Bulletin July 2009

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Bulletin July  2009 Powered By Docstoc
					             Monthly Publication of the European Network for Central Africa ( EURAC )                           
                                        No. 56 –July 2009 

  EDITORIAL                A strong mandate and consistent                        CONTENTS
                            support for Eusec
                                                                                   Summary of events (p. 2-4)
         ften since the beginning of this year, EurAc has expressed concern
                                                                                    - Great Lakes : Liberty of movement
                                                                                      of persons and goods; Africa’s
          over events in eastern Congo: we are of the opinion that the joint          biggest customs union; Banana
          operations will prove counter-productive in terms of security, the          disease; An agency to guarantee
impact on the living conditions of local people and the process of                    investments; Rwanda and Burundi
democratisation. We have always held the view that no military action                 negotiate an extradition treaty
against the FDLR would make sense unless it was part of a politically               - DRC : Conference of provincial
negotiated solution, and that no agreement with the FDLR would hold                   governors; International day against
without a democratic opening for them in Rwanda. Another adverse effect of            torture; Strategy to disarm the
the military operations is that the positive achievements of Eusec, the EU            FDLR
mission supporting the reform of the Congolese army, have been reversed.            - Burundi : DDR process underway;
The biometric census of the troops and the separation of the system of                Assassination of the Vice-President
payment from the chain of command had resulted in real progress towards a             of OLUCOME: some leads
more transparent management of FARDC, which are currently made up of
                                                                                    - Rwanda : The people of Ruhango
many different units and militias with little to no hierarchy or allegiance. The
                                                                                      demand fair compensation;
speed at which the military operations were undertaken, the lack of
                                                                                      Discriminatory employment
preparation and the method by which the brigades were dismantled to form
                                                                                      practices and illegal detentions
new units, in addition to the hasty integration of CNDP troops into the
FARDC, have plunged the Congolese army into a state of total confusion,
causing EUSEC’s progress to be lost. Marie-France Cros points out the               Advocacy (p.5-6)
significance of the situation in her article «Towards a new débâcle in                EurAc’s memorandum to the
Kivu ? » (La Libre Belgique of 23 June 2009). She writes: «… the legendary            Swedish presidency of the EU;
lack of discipline in the Congolese army has increased. In addition to the            EurAc Director at meetings in
general defiance of orders and frequent mutinies, there is now more looting           London and The Hague; Round
and, since the beginning of June, desertions not only by individuals but en           table on the future of the DRC; etc.
masse. The latter are on the increase: as of now entire companies of
Congolese soldiers are taking to the bush ». Today frustration with Eusec            Main documents received
seems to be general. The EU hopes for a clear sign of loyalty to the Eusec            (p. 7 - 8)
mission by the Congolese authorities, who seem to prefer dealing with each
of their partners on a bilateral basis rather than with the whole European          Publisher
group. They remain convinced that Eusec’s approach is ambiguous. The                Kris Berwouts
DRC would like Europe to do more: not only to establish a unified army but          Rue des Tanneurs, 165
also to provide the equipment and armaments necessary to make it a credible         1000 Bruxelles (Belgique)
and effective force. Meanwhile certain EU member states, frustrated by the          Tél. + 32 2/502 33 12
                                                                                    Fax + 32 2/ 502 21 42
fact that in the areas where Eusec’s work had been making some progress,
events on the ground have once again reduced its efforts to nothing, have
intensified their attempts to make bilateral agreements. This increases the
                                                                                    Donatella Rostagno; Marie-Rose
risk that the EU will be trapped in a tense situation between bilateralism and      Hoornaert, Kris Berwouts, Joseph
multilateralism. Consequently there is not much political will to invest in         Ntamahungiro.
Eusec, in terms of financing the mission and even less in providing military        Mail :
or civilian personnel. EurAc still holds that there will be no lasting solution
to the insecurity in Kivu until the Third Republic has the means to impose a
constitutional state. EurAc advocates a strong mandate and consistent               N.B.: Texts and information sources
support to enable Eusec to support the reforms in the DRC’s security sector         selected do not necessarily represent the
by focusing on its « core business » and capitalising on the complementary          position of members of the Network
efforts of the EU member states and other international actors.

