Examples include           still reading this article after that last
used in a given context, and as might     $10.00 in English, DM 59,- in Ger-         paragraph, we shall nevertheless pro-
be expected, different languages have     man, 100,- F in French and Pts3.100        ceed to the main focus: the phenome-
different rules. The easiest and per-     in Spanish (Spain). Even amounts           non of using both numerals and words
haps most universal rule (for Euro-       may be indicated by a hyphen in            for a large number. This combination is
pean languages) is that indefinite ex-    some languages (as in DM 59,- and          frequently seen to describe amounts of
pressions, like hundreds of millions      100,- F above), but are either written     money. I refer to such expressions (all
and tens of thousands, are written        out in full ($10.00 in English) or         taken from on-line newspapers) as $2
entirely in words. This rule also has a   dropped altogether in others               billion, 2 milliards de francs, 2 Mil-
universal corollary: Exact amounts,       (Pts3.100). On top of all this, some       liarden Mark, 2 bilhões de contos, R
especially if uneven, are written en-     languages use a comma for the deci-        $2 bilhões, and 2 mil millones de pe-
tirely in numerals: $2,133,644.78.        mal, while others use a period. Some       sos. To give the erstwhile reader a
   In most languages, amounts are         countries even manage to have it           fighting chance of understanding all
written in words only when beginning      both ways. In bilingual Canadian           these examples, amounts given in dol-
the sentence (Ten dollars was too         price lists, I have seen $10,95 in         lars are in English, francs are in French,
much to pay for that). In Ge rman,        French and $10.95 in English.              Marks are in German, contos (a conto
however, a sentence like 110 Staaten         In international contexts, certain      is 1,000 escudos) and R$ are in Euro-
haben den Vertrag unterschrieben          currency symbols may be clarified. It      pean and Brazilian Portuguese, respec-
(The treaty was signed by 110 na-         is common to find US $10 for Ameri-        tively, and pesos are in Spanish.
tions) is fine. Given the awkwardness     can currency, for example, in many            It is interesting to note that Ameri-
of One hundred ten countries…, the        languages (but 10,- $ US in French).       can English uses million and billion in
English counterpart usually rear-         In Mexico, which uses $ for the peso,      the singular (10 million, 3 billion),
ranges the word order to avoid begin-     prices are often marked bilingually as     whereas all the other languages use
ning the sentence with a number.          $12 US Cy. (for United States cur-         the plural. Spanish literally says thou-
   There are a handful of other mis-      rency) and $12 m.n. (for moneda na-        sand millions for billion, and this is
matches between languages. In the         cional). I have also seen the form $12     occasionally seen in European Portu-
case of exchange rates, R$1,85/US$1       dlls. It is odd that the abbreviation      guese (as well as bilhões), but not
in Portuguese becomes R$1.85 to the       dlls. (which would seem to be based        commonly in Brazil, which consistently
dollar in English. Similarly, when an     on the English form of the word rather     uses bilhões. Finally, in addition to 2
employer contributes R$0,25 real por      than the Spanish spelling, dólar) is       mil millones de pesos, Spanish also
cada R$1 contribuído pelo empre-          used in Mexico, but not in the US.         has the variants 2.000 (or 2,000) mil-
gado, the proper English translation         At any rate, the choice of the pe-      lones.
is R$0.25 for every real contributed      riod or the comma for the decimal             So far, so good. Now suppose the
by the employee.                          drives the choice of higher separa-        amount becomes slightly more precise,
    In legal and commercial contexts,     tors. English, for instance, uses a pe-    say, $2.2 million, 2,2 millions de
numerals and words may appear side        riod for the decimal, so the higher        francs, 2,2 Millionen Mark, R$2,2
by side. Examples include within          separator is a comma, as seen in           milhões and 2.2 or 2,2 millones de
thirty (30) days and ten thousand         1,000,000.00. In French, on the other      pesos. Once again, Spanish and Portu-
dollars ($10,000.00). People who          hand, the decimal is a comma, so the       guese have the variant 2 milhões 200
have far too much time on their hands     higher separator is a period:              mil and 2 millones 200 mil. This four-
argue about whether words or figures      1.000.000,00. German and Russian           part sequence of numeral/word/
should come first. In my experience,      also use a comma for the decimal, but      numeral/word is unknown in English,
words are more likely to come first in    their higher separator is a space: 1 000   French and German.
all languages, but it is also common      000,00. In order to be as difficult as        If the amount becomes even more
to find figures first.                    possible, the decimal in Spanish is a      precise, English may write $1.25, $1.5
   Another universal rule of context is   period in some countries and a             or $1.75 million. So may Spanish and


Numbers: Mix & Match...                                                                      for example, may put down 5 0 K
(continued from page 17)                                                                     under the heading Desired Salary.