                                                       Kris Berwouts, Director
     Summary of events                                                  June
      Great Lakes                                              Banana disease puts lives in danger
                                                                 in East Africa
 Liberty of movement of persons and
  goods within the CEPGL zone                                  An article in IRIN reports that bananas in East Africa
                                                               are very seriously threatened by the bacterial disease
The heads of the immigration services of Rwanda,               Xanthomonas which affects the leaves of the banana
Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC),            (BXW) and thus can put the lives of thousands of East
met on 11 and 12 June 2009 at Gisenyi (Rwanda) in order        African farmers at risk unless it is rapidly dealt with.
to harmonise their positions on the liberty of movement of     Plantains are eaten by a large number of the world’s
persons and goods within the Economic Community of the         people, particularly in the southern hemisphere. They
Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL). At the end of their             come fourth after rice, wheat and maize. In Burundi,
meeting it was agreed that from now on three documents         Rwanda and Uganda bananas provide around one third
would be required: a users’ guide to the travel documents,     of a person’s daily calories. The only hope of stopping
a special authorisation for vehicles and a special CEPGL       BXW would be to introduce resistant or hybrid
card. According to the executive secretary of the CEPGL,       varieties but their adoption and propagation would take
Gabriel Toyi, the question of fixing the frontier between      several years. In the next month the UN Food and
Rwanda and the DRC was also on the agenda but there is         Agriculture Organisation (FAO) will undertake a risk
no indication that this was discussed. Readers may             assessment of current and future banana production so
remember that a first such meeting was held in the same        as to take the necessary measures.
town in February 2008.
                                                                An African agency to guarantee
 East Africa now connected by a high                            investments
   speed under-sea internet cable
                                                               The pre-summit of the African Union and African civil
A fibre-optic submarine cable linking the United Arab          society organisations opened in Tripoli on 21 June
Emirates (UAE) to Kenya was inaugurated on 12 June             2009. In his introductory remarks, Bachir Zanbil,
2009 at Mombasa (Kenya) ready for the impending arrival        Secretary of the Libyan National Planning Council
of high speed internet in east Africa. The laying of this      pressed for the creation by African capital-exporting
cable will be undertaken by the Franco-American company        countries of an institution responsible for guaranteeing
Alcatel-Lucent which won the tender. TEAMS (The East           investment and insurance of exports, and for the
Africa Marine Systems), which links Fujairah (UAE) to          signing of bilateral or multilateral agreements to
Mombasa (4.500 kms), should be connected to the network        guarantee the investment and to avoid double
and is expected to start operation this month (July). At       imposition of duty. He further proposed the creation of
present, the region relies on internet connections by          an African centre to solve disputes between African
satellite which are characterised by poor reliability, slow    countries relating to investments and of a common
working and exorbitant costs, Apart from Kenya the cable       investment fund to finance small projects.
should benefit the DRC, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan,
Rwanda, Burundi and Ethiopia.                                   Rwanda and Burundi negotiate an
                                                                 extradition treaty
 Birth of Africa’s biggest customs
  union                                                        At the beginning of June 2009, a delegation from
                                                               Rwanda arrived in Burundi to explore the possibilities
According to the journal «Les Afriques » (22/06/09), the       of signing an extradition treaty between the two
400 million inhabitants of the 19 countries of the Common      countries which would concern those suspected of
Market of Eastern and Southern Africa will enjoy a single      genocide as well as other types of criminal offenders.
economic customs regime as from 21 June 2009. This is          Rwanda is also negotiating extradition treaties with
the result of the signature of an agreement creating           about 29 other countries both inside and outside
Africa’s largest customs union with 12 million km2, a          Africa.
GNP of 360 billion dollars. The agreement provides for
the harmonisation of customs dues on products entering
and on those circulating within the zone, and tax
exemption on raw materials, with semi-manufactured
products taxed at 10% against 25% on finished products. A
first effect of the agreement is the lifting of tourist visa
restrictions inside the zone which stretches from Egypt to
Swaziland. It has taken 16 years to create this common
market which is larger than its European equivalent.
                                                                          EURAC - 4/08/11– page 2
                                                                 from carrying out its obligations towards the
      DRC                                                       Convention. ASADHO advocates for the closure of all
      Conference of provincial governors                        the detention centres where the security services and
                                                                 the army carry out torture. It also demands an
From 24 to 25 June 2009 a conference of provincial               administrative enquiry into all the alleged acts of
governors of the DRC was held in Kisangani. The                  torture with a view to bringing disciplinary proceedings
President of the Republic presided from start to finish over     against those responsible. ASADHO recommends a
this meeting which brought together the Prime Minister,          judicial enquiry into all torture cases in order to punish
Adolphe Muzito, the Ministers of the Interior (Célestin          the perpetrators and to enable the victims to be
Mbuyu), of Decentralisation (Mbusa Nyamwisi), of                 compensated for the wrongs to which they were
Defence (Mwando Nsimba), of Finance (Athanase                    subjected. It recommends that Parliament pass a bill as
Matenda), of the Budget (Michel Lokola) and the                  soon as possible which outlaws acts of torture. Other
governors of the eleven provinces of the country. Several        reports from Congolese human rights NGOs, notably
experts working in the Presidency and the Government             ACAT and COJESKI, also sound alarm bells on the
also took part. The central theme was « strengthening state      subject of torture in the DRC.
authority throughout the national territory » and «the
announcement of the implementation of the policy of              A comprehensive strategy to disarm
decentralisation» by reinforcing the provinces and other
decentralised territorial bodies.      The subject which
                                                                  the FDLR
dominated the discussions on decentralisation was the
question of retaining at source of 40% of the revenue by         International Crisis Group (ICG) has just published, on
the provinces. At the end of the meeting it was decided to       8 July 2009, a document entitled « DR Congo : A
create a permanent order of payment in all the branches of       comprehensive strategy to disarm the FDLR » . ICG
the Central Bank in the provinces. It was also agreed that       acknowledges that these rebels have not yet been
rall expenditure destined for the provinces should now be        disarmed and remain the perpetrators of extreme
agreed between the government, represented by the                violence against the civilian population. Although they
Minister of Finance, and the provinces represented by the        no longer have the military capacity to destabilise
Governor of Katanga.. The conference of governors thus           Rwanda, their 6.000 fighters – still including some
decided not to pay the percentages back to the central           génocidaires – continue to present a major political
government but instead to pay a subsidy to each province         obstacle to the consolidation of peace in the Great
                                                                 Lakes Region. ICG advocates a new comprehensive
sufficient to enable the provincial executive to carry out its
functions. This means that the application of article 175 of     strategy involving national, regional and international
the Constitution has been put on ice for a relatively long
period. Until the start of the new order it is Kinshasa – the
                                                                 actors, a clear division of tasks and better coordination.
                                                                 This would benefit from the recent improvement in
central government – which keeps control of public funds         bilateral relations between Rwanda and the DRC; it
                                                                 would put an end to the terrible suffering by civilians;
in the national Treasury. The sharing of the national kitty
with the provinces and the decentralised bodies remains in       and it would restore state authority in the Congo’s
                                                                 eastern provinces. Such a strategy implies the pursuit of
the control of Kinshasa alone. The second conference of
governors in the DRC is planned for December 2009 at             military collaboration between the Congo and Rwanda,

Mbandaka, in Equateur province.                                  the suspension of the «Kimia II » operation and no
                                                                 further offensives against the FDLR. It would also
International day against torture
                                                                 involve the setting up of a new mechanism for
                                                                 disarming the FDLR by means of which awareness
To mark the international day against torture on 26 June
                                                                 raising and military action would be planned
                                                                 simultaneously along with judicial initiatives in the
2009, the Human Rights NGO, Association Africaine de             countries where the FDLR’s political leaders have
Défense des Droits de l’Homme en RDC (ASADHO),                   taken refuge. Also according to the ICG, other key
published a report entitled : « Victims break their silence      elements are: establishing cross-border development
and demand justice ». The association reminded us that in        projects in the Economic Community of the Great
1989, the Congo - then Zaïre – signed up to the                  Lakes Countries and starting a dialogue about the
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or           region’s dramatic history in the framework of the
Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Sadly, twenty years           International Conference on the Great Lakes Region
later the situation on the ground remains extremely              (CIRGL) with the aim of promoting reconciliation
worrying. The security services always use torture;              between Congolese and Rwandans.
Parliament has not yet passed the law penalising torture
and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment; no
investigations have been made into cases which have been
exposed and taken to court and the perpetrators benefit
from total immunity. In this report, so as to illustrate the
seriousness of the situation, ASADHO illustrates with a
sample of cases chosen from over five hundred complaints
recorded across the DRC. On the basis of the grim picture
it has put together, ASADHO insists that the DRC is far