                                                       (continued on page 18)                Want ads often use K for 1,000,
   Portuguese, but figures like 2.315 mil-     Peru and U.S. Spanish use a period for        too. Perhaps it comes from the
lones were also seen. This would be un-       the decimal. It is not unusual to find a       Greek jikr. In the oilfield, M is used
usual in English. Clarín, an Argentine        mix of both systems in the Central             for thousands and MM is used for
newspaper, even gave a figure of 3.100        American countries, even in the same           millions: 5 M BOPD (5,000 barrels
millones. English would only write 3.1        newspaper article. It should be pointed        of oil per day) and 55 MM SCF (55
billion, never 3.100 billion.                 out that the use of both numbers and           million standard cubic feet [of natu-
   At this point, English, French and Ge r-   words (as in 3 millones 800 mil) side-         ral gas]).
man give up the good fight. Below a mil-      steps the issue altogether and is thus
lion, no further numeral/word combina-        ideal for translations into “universal
tions could be found. All examples were       Spanish.”
                                                                                                    LOOKING FOR A
numerals only, such as 200,000 jobs,             In the case of numbers smaller than 1,
                                                                                                  ROOMMATE FOR THE
350.000 immigrés and 100 000 Unter-           the norm is 0.54 and its decimal equiva-
                                                                                                  ANNUAL CONFERENCE
schriften (words added to identify the        lent in all five languages. A zero before
language). Spanish and Portuguese also        the decimal is optional (but preferred) in
                                                                                              Yvonne Brown is looking to
checked in with 130.000 unidades and          English, and mandatory in the other
                                                                                              share a room in St. Louis with a
116.000 exemplares, respectively.             four languages. However, there are a
                                                                                              female colleague. Please contact
   But Spanish and Portuguese, scarcely                               n
                                              number of idiomatic i stances in Eng-
                                                                                              her directly to make arrange-
pausing for breath, marched on with 80        lish where a zero is rarely, if ever, writ-
mil peruanos, 120 mil pessoas and even        ten: .81" of rain, .38 pistol.
4,1 mil operários. A Guatemalan news-            English stands alone in the use of
                                                                                              38 Wendell St,
paper offered 7 mil 38 vehículos.             phrases like half of 1 percent and three
                                                                                              Rensselaer, NY 12144
   For those still in despair over the        tenths of a percentage point. The only
                                                                                              Phone: 518-434-2080
Spanish decimal, it may be helpful to         common usage in the other languages is
note that Spain, Cuba and the Spanish-        0,5 por ciento, 0,3 pour cent, 0,5 Pro-
speaking South American countries             zent, etc.
                                                                                              Languages: Spanish>English
(except Peru) follow the continental             In slang and certain specialized areas,
                                                                                              Arrival: November 2, 1999
European style, using a comma. Mexico,        it is possible to find comb inations of
                                              numerals with letters. A job applicant,

           (continued on page 18)              them in their queries. Turn down             earned it through hard work, and it won't
                                               assignments if the client is unwilling to    last forever. The time to earn beyond
 The Bottom Line...                            pay as much.                                 your immediate needs—so that you can
 (continued from page 14)                       5. Share the wealth.                        invest in your business and save for
                                                Translators balk at the idea of hiring      retirement—is now.
 4. Farm out work.                             salaried workers. They cite the unpre-
 Assign work to colleagues with spare          dictable nature of the business, the
 capacity. But beware of the pitfalls:                                                      FA & WB
                                               difficulty of reconciling the individual-
 there is no swifter way to ruin your          istic nature of translation with an office
 reputation than to deliver somebody                                                        Fire Ant and Worker Bee are Chris Dur-
                                               setting, and fear of losing clients to       ban and Eugene Seidel, who live and
 else's sub-standard output under your          defecting staff.
 good name. And make sure that you                                                          work in Paris and Frankfurt, respectively.
                                                  Although these are valid concerns,        Both enjoy making a beeline for the pot
 price the work high enough. You need          these are not insurmountable difficul-
 to budget not only for what your con-                                                      of honey that rewards hard workers.
                                               ties. Consider the benefits:                 Drop them a line at ChrisDur-
 tractors charge you, but also for the
 time you spend scheduling and track-                                              and esei-
                                                 -Year-round availability of your office
 ing assignments and performing quality        even when you go on vacation
 control: you must review the translation      - Ability to control outcomes, since
 line by line and word by word to bring                                                     This column is published periodically
                                               you and your staff can work practically      in The Translation Journal, an elec-
 it up to your accustomed quality. In          shoulder-to-shoulder
 addition to dealing with your client,                                                      tronic newsletter for translators and
                                               - Intellectual stimulation from a col-       interpreters. Visit them at: http://www.
 you                                           laborative environment
 need to communicate well with your                                               
                                               - Preserves your bonds with the hu-
 colleagues and be ready to support            man community and helps to keep you


                                  ¿Quién o qué es “Emilio”, “E-mail”o “Imeil”?
                     por Emilio Bernal Labrada de la Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española

                                         cilla, lógica, fácil de recordar, creada con   lo nuestro, debemos rechazar
 Bueno, señores, grave problema          saludable respeto a la fonética y la or-       las voces exógenas-- sobre todo si
nos ha creado el avance tecnológi-       tografía castellanas, y que además ofre-       son tan ajenas a nuetros cánones y
co cuando ya no se puede hablar          ciera la posibilidad de formar derivados,      modo de expresión-- a menos que
español sin intercalar voces ingle-      permitir la pluralización, etc.? Segura-       sean absolutamente indispensables.
sas a diestra y siniestra. Nos           mente piensan ustedes, con toda razón,         ¿Por
referimos a términos como "e-            que se trata de un sueño, de una aspira-       qué?, dirán ustedes. Pues por la sen-
mail", "web", "CD" (iniciales que        ción imposible, de una meta ilusoria e         cilla razón de que toda instancia
para colmo pronuncian en inglés:         inalcanzable.                                  de suplantar con voz ajena una de las
"cidí"), "cliquear", y tantas otras          Pues aunque no lo crean, semejante         nuestras equivale a debilitar el
que ya ni llevar la cuenta es posi-      término ya se ha ideado (aunque no             idioma, a restarle fuerzas, a convali-
ble.                                     me atribuyo el honor de su paternidad),        darle una deficiencia, en una palabra,
 Concentrémonos en este artículo         y lo único que tenemos que hacer               a subvertirlo. Por no decir que tam-
en el que parece tener el don de la      es usarlo. ¿Qué les parece? La voz             bién demuestra en quien la emplea
ubicuidad, pues cada día son más y       reúne todas las condiciones                    una marcada deficiencia de conoci-
más los que entran en la red             enumeradas y más. Se trata, sencilla-          mientos, un descuido, una falta
informática mundial e intercambian       mente, de "correl" (corr(e) -- de              de respeto a su idioma... ¡o acaso las
mensajes electrónicos a razón de         "correo"-- + el de "electrónico"). Tiene       tres cosas a la vez!
millones por minuto. Claro, darle        esta voz la gran virtud de permitir la for-      Claro es que en muchos casos no se
nombre a esos mensajes --y sus           mación de derivados, cosa que no               ha creado o difundido la voz
actividades conexas-- ha sido el         puede decirse de "emilio" ni, cierta-          castellana que suplante a la usurpa-
primer tropiezo. Lo calificamos así,     mente, de "e-mail". Por ejemplo:               dora, por lo que hay que dispensar a
de "tropiezo", por decir algo, ya        "correleo", "correlear", "correléame",         quienes incurran en el fallo. Bueno,
que pensándolo bien no ha habido         "correlearse", etc. Y además se presta         en lo adelante, esa disculpa queda
"tropiezo" ninguno, pues los usu-        fácilmente a la pluralización --"correles"-    como lo que es, ¡pues ahí tienen la
arios del sistema sencillamente          -, sin tener que darle más                     voz que les hacía falta!
echaron mano del término inglés, ¡y      vueltas. En fin, que sus posibilidades            Cabe señalar que la infiltración y
ya!                                      son prácticamente ilimitadas.                  ulterior desnaturalización de la
   Algunos, como en España, han             Pese a que acaba de nacer, es como          lengua es un proceso que, como la
tenido el ingenio de castellanizar la    una voz española de las más castizas           gota de agua, va desgastando la pie-
   palabra con la voz "emilio" ("te      en su ortografía, prosodia, morfología y       dra de los más densos cimientos
mando un emilio", dicen). Desde          fuerza expresiva. Y que no se diga, por        hasta ablandarlos y vencerlos. Y ese
luego que es mejor que "e-mail" o        favor, que nadie va a reconocer lo que         es un proceso que a todos nos in-
su versión fonética española, que        es un "correl". "Como es instantáneo,          cumbe atajar --y revertir--, no sea que
sería "imeil". Esta última, claro,       Juan me envió un correl sobre el tema;         algún día todos nos entendamos en
sería irreconocible para los an-         entonces Ana; poco después, me em-             "spanglish".
glófilos y otros con la venda del        pezaron a llegar en tropel." ¿Quién va
inglés ante los ojos, aparte de ser      a decir que, puesto en su contexto, no
un esperpento que no tiene el            está más claro que el agua destilada?                Mark your calendars !
menor viso de voz castellana --una       (En los inicios del servicio postal, se
                                                                                                   ATA’s 40th
barbaridad sin redención posible--,      empezó a usar para designar la misiva
así que queda automáticamente            escrita en papel, la voz "carta", pese a              Annual Conference
descartada.                              que ya tenía múltiples acepciones;                    St. Louis, Missouri
   Otra posibilidad sería                "correl", en cambio, no tiene esa des-               November 3-6, 1999
"electrocorreo", pero es voz un          ventaja.)