                                                                          EURAC - 4/08/11– page 3
      Burundi                                                 Rwanda
 DDR process underway                                         The people of Ruhango demand
                                                               fair compensation
The disengagement process of the Forces Nationales de
Libération (FNL) began on 6 May 2009 with the checking         On 21 May 2009, the people of Kinyankanda, Gihira cell,
of the 21.000 names shown on the certified lists. Each day     Ruhango sector, Rutsiro district, Western Province,
between 200 and 300 adults came to Bubanza military            organised a demonstration against the expropriation of the
camp (one of the centres for payment and handing out           land occupied by them since 1995 and granted to them by
”guides to assist the return home”) to return the same day     the Ministry of Rehabilitation Family Integration. It was
to their original home community. Thanks to the                when they arrived back in the country from the countries
Demobilization,      Disarmament       and    Reintegration    in the region where they had been refugees since 1959.
programme (DDR), some 3.500 rebel ex-combatants have           The government’s purpose is that the land should be
already been reintegrated into various defence and security    conserved as part of a plan to restore the ecosystem of the
forces. 5.000 other former fighters have been able to return   Gishwati forest in the interests of improving the quality of
to civilian life thanks to a demobilisation payment of         the water, reducing the danger of soil erosion, flooding
600.000 Burundi Francs (approx US$ 600) and the hope of        and landslips. The people are demanding as compensation
receiving a “salary” for a further nine months. The signed     a fair payment before moving. Unfortunately the
agreements between the FNL and the government provide          government only proposes to give each family a plot of
for 33 senior posts to be reserved for leading FNL             land and help to build a house without any further
members as soon as they definitively give up their arms.       compensation to pay for horticulture and farming. As a
In this context President Nkurunziza has appointed about       protest the people have occupied a 40 hectare plantation
ten leading FNL members to responsible posts. Thus the         and destroyed the 70.000 trees in it. At a meeting aimed at
historic leader of the FNL, Agathon Rwasa, has been            calming the situation, the governor of the Western
nominated as Director General of the Institut National de      Province, Célestin Kabahizi, declared that severe measures
Sécurité Sociale (INSS) and the former Secretary General       would be taken against any person who continues to
of the FNL, Jonathan Nshimirimana, as the new chief            undermine the government’s efforts to preserve threatened
advisor on military matters to the President of the            forests.
Republic. As a result of this process, Burundi can perhaps
hope for lasting peace after the years of civil war which      Discrimatory employment                      practices
have plunged 68% of the country’s population into               and illegal detentions
                                                               According to the government journal « La Nouvelle
The assassination of the Vice-President                       Relève », the National Human Rights Commission
 of OLUCOME : some leads                                       (CNDH) has handed a critical report on «unfair
                                                               recruitment conditions in public institutions » to Rwandan
Two interesting leads have opened up in connection with        parliamentarians. The Chair of the CNDH, Mme Kayitesi
the enquiry into the killing of Ernest Manirumva, Vice         Zaïnabo, strongly denounced «trickery in the employment
President of the Observatory for the Struggle against          of state officials and the staff of the different public
Corruption and Economic Misappropriation (OLUCOME),            establishments ». Such unacceptable practices often
according to the Burundian journal, Iwacu. Civil society       include nepotism which is undermining most public
sources indicate the first suspect to be Captain Pacifique     institutions and secret manœuvres which give an
Ndikuriyo, who has been a member of the Presidential           advantage to one candidate over another when making
Guard since 2005 and who was assassinated on 30 April          appointments. The report also makes accusations based on
2009, because «he knew too much about the assassination        people’s complaints especially regarding failure to respect
of Ernest Manirumva ». Those close to Capt. Ndikuriyo          normal conditions of detention and punishment of
have said, «he was asked to go with his unit » to liquidate    condemned persons. It gives examples of cases which last
Manirumva, «but he refused. This refusal cost him his          several days and then are filed away and no action taken
life ». The circumstances of the captain’s death leave many    while the person deemed guilty «languishes within the
questions unanswered. The other person linked to the           four walls of the prison » in bad and dirty conditions and
assassination is said to be a certain Gabriel Nduwayo, alias   with a prison diet that leaves much to be desired. This
« Sésé », an informer at the Service National des              report has been rejected by a dozen members of parliament
Renseignements. He is said to have left the country as part    who have accused it of «a lack of credibility » and have
of a delegation of the Burundi Coffee Marketing Board          recommended «a more exhaustive enquiry which would
(OCIBU) to the USA and from there went to Canada. Even         lead to reliable results ».
though the director of OCIBU denies it, it seems certain
that Sésé left the country for a destination in the West

                                                                        EURAC - 4/08/11– page 4
 EurAc’s memorandum to the Swedish                             Burundi. The discussions on the role of Burundian civil
  Presidency of the EU                                          society and of the international NGOs in the democratic
                                                                process were constructive
On 29 June 2009, EurAc published a Memorandum to the
Swedish presidency of the European Union (EU) entitled           Round table on the situation and the
«Elections and beyond: Towards stability in Burundi».             chances for the future of the DRC
The network acknowledges some progress achieved in the
course of the first parliamentary session. This includes the    On 16 June 2009, ten Belgian NGOs organised a round
problematic establishment of the Independent National           table to consider the chances for future peace in the
Electoral Commission (CENI), the integration into state         DRC. Invitations were sent to a targeted public: the
institutions of the last active rebel group, Palipehutu-FNL     officials of the Belgian Ministries of Foreign Affairs,
which has now become a political party with the name            Development Cooperation and Defence; foreign affairs
« Front National de Libération » (FNL) and the release          officials from the French Walloon community and from
from prison of the former journalist Alexis Sinduhije,          Flanders;       federal    parliamentarians    (from    the
president of the Mouvement pour la Solidarité et le             commissions on foreign relations and defence as well as
Développement (MSD), which has just been approved as            parliamentarians from the regions and the European
the 43rd legally recognised political grouping. EurAc finds     Parliament. Journalists from the press, radio and TV
the track record of this first parliamentary session is         were also present, along with representatives of the
mixed, characterised as it was by several institutional log     NGOs which organised the event. Two experts spoke:
jams and a political climate in which CNDD-FDD, the             Rigobert Minani, Coordinator of the Network of
party in power, «had a tendency to become more                  Christian-inspired Human Rights and Civic Education
authoritarian ». The network also deplores the violence         Organisations (RODHECIC) and head of the socio-
against women, the persistence of sexual inequality, the        political department of the Centre d’Etudes pour
weakness of the legal system as well as the corruption and      l’Action Sociale (CEPAS); and Jean-Claude Willame,
nepotism which has penetrated the whole of public life.         Professor Emeritus of the Catholic University of
EurAc is drawing up a series of recommendations to tackle       Louvain (UCL), a specialist on Central Africa.
these ills so that the current electoral process can go ahead   Concentrating on the current politics of the East of the
successfully and will result in free and transparent            DRC, the first speaker recalled the initiatives taken in
elections.                                                      recent years for a sustainable peace in the Great lakes
                                                                region – the Conference for peace and security in the
 EurAc Director at meetings in London                          Great Lakes region (CPSGRL, 2006); the Nairobi
  and The Hague                                                 Communiqué and the problem of foreign armed groups
                                                                in the DRC (2007) and the Conference on peace,
At Christian Aid’s invitation, Kris Berwouts, Director of       security and development in the provinces of North Kivu
EurAc, visited London at the beginning of June 2009, to         and South Kivu (Goma 2008). The first initiative was
participate in a meeting organised by the All Party             intended to be a legal agreement for cooperation and
Parliamentary Group on Central Africa. This meeting was         international and regional jurisdiction which should in
held on the occasion of the visit to London by Baudouin         future guide relations between the countries of the Great
Hamuli, the DRC focal point for the International               Lakes region. The second envisaged creating a common
Conference on the Great Lakes Region (CIRGL). This              approach between the DRC and Rwanda to the threat to
round table meeting brought together British political          their security and stability by the former Forces Armées
personalities from Parliament, the Foreign Office, the          Rwandaises (FAR) Interahamwe. The final peace
Department for International Development as well as from        initiative, still in the process, aims to make proposals to
academia. It was an opportunity for EurAc not only to           the Kinshasa government on how to create sustainable
present its recommendations on the CIRGL as listed in its       peace and development in the provinces of North and
March Memorandum on this subject but also a good                South Kivu.
opportunity to emphasise the importance of strengthening        The second speaker talked of security aspects and
the institutions of the DRC’s Third Republic through local      decentralisation in the DRC. It is all very well for
elections and decentralisation.                                 documents to be approved and signed but if, on the
On 16 July, Kris Berwouts visited The Hague at the              ground, insecurity persists local people pay the price.
invitation of Dutch NGOs to meet an important delegation        There can be no real security as long as impunity
from Burundi led by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs            continues. Due to the chronic malfunctioning of the
(Augustin Nsanze) and Finance (Clotilde Nzigama). The           judicial system which leaves the field open for massive
representatives of Cordaid, Novib and EurAc spoke in the        human rights violations. This does not call into question
name of the NGOs to share their recommendations                 the need for decentralisation, the aim of which is the
regarding the elections, security and demobilisation in         reconstruction of the state by means of local elections
                                                                which will be the final stage in the democratic process in

                                                                           EURAC - 4/08/11– page 5
the DRC. Unfortunately, organising these elections is          anachronistic and fails to meet constitutional and
problematic due to tensions between the provinces over         international standards for the right to a fair trial. Worse
the demarcation of the decentralised entities and the          still, military justice in the DRC has enlarged its sphere
identification of the authorities which will control these     of operation to cover cases which should be dealt with
entities. The law cannot be promulgated without there          by the civil courts. This is not in keeping with the
being a complete list of these entities.                       constitution or African and international standards which
                                                               should be applicable in the country. The report
Round table on sexual abuses and                              recommends a series of necessary conditions for the
 exploitation                                                  reform of this aspect of justice.