poco larga y no es fácil sacarle deri-       De ahí que instemos a nuestros lec-
vados.                                   tores a usarla, pues así es como se
     Pero, ¿que les parecería una voz    imponen las voces en cualquier idioma:
que combine los dos elementos            usándolas. Y relegando al olvido
(correo+ electrónico), que sea sen-      las extrañas. Digamos que por respeto a
                                                                                         ¿Qué les parece si al respecto nos


lation skills in an academic way.         court interpreter when the judge asks       pervisors should be aware of them. We
Buying dictionaries and books is          you if you know anyone involved in          have all felt frustrated by the double
done completely                           the trial (which would usually exclude      standard that seems to be applied to the
         (continued on page 20)           you from the proceedings), and in-          Hispanic community. What’s definitely
Community Interpretation                  deed, the defendant is your wife’s          not okay for the Anglo community be-
(continued from page 10)                  cousin and the suspect is your neig h-      comes okay for Hispanic clients out of
                                          bor? What do you say to the district        ignorance about the culture and for ex-
through the Internet or catalogues,       attorney’s office when they want you        pediency’s sake. We have all felt the
with no chance for actually perusing      to participate in preliminary interviews    isolation of not having a broader net-
a book before purchase. Improving         with the suspect and then you are ex-       work of colleagues who are facing simi-
interpretation skills is even more        pected to be this person’s “neutral”        lar issues with whom we can problem-
problematic, as the Internet does not     court interpreter several weeks later?      solve.
lend itself to the verbal training        What do you do when the interview is
needed. Finally, and perhaps most         with the victim of domestic violence?       Pay
difficult, is the challenge of obtain-    The counselor recently had a case              Pay is a big issue. Most agencies or
ing the non-language technical skills     where the sibling of one of her clients     individuals are completely ignorant of
necessary for translators.There are       came in requesting service. Normally,       the skill level involved in a quality
no local classes on terminology           the sibling would be assigned to a dif-     translation and of going rates in urban
management, the latest machine            ferent therapist to prevent conflict-of-    areas. I estimate that I charge from one-
translation or localization software,     interest and confidentiality problems.      third to one-half of what others charge
or on the endless ways to save and        How do you provide services in this         for similar work elsewhere, and clients
send e-mail files. Everything is self-    case, when there is only one bilingual      usually find it to be expensive. (Of
taught through manuals and guess-         counselor? Another chronic problem          course, since public discussion of rates
work.                                     for the interpreter is having to play       is taboo, even this is hard to figure out.)
                                          secretary and billing officer for clients   It is difficult to find that fine line be-
Ethical Issues                            because only she can communicate            tween what the market will bear (doing
   Ethics for the community inter-        with them, even when this can muddy         the necessary client education as to
preter differ in many ways from the       the therapeutic relationship.               why what I’m asking for is a bargain)
rest of the translation and interpreta-      Finally, this counselor gave as an       and asking for enough to make it worth-
tion field, and are actually more         example how she is often asked to in-       while. As mentioned above, for the
closely related to social service eth-    terpret for the clinic’s psychiatrist       community interpreter working in an
ics issues. The thorniest issues          when he treats Hispanic clients. How        agency, the chances of actually getting
faced by rural interpreters are con-      do you deal with the fact that the client   paid extra for being bilingual (a common
cerns regarding conflict-of-interest      almost always forms a therapeutic           practice elsewhere) are slim.
and dual relationships. They are un-      bond with the interpreter and not the
avoidable in rural areas and present      psychiatrist in these situations? This      Concluding Remarks
unique challenges to all service pro-     particular issue also plagues the free-     The issues raised here represent only
viders. What do you do when your          lance community interpreter. Even           some of those faced by rural community
client owns the only bakery and you       though I am hired solely as an inter-       interpreters. Having eavesdropped on
need a birthday cake or you sit on        preter by agencies to work with their       the translation profession through pub-
the same board of directors with          case coordinators, I inevitably end up      lications and online mail lists for the
him? Standard ethics dictate that         becoming the client’s primary connec-       past three years, I think these issues are
you don’t hire someone you are see-       tion and perform many case manage-          relevant to the broader field for the fol-
ing as a client or otherwise engage       ment duties for which I was not hired.      lowing reasons:
in dual relationships.                    When I work with lawyers, the same
   When you are the only bilingual        thing happens. The clients bond to me       1.   Raising the quality and standards
service provider in an agency these       and come to me for legal advice when I           of translation and interpretation
issues are even more difficult. Two       am in no position to give it.                    (T&I) has been identified as a ma-
community interpreters in my area,           The rural community interpreter usu-          jor goal for the profession. For
the only court interpreter and the        ally has to sort out these issues on his         community interpreting in general,
only bilingual mental health coun-        or her own. My colleagues and I often            and especially for those working in
selor in the county, posed some of        have had to educate our clients and              rural areas, access to resources,
the following conflict of interest is-    supervisors about conflicts of interest          educa-
sues: What do you do as the only          and set firm limits, even when the su-           tion and information is limited. Of-
                                                                                           ten, the only bilingual people avail-


                                              De las letras mayúsculas
     Este texto fue tomado del "Esbozo..." de la Real Academia Española, que es poseedora los dere-
                                               chos de autor

a) En lo manuscrito no suelen es-         vulgar sentencia: El papa, el rey y el    tilde si la acentuación ortográfica lo
cribirse con letras mayúsculas            duque están sujetos a morir, como lo      exige, a fin de evitar errores de pro-
palabras o frases enteras.                está el pordiosero.                       nunciación o confusiones en la in-
                                          4.° Los tratamientos, y especialmente     terpretación de vocablos. Este man-
b) En las portadas de los libros impre-   si están en abreviatura, como Sr. D.      tenimiento es especialmente necesa-
sos, en los títulos de sus divisiones y   (señor don), U. o V. (usted), V. S.       rio en las portadas de libros, nom-
en las inscripciones monumentales, lo     (usía), etc. Usted, cuando se escribe     bres geográficos, listas de nombres
más común es usar de solas mayús-         con todas sus letras , no debe llevar     propios, etc.