The working group on sexual violence in conflict               Congolese reconstruction
situations in which EurAc participates organised a round
table on the theme « Preventing, detecting and                 Bob Kabamba, Professor of Political Science at the
responding to sexual abuse and exploitation in crisis          University of Liège, and Arnaud Zacharie, Secretary
situations» on 26 June 2009. Participating were Mme            General of the National Centre for Development
Heidi Lehmann, Director specializing in gender based           Cooperation (CNCD-11.11.11) have combined their
violence for International Rescue Committee (IRC) and          powers of analysis in a book entitled « La reconstruction
Mr. Henrik Häggström, Director of the Child Protection         congolaise » (Congolese reconstruction) published by
Initiative of the NGO Save the Children. Several aspects       Editions Luc Pire (Bruxelles) in June 2009. After two
of the problem were brought up, including definitions of       wars, leading to 5,4 million deaths, the DRC has gone
sexual abuse and exploitation; the perpetrators and            through an inclusive peace process which led to
different aspects of sexual abuse and exploitation;            elections. However, there are still many political and
prevention, monitoring and reporting of abuses;                economic obstacles and the people have not yet felt any
investigation and responses for NGOs and institutions          positive changes in their living conditions. The book
which want to join in the struggle against sexual abuses       describes the challenges facing the development of
and exploitation in crisis situations. This round table is     productive capacity and guaranteeing to the Congolese
part of a series of meetings which the working group           people the social dividend of democracy. The authors
organises regularly to provide expertise to NGOs and           see the main problems as the reconstruction of the state
agencies of the UN and the EU who work in these areas.         and the promotion of social and economic development
                                                               in a bipolar world where the powers are competing to
Open Society Institute publishes                              exploit natural resources.
 two reports on the DRC
                                                               Congolese Social Forum
Two reports on the DRC have just been published by the
Open Society Institute (OSI). The first, entitled              The second Congolese Social Forum was held at
« Effective Delivery of Public services in the Education       Lubumbashi from 26 to 29 June 2009. The meeting had
Sector » analyses the challenges faced by the education        as its general theme: «Our natural resources: our right,
system in the Congo. The report highlights the efforts         our dignity. Another Congo is possible ». EURAC
which have been made and which will be needed to               members CNCD-11.11.11. and Broederlijk Delen took
improve the running of the Congo’s educational system.         part in the Forum. Mme Sabine Kakunga, head of
The main challenges include weakness in planning and           Central Africa programmes at CNCD-11.11.11 and
budgeting and poor management of funds in the                  delegate at the Forum, reported that the Forum had
education system. To confront the problem of the               defined the link between natural resources and conflict
deteriorating performance of the country’s schools, the        and broached the issue of the social responsibilities of
report suggests starting at the level of planning and          private companies, including publishing what the
provision and management of resources. It recommends           companies pay to the government and what the
a necessary increase in the budget for education and,          government actually receives, as well as the question of
even more important, an effort to reform the                   the revision of exploitation contracts. The Forum also
administrative systems to ensure that money is well            looked at the question of environmental protection and
spent. The report emphasizes politicians’ responsibility:      the harmful effects in the absence thereof, such as
only a commitment on their part to deal with these             pollution and diseases caused by companies dumping
problems can lead to the measures and action needed to         waste. The need to return to agriculture as the motor of
find solutions. The second report is entitled « Military       development rather than just concentrating on mining
Justice and Human Rights-An urgent need to complete            and forest resources was also raised, as well as the link
reforms ». It starts by acknowledging that very few of         between natural resources, decentralisation and external
the serious crimes committed in the DRC during the             debt.
successive wars that have torn the country apart since
1996 have been tried in civil courts.
The majority of cases have only been taken to military
tribunals – and, as currently practised, military justice is
incapable of leading the fight against impunity which is
so widespread in the country. It is ineffective because it
is incapable of bringing a large number of cases to
justice due to its legislative framework which is

                                                                          EURAC - 4/08/11– page 6
Documents on the Great Lakes region
  June 2008
This list represents a selection of key documents received by EURAC over the last month. The list is
by no means complete. The content of the documents binds only their authors and does not reflect
the opinion of EurAC or its members. All the documents now have a hyperlink and can thus be
downloaded from the electronic version of this bulletin. The links take you to our website or
to the website of the organisations which originally published them. If you face problems
downloading them or if you would prefer a hard copy, we will be happy to forward any
documents to you. Please send any requests to

 Regional                            DRC: UN                                   Les vies et les libertés des civils à
                                                               Regional          l’épreuve des armes dans le Nord-
                                      Twenty-eighth report of the Secretary-     Kivu
Report of the Security Council        General on the MONUC                       ASPD, Kinshasa, 30/06/09, 23 p.
mission to the African Union,         Ban Ki-moon, New York, 30/06/09,
Rwanda and the DRC                                                               Les victimes brisent leur silence
                                      19 p.                                      pour réclamer justice
Security Council, New York,
19/06/09, 32 p.                                                                  ASADHO, Kinshasa, 26/06/09,
                                      DRC: Army                                 7 p.
Sub-Saharan Africa. Annual                                                       Déclaration relative à la
report 2009 on Human Rights           L’échec annoncé de la réforme du
                                      secteur de sécurité (RSS)                  persistance de la torture en RDC
Situation                                                                        COJESKI, Kinshasa, 26/06/09,
FIDH, Paris, 30/06/09, 120 p.         IFRI, Paris, 30/0908, 31 p.
                                                                                 5 p.
Défendre les droits humains en        Vers une nouvelle débâcle dans les
Afrique. Points de vue sur la         Kivu ?                                     Appel contre la torture en RDC
Commission africaine des droits       Marie-France Cros, La Libre Belgique,      ACAT, Paris, 15/06/09, 3 p.
de l’homme et des peuples             Bruxelles, 23/06/09, 2 p.
Droits et Démocratie, Montréal,                                                  Violées en prison, elles racontent
                                                                                 IWPR, Goma, 01/07/09, 12 p.
31/12/08, 87 p.                       DRC: Human Rights
Justice et séparation des pouvoirs:                                              DRC: Teaching
Burundi, RDC, Rwanda, Belgique        La réponse de l’UE aux besoins
et Sud Soudan                         urgents de protection et d’assistance au   Effective Delivery of Public
RCN Justice et Démocratie,            Congo                                      Services in the Education Sector
Bruxelles, 25/06/09, 28 p.            Oxfam et autres, Bruxelles, 12/06/09,      AfriMAP and OSISA,
                                      4 p.                                       Johannesburg, 30/06/09, 16 p.
Secrecy, woes, war over
Uganda’s oil                          Annual Survey 2009 of violations of        DRC:
The Independent, Kampala,             trade union rights
07/07/09, 7 p.                        ITUC, Geneva, 10/06/09, 3 p.                 Humanitarian
Déclaration de Kampala des            Assistance aux enfants nés du viol en
défenseurs des Droits de              quête d’identité                           Humanitarian consequences of
l’Homme                               ICJP, Bukavu, 07/07/09, 2 p.               military operations in the Kivus
EHAHRDN, Kampala, 23/04/09,                                                      OCHA, Kinshasa, 17/05/09, 20 p.
4 p.                                  Rapport de l’Expert indépendant sur la
                                      situation des Droits de l’Homme            DRC: Justice
La rouille de banane met des vies     OHCHR, Kinshasa,
en danger.                            04/06/09, 8 p.                             Military Justice and Human
IRIN, Kampala, 19/06/09, 3 p.                                                    Rights. An urgent need to
                                                                                 complete reform
Appel à la Tanzanie et à                                                         AfriMAP and OSISA,
l’Ouganda à ne pas renvoyer les                                                  Johannesburg, 30/06/09, 20 p
HRW, New York, 19/06/09, 3 p.