culas, todas, generalmente, de igual      mayúscula; también domina el uso de       11.° Suele emplearse mayúscula a
tamaño. Los nombres propios, títulos      minúscula con señor y don en igual        principio de cada verso, de donde
de obras, dicciones y aun cláusulas       caso.                                     las letras de esta forma tomaron el
que se quiera hacer resaltar, pueden      5.° Ciertos nombres colectivos, en        nombre de versales. En la poesía
escribirse con todas sus letras           casos como estos: El Reino represen-      moderna es frecuente encabezar los
mayúsculas; pero en cualquier voz en      tó a S. M. contra tales desórdenes, el    versos con minúscula.
que se haya de emplear letra mayús-       Clero lo habia hecho antes.               12.° La numeración romana se es-
cula con una o con diferentes minús-      6.° Los sustantivos y adjetivos que       cribe hoy con letras mayúsculas, y
culas, aquella ha de ser la inicial o     compongan el nombre de una institu-       se emplea para significar el número,
primera de la dicción.                    ción, de un cuerpo o establecimiento:     con que se distinguen personas del
                                          el Supremo Tribunal de Justicia; el       mismo nombre, como Pío V,
c) Se escribirán con letra inicial        Museo de Bellas Artes; el Colegio         Fernando III, el número de cada si-
mayúscula:                                Naval; la Real Academia de la Histo-      glo, como el actual, el XX de la era
                                          ria.                                      cristiana; también es frecuente para
1.° La primera palabra de un escrito y    7.° Los nombres y adjetivos que en-       indicar el número de un tomo, libro,
la que vaya después de punto.             traren en el título de cualquier obra:    parte, canto, capítulo, título, ley,
2.° Todo nombre propio; v. gr.: Dios,     Tratado de Esgrima; Ortografía Cas-       clase y otras divisiones, y el de las
Jehová, Jesús, Luzbel, Platón, Pedro,     tellana; Historia de los Vándalos, etc.   páginas en los prólogos y principios
María, Alvarez, Pantoja, Apolo,           No se observa esta regla                  de un volumen.
Calíope, Amadís de Gaula; Europa,         cuando el título es largo; v. gr.: Del    13.° Cuando hubiere de escribirse
España, Castilla, Toledo, Madrid,         rey abajo, ninguno, y labrador más        con mayúscula la letra inicial de voz
Carabanchel, La Zarzuela; Cáucaso,        honrado, García del Castañar.             que empiece con Ch o Ll, solo se
Himalaya, Adriálico, Tajo, Aganipe;       8.° En las leyes, decretos y documen-     formarán de carácter mayúscula la C
Bucéfalo, Babieca, Rocinante.             tos oficiales suelen escribirse con       y la L, que son primera parte de es-
3.° Los atributos divinos, como Cri-      mayúscula todas las palabras que          tas letras compuestas o dobles. Es-
ador y Redentor; los títulos y nom-       expresan poder público, dignidad u        cribiremos, pues, Chinchilla y Chim-
bres de dignidade, como Sumo Pon-         cargo importante, como Rey, Príncipe,     borazo, Llerena y Llorente y de nin-
tífice, Duque de Osuna, Marqués de        República, Regente,Trono, Corona,
Villena; los nombres y apodos con         Monarquia, Estado, Gobierno, Minis-           NEW CHAPTER AND
que se designa a determinadas perso-      tro, Senador, Diputado, Autoridad,           DIVISION RELATIONS
nas, como el Gran Capitán, Alfonso el     Justicia, Magistrado, Juez, Ge neral,         MANAGER AT ATA
Sabio, García el Trémulo,y particular-    Jefe, Gobernador, Alcalde, Director,
mente los dictados generales de jerar-    Consiliario, Secretario, etc.
quía o cargo importante cuando            9.° Cuando no encabecen párrafo o         Christie Matlock from Savannah, Geor-
equivalgan a nombres propios. Así,        escrito, o no formen parte de un títu-    gia, was recently hired to serve primar-
en las respectivas historias de Paulo     lo, se recomienda escribir con minús-     ily as the contact person for ATA
V, Felipe III y don Pedro Téllez Girón,   cula inicial los nombres de los dias de   chapters, local groups and divisions.