                                                                         EURAC - 4/08/11– page 7
Loi d’amnistie pour faits de guerres    DRC: Refugees
et insurrectionnels commis dans les
                                                                                 Rwanda : Human
Provinces du Nord-Kivu et du Sud-      Mémorandum des femmes du Nord-              Rights
Kvu                                    Kivu à l’intention du HCR
Président Joseph Kabila, Kinshasa,     Femmes du Nord-Kivu, Goma,                La population de Ruhango crie pour
15/06/09, 5 p.                         12/06/09, 5 p.                            l’octroi de l’indemnisation juste
                                                                                 LDGL, Rutsiro, 05/06/09, 2 p.
DRC: Politics                          DRC: Civil Society                      The Ratification of the Convention
                                                                                 Against torture : A step forward in the
A Comprehensive Strategy to            Mémo de la SOCIKOR aux
                                                                                 adoption of International norms of
Disarm the FDLR                        Ambassadeurs de l’UE en visite en
                                                                                 justice and human rights
ICG, Brussels, 09/07/09, 4 p.          RDC en juin 2009
                                                                                 ASF, Brussels, 26/06/09, 1 p.
                                       SOCIKOR, Mbujimayi, 17/06/09,
Do no harm”? Kimya 2 will only         3 p.
                                                                                 Revise Reproductive Health Bill
have a counter-productive effect                                                 HRW, New York, 01/07/09, 2 p.
EurAc, Brussels, 16/06/09, 2 p.        Burundi: Human
                                         Rights                                  La Commission Nationale des Droits
Compte rendu de la première                                                      de l'homme dénonce les pratiques
session des gouverneurs de             Annual Survey 2009 of violations of       malveillantes d'embauche
province du 24 au 25 juin 2009         trade union rights                        La Nouvelle Relève, N° 731, Kigali,
MDAT, Kisangani, 25/06/09, 4 p.        ITUC, Geneva, 10/06/09, 3 p.              22/06/09, 1 p.

La Reconstruction congolaise           La torture est bel et bien une réalité    Annual Survey 2009 of violations of
Arnaud Zacharie et Bob Kabamba,        au Burundi, selon l’ACAT                  trade union rights
Editions Luc Pire, Bruxelles, Juin     BINUB, Bujumbura, 29/06/09, 1 p.          ITUC, Geneva, 10/06/09, 2 p.
2009, 143 p.
A commander en librairie               Burundi: Justice                         Rwanda: Genocide
Opération Kimya II : Un effroi dans    Les pistes qui évoquent l'élimination     Law, Justice and Power
la population de Walungu               d'Ernest Manirumva                        Gregory Mthembu-Salter,
GAO, Walungu, 16/06/09, 2 p.           Burundi News, Paris, 14/06/09, 2 p.       Scarborough, 26/06/09, 4 p.

La population de la Chefferie de                                                 Jury still out on effectiveness of
                                       Burundi: Politics                        `Gacaca’ courts
Nindja dans la tourmente à la veille
de l’opération KIMIA II                                                          IRIN, Kigali, 24/06/09, 3 p.
                                       Elections and beyond: Towards
LDGL, Bukavu, 15/06/09, 8 p.
                                       stability in Burundi                      UN Security council extends ICTR
                            ème        EurAc, Brussels, 29/06/09, 6 p.           mandate to December 2010
Discours à l’occasion du 49
anniversaire de l’indépendance                                                   UN, New York, 07/07/09, 1 p.
                                       Les tristes singularités du Burundi
Président Joseph Kabila, Goma,
30/06/09, 4 p.
                                       Bernard Nzibarega, Burundi News,          Rwanda: Politics
                                       Paris, 07/07/09, 6 p.
49 ans d’indépendance : Quel                                                     Chronique politique 2008-2009
bilan ?                                Dès la veille de l’indépendance du        Filip Reyntjens, Anvers, 31/05/09,
Héritiers de la Justice, Bukavu,       Burundi en 1962, les violences            27 p.
29/26/09, 2 p.                         emboîtent le pas sur le cours des
                                       faits politiques et sociaux
                                                                                 Rwanda: Press
Congo Actualités N° 46                 Rose Ntwenga, Montpellier,
Réseau Paix pour le Congo              30/06/09, 10 p.
                                                                                 New threat to ban BBC broadcasts
San Paolo, 29/06/09, 9 p.                                                        RWB, Paris, 27/06/09, 1 p.
                                       Le CNDD-FDD a un plan de
                                       m’assassiner, accuse Ndayizeye
DRC: Press                            Burundi Tribune, Bujumbura,               Rwanda: Refugees
                                       20/06/09, 1 p.
Résumé exécutif et                                                               Return looms for reluctant Hutu
recommandations du Rapport                                                       refugees AFP, 21/06/09, 3 p.
d’observation du procès d’appel        Burundi: Refugees
Protection international, Bruxelles,   Tanzania: Burundian refugees must         Rwanda: Health
22/05/09, 8 p.                         not be intimidated to return home
                                       AI, London, 29/06/09, 2 p.                De cruelles conséquences pour les
RFI signal in Bukavu cut one week                                                papas et mamans gâteaux
ago                                    L'aide du HCR est indispensable           IRIN, Kigali, 06/07/09, 2 p.
RWB, Paris, 11/06/09, 1 p.             pour les rapatriés burundais
                                       UNHCR, Rumonge, 17/06/09, 2 p.

                                                                           EURAC - 4/08/11– page 8

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