v. gr., se escribirán con mayúscula el    la semana, de los meses, de las           Ms. Matlock holds a Bachelor of Sci-
Papa, el Rey y el Duque cuantas ve-       estaciones del año y de las notas mu-     ence degree in Journalism. She can be
ces fueren nombrados en esta forma        sicales.                                  reached at 703-683-6100x3011 or e-mail:
aquellos personajes; pero se deberá       10.° Se recomienda que cuando se
usar de minúscula, por ejemplo, en la     utilicen mayúsculas, se mantenga la


tiempo y a bajo costo ha creado              able have little or no formal language       La Biblioteca Nacional en
nuevas herramientas informáticas             training, they don’t always identify
                                                                                          Buenos Aires abre las pue r-
para la traducción. De esta forma, se        themselves as translators and interpret-
          (continúa en la página 22)         ers, and they are often unaware of pro-      tas del Centro de Informa-
Localización y traducción...                 fessional standards. It is my impression     ción y Documentación sobre
(viene de la página 10)                      that even though community interpreta-       Traducción y Terminología
puede conservar la coherencia en la              (continued on page 22)
                                                                                          en Lengua Española
traducción de determinadas cadenas           has been given a name and definition         "Victoria Ocampo".
de textos. Se traduce una sola vez, y        by the T&I field, most community inter-               NUEVOS LIBROS
obviamente el programa se encarga            preters are not integrated into the trans-   El Centro Victoria Ocampo se con-
de repetir esta traducción a lo largo        lation profession through membership         forma en el marco del Acuerdo fir-
                                                                                          Comunidades Europeas
del texto, pero también se cobra una         in the ATA or through publications.          mado de la Unesco que donó a la
                                                                                          Libro conestilo interinstitucional
sola vez. Nuestras colegas hicieron          Outreach to this group is needed.            (Vademécum del editor)
                                                                                          Biblioteca Nacional el banco de
una demostración práctica del uso                                                         datos y de Publicaciones Oficiales
                                                                                          Oficina la biblioteca del Servicio
de Trados (Workbench), XL8 y            2.   The T&I profession is engaged in sig-        Iberoamericano de Información
                                                                                          de las Comunidades Europeas, Lux-
otros programas desarrollados por            nificant debate about ethical and liabil-    para la Traducción (SIIT).
                                                                                          emburgo, 1998
los clientes para atender a necesida-        ity issues, client education, and pay        Una de las misiones
                                                                                          ISBN 92-78-14949-7 de la Bi-
des específicas.                             scales. The community interpreter            blioteca Nacional es ser reservorio
     Fueron cuatro días de solidari-         needs to be brought into these discus-       de lo publicado en nuestro país
                                                                                          Valentín García Yebra
dad e intercambio. Solidaridad por-          sions, especially since they face some       con el fin de conservarlo y ponerlo
                                                                                          Diccionario de galicismos prosódi-
que las tres pusieron a disposición          of the most intractable ethical issues in    cos y morfológicos lectores, ese
                                                                                          a disposición de los
de toda la audiencia no sólo sus             the field and are potentially open to se-    Gredos, Madrid, 1999
                                                                                          fondo bibliográfico documenta,
conocimientos sino todo el material          rious liability issues.                      además, múltiples situaciones de la
                                                                                          ISBN 84-249-1999-8
fruto de la investigación y experien-                                                     lengua de nuestro país. Es por eso
cia.                                    3.   The T&I profession wants to raise the        Rebecca Posner
                                                                                          que el Centro Victoria Ocampo
     La localización es una especia-         level of professionalism practiced by its    brindará servicios de información y
                                                                                          Las lenguas romances
lización. No todos podemos tener la          members. One area of focus is how to         Cátedra, Madrid, 1998
                                                                                          documentación de interés para la
posibilidad de conocerla desde el            improve the skill level of newcomers.        traducción, la interpretación y la
                                                                                          ISBN 84-376-1635-2
nacimiento como nuestras tres cole-          Newcomers working in rural areas espe-       terminología teniendo como eje a la
gas. Pero tuvimos la suerte de cono-         cially need support to professionalize,      Libro de Estilo El Centro Victoria
                                                                                          lengua española.
cerlas a ellas, que con gran capaci-         due to geographic isolation and the lack     Ocampo se abre para independi-
                                                                                          El Informador (Diario ser un lugar
dad y profesionalismo comenzaron a           of local resources. The rural interpreter    de encuentro, de trabajo, de estu-
marcar el camino hacia la formación          could be significantly helped by: estab-     dio y Editorial, S.A, de informa-
                                                                                          Uniónde intercambio de C.V., Gu a-
del traductor-localizador. Muchas            lishing some kind of mentor program;         dalajara (México), 1999de
                                                                                          ción para el desarrollo
gracias a las tres.                          promoting the growth of T&I, offering        profesionales, docentes y estu-
                                             language and computer software train-        diantes.
                                             ing courses online; providing scholar-
  Graciela Streinberg , traductora           ships to attend conferences, training        La Biblioteca Nacional desea co-
                                             seminars and classes; and encouraging        laborar con todas las instituciones
                                             networking between interpreters and          relacionads con la traducción, la
          IMPORTANT                          translators living in rural areas.           terminología, y la lengua española
                                                                                          de nuestro país con el fin de fa-
   THE DEADLINE FOR                     As a rural community interpreter and transla-     vorecer el desarrollo de las áreas
                                        tor, I have been helped immeasurably by           mencionadas.
    SUBMISSIONS FOR                     joining professional organizations and edu-
    THE NEXT ISSUE IS                   cating myself about professional issues           Agüero 2502 - (1425) Capital Fed-
   SEPTEMBER 15, 1999.                  through publications and online mail lists. I     eral
                                        appreciate having found a forum to share          Argentina
                                        some of my experiences. I hope this article       Teléfono: (54 11)4807-4126
    PLEASE CONTACT:                     sparks further exploration and debate about       Fax: (54 11)4806-4723                issues facing community interpretation in         email:
                                        general, and the rural T&I professional in        ar


                                        Diez Errores Típicos en Traducción
                                              por Xosé Castro Roig
Con este título quería incluir una               1.
                                          que recorté hace poco de un diario        ticiparon; Le gustan los animales e
sumaria lista de errores con los que      español: «Buscamos traductores y          incluso las plantas. El adverbio in-
tropezamos traductores y revisores        editores (sic) con dominio de inglés      clusive tiene un significado claro y
con frecuencia:                           y/o francés». Con independencia del       único: 'incluyendo el último objeto
                                          barbarismo —más grave por tratarse        nombrado': Debe elegir un número
Oír y escuchar. Cada vez se usa           de una agencia de traducciones— de        del 1 al 9, ambos inclusive; Desde la
más el segundo verbo con el sen-          llamar editores a los revisores, es ob-   época de Felipe III a Carlos III inclu-
tido del primero. Como dice el            vio que sobra esa anglicada conjun-       sive. Incluido es el participio del
lexicógrafo Martínez de Sousa, para       ción y/o (and/or), que debería ser una    verbo incluir y significa 'algo que está
oír sólo es necesario tener oídos         simple «o». La connotación de la          contenido dentro de otra cosa'. Usos
sanos, pero para escuchar, debe           cópula española «o» no tiene un           incorrectos:
prestarse atención, debe «querer          carácter tan excluyente como la in-       Inclusive mi padre me lo advirtió.
oírse». García Yebra lo resuelve al       glesa «or», es decir: si se escribe       Hay que tirarlos todos, inclusive el
recordar una anécdota que le              «inglés o francés» no quedan exclui-      blanco.
sucedió mientras daba una confer-         dos de la selección los candidatos
encia: «En cierto momento, se le-         que sepan ambos idiomas, muy al           Múltiple/s. Adjetivo abundante en
vantó una señora que estaba al            contrario, serán más que bienvenidos,     traducciones técnicas del inglés que
fondo del aula y dijo "Señor Ga rcía,     supongo.                                  está desplazando a adjetivos
aquí atrás no se le escucha".» Ga r-                                                españoles como varios, diversos,
cía respondió: «Si han venido a la        Es por ello/esto que… Por qué será        muchos, etc. Su empleo no es er-
conferencia es porque me es-              que… Me he acordado de estos dos          róneo, pero lo cierto es que en
cuchan, lo que ocurre es que no me        circunloquios que se encuentran a         español no tenemos por qué restrin-
oyen». Estos son unos ejemplos de         veces en las traducciones porque          girnos a este único término. Es normal
mal uso extraídos de la prensa            estoy escuchando la canción               ver este tipo de frases en manuales de
española de esta semana:                  «Eliminación de los feos» del Gran        informática: Puede imprimir múltiples
Se escucharon unos disparos.              Combo de Puerto Rico, cuyo estribillo     copias; El programa acepta múlti-
Podían escucharse voces supues-           reza: «¿Y por qué será que los elimi-     ples formatos, etc. ¿Alguno de ust-
tamente fantasmales.                      nan?». Pues esta fabulosa canción se      edes que está leyendo esto suele d e-
                                          ahorraría un par acordes si dijera «¿Y    cirle, por ejemplo, a un compañero de
El tema de siempre. Un viejo cono-        por qué los eliminan?». Lo mismo le       oficina: «imprímeme múltiples co-
cido de todos. La palabra tema se         pasa a una canción del dúo Donato y       pias»?
ha convertido en una muletilla que        Stefano en la que dicen «Es por eso
sustituye, en función del contexto,       que estando contigo, me siento como       Además, cuando múltiple se con-
a estas palabras: problema, asunto,       en verano»; con un «Por eso cuando        vierte en un elemento compositivo, es
cuestión, duda, razón, esquema,           estoy contigo…» bastaba. En el Cono       decir, en el sufijo multi-, debe formar
proposición, etc.:                        Sur (especialmente Argentina) es muy      una palabra en singular con su corre-
Los ministros tratarán el tema del        habitual ver y oír construcciones         spondiente plural: multimillonario/s,
paro (problema)                           como «Ya lo llamé a tu hermano»,          multinacional/es. Formas incorrectas:
Ése es el tema: votar o no votar          donde el acusativo de pronombre           *programa multiusos. También el tér-
(dilema, disyuntiva, cuestión)            personal es redundante.                   mino multilingüe (que no es incor-
Hay que recordar, además, que cu-                                                   recto) ha desplazado, por influencia
ando la palabra tema va en feme-          Incluso, inclusive e incluido. Un error   del inglés, al más castizo plurilingüe.
nino, como en el refrán Cada loco         abundante en el lenguaje hablado.
con su tema, sólo puede referirse a       Los dos primeros son adverbios y          Honesto, honrado y sincero. Los que
una obstinación o manía por algo.         proceden del latino inclusus, pero        traducimos material destinado a tele-
El término tópico es un anglicismo        actualmente no significan lo mismo. El    visión y teatro lo vemos muy a
innecesario.                              término incluso significa 'con inclu-     menudo: *Creo honestamente que no
                                          sión, inclusivamente', cuando actúa       es para ti; *Seré honesta contigo: lo
El y/o. El lío, diría yo, haciendo un     como adverbio, y 'hasta', 'aun' cuando    detesto; *Es una mujer honesta;
juego de palabras. No es raro leer        actúa como preposición o conjun-          siempre dice lo que piensa. En primer
en la prensa anuncios como éste           ción: Incluso los hombres par-            lugar, veamos qué dice el diccionario:

                                                                                              Eficaz, eficiente y efectivo. El adjetivo
          (continúa en la página 24)            Como puede comprobarse, las definiciones      effective es otro cognado, que no significa
empezamos a correlear ustedes y
yo?                                             de honrado y honradez coinciden con las       efectivo, sino eficaz o eficiente. Em-
Mi dirección "correlera", por cierto,           de los términos ingleses honest y honesty.    pleamos eficaz, generalmente, para cosas
Diez Errores Típicos ...                        Nuestros términos honesto y honestidad,       y seres inanimados, y eficiente para seres
es: Espero
(viene de la página 23)
con todo interés sus comentarios.               en cambio, se corresponden con modest y       animados, dado que la eficiencia es una
                                                modesty (que tiene otras acepciones).         virtud o facultad más propia de seres vi-
                     HONESTO, TA. (Del lat.
          honestus.) 1. adj. Decente o
                                              Pasarse de la raya… inglesa. Este es uno        Opcional y optativo. Los traductores de
          decoroso. | 2. Recatado, pu-
                                              de los errores que encuentro con mayor          computación o informática, principal-
          doroso. | 3. Razonable, justo. | 4.
                                              frecuencia en traducciones de inglés a          mente, hemos desplazado el castizo opta-
          Probo, recto, honrado. | 5. Véase
                                              español. Cierto uso de la raya inglesa no       tivo con el menos correcto opcional, aun-
          estado honesto.
                                              existe como tal en español y dado que es        que no son términos sinónimos. Opcional
                                              una estructura foránea debe traducirse          debiera ser a optativo lo que educacional
El cognado inglés honest nos engaña
                                              siempre por el equivalente que proceda:         es a educativo. Curiosamente, como
con frecuencia. Poco tiene que ver ser
                                              paréntesis, punto, coma, dos puntos o           ocurre en tantas otras situaciones del
sincero con ser decente o, por lo me-
                                              punto y coma. Ejemplos: MaxiPlus — the          idioma, en distintos sectores se expresan
nos, ser sincero no es inherente a ser
                                              real winner (MaxiPlus: el verdadero ga-         de distinta manera conceptos que son
decente. Generalmente, los adjetivos
                                              nador). En los manuales técnicos también        idénticas: así, mi hermano ha elegido dos
sincero, franco, llano, directo o ex-
                                              suele aparecer en títulos y párrafos en los     asignaturas optativas (optional subjects),
plícito pueden servirnos para traducir
                                              que se dan instrucciones o describen ele-       pero la definición de pantalla en Win-
este adjetivo: Para serte sincero…; Te
                                              mentos:                                         dows es opcional.
seré franco…; Francamente, no sé
qué decir, etc. Respecto a otros con-
                                                       Print dialog box - Select the op-      ¿Quiero que me soporten o que me ayu-
textos, es mejor ver qué dice el dic-
                                                       tions you want... (Cuadro de           den?
                                                       diálogo Imprimir. Elija las opciones   Como en el ejemplo anterior, los traducto-
                                                       que desee...)                          res somos responsables de calcar expre-
          HONRADO, DA. (Del lat. honora-
                                                                                              siones completamente innecesarias para
          tus.) 1. p. p. de honrar. | 2. adj.
                                                                    MaxiPlus — Advantages     nuestro idioma y que, en ocasiones,
          Que procede con honradez. |
                                                       & Disadvantages (Ventajas e i -   n    quieren decir algo muy distinto. Así, si mi
          3. Ejecutado honrosamente. | 4.
                                                       c o n v e n ientes de MaxiPlus;        televisor se estropea, llamaré al Servicio
          fig. Véase barba honrada.
                                                       MaxiPlus: ventajas e inconvenien-      de asistencia técnica, pero si se estropea
                                                       tes)                                   mi Windows 98, tendré que llamar al de-
          HONRADEZ. (De honrado.) 1. f.
                                                                                              partamento de Soporte técnico de Micro-
Rectitud de ánimo, integridad en el obrar.

                 I ntercambios
     The Newsletter of the Spanish Language Divi-
     sion of the American Translators Association
                      c/o Pilar Saslow
                   289 Meadowlark Drive,


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