ISTITUTO STATALE ARTE GIOVANNI SELLO

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					ISTITUTO STATALE D‟ARTE „GIOVANNI SELLO‟
    Piazza 1° Maggio 12/b, 33100 UDINE (ITALY) - Tel. + 0432 29 52 59 - Fax. + 0432 51 14 46
                        e-mail: isaud@tin.it - eurosello@tin.it
                                http://www.arteudine.it
                  Dirigente Scolastico: dott. arch. Antonio DE RUOSI


                     PROGRAMMA SOCRATES
                  Progetto Scolastico COMENIUS 1
           Durata del Progetto: tre anni, dall’a.s. 2000/ 2001 all’a.s. 2003/2004

    I..R..E.. -- INTERCULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS IN EUROPE
    I R E INTERCULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS IN EUROPE
                 A European iittiinerary tthrough artt and ttradiittiions
                 A European nerary hrough ar and rad ons
    Un itinerario Europeo attraverso l‟arte e le tradizioni popolari


       Accordo n. 2002/02-ITA01-S2C01-00819-2, secondo anno di attività a.s. 2002/2003

                                     Coordinatore
                 Agnes-Miegel Realschule, Düsseldorf, GERMANIA
                                        Partners
               Istituto Statale d‟Arte “Giovanni Sello”, Udine, ITALIA
       Escola Secondaria Artistica “Antonio Arroio”, Lisbona, PORTOGALLO
          Sacred Heart of Mary Girls‟ School, Upminster, INGHILTERRA
         Gymnasium und Realgymnasium Maria Regina, Vienna, AUSTRIA
                  Grup Scolar de Industrie Usoara, Sibiu, ROMANIA
                      Tiirismaan Peruskoulu, Lahti (FINLANDIA)

   Partners Associati all’Istituto Statale d’Arte “G. Sello” di Udine (Italy)

         Museo Friulano delle Arti e Tradizioni Popolari, Civici Musei, Udine
             Museo della Vita Contadina “Cjase Cocèl”, Fagagna, Udine
          Fondazione Museo Carnico delle Arti Popolari, Tolmezzo, Udine
    I.R.T.E.F., Istituto per la Ricerca sulle Tecniche Educative e Formative, Udine
                           Sartoria Lina di dominissini, Udine




        LINGUA SCELTA PER LA COMUNICAZIONE INTERNAZIONALE: INGLESE


        Durata del Progetto: anni scolastici 2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004




               Il progetto gode del sostegno della Commissione Europea
                    fornito tramite l‟Agenzia Nazionale Socrates Italia
   (Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione per l‟Innovazione e la Ricerca Educativa)

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FINALITA‟

    Educare alla comprensione dell‟interculturalità attraverso la partecipazione ad un progetto
     dove sono presenti diversità culturali e linguistiche e dove è sottolineata l‟importanza della
     lotta contro l‟esclusione sociale, il razzismo e la xenofobia.

    Incentivare la motivazione e l‟interesse degli studenti per lo studio delle lingue straniere,
     della storia, della letteratura, dell‟arte visiva, delle tradizioni popolari, delle tecniche
     artistiche.

    Promuovere l‟uso delle nuove tecnologie dell‟informazione coinvolgendo gli allievi in
     attività di scambio che comportino l‟uso delle stesse (internet, e-mail, ecc…).

    Educare a riconoscere i valori culturali ed estetici contenuti in espressioni artistiche e
     artigianali tipiche della tradizione della Regione Friuli Venezia Giulia al fine di attuare un
     confronto con produzioni simili, reperibili in ambito europeo.

    Contribuire allo sviluppo di un‟istruzione di qualità che renda consapevoli dell‟importanza
     dell‟apprendimento lungo tutto l‟arco della vita (life long learning).



OBIETTIVI

    Realizzazione di un progetto educativo sul tema “Intercultural Relationships in Europe. Un
     itinerario europeo attraverso l‟arte e le tradizioni popolari” che possa essere integrato nel
     curricolo di studi degli studenti e nelle normali attività della scuola.

    Produzione di elaborati artistici, materiali didattici, siti web, CD-Roms, video, e quant‟altro
     da presentare in ambito europeo nei tempi e con le modalità previste.

    Coinvolgimento di genitori, studenti e insegnanti nella progettazione, nell‟organizzazione e
     nella realizzazione delle attività.



DESTINATARI


Tutti gli studenti interessati ed, in particolare, quelli delle classi della Sperimentazione
Michelangelo, dove viene impartito l‟insegnamento della lingua inglese, lingua target del progetto.


INCONTRO INTERNAZIONALE DI PROGETTO A.S. 2003/2004

Il prossimo incontro internazionale di Progetto sarà organizzato dall‟Istituto Statale d‟Arte
“Giovanni Sello” di Udine ed avrà luogo a Udine nell‟ottobre del 2003.




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                                    SOMETHING ABOUT US

Istituto Statale d‟Arte „Giovanni Sello‟ is located in the historical centre of Udine, a nice town
which lies on a plain, in the middle of Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, a territory which is in the
north-eastern area of Italy. Udine has 95,650 inhabitants (based on data of 20th October 2001), is
141.1 metres above sea level and it is the chief-town of a Province which counts 137 Comuni
(municipalities) spread over a surface of 4,893.07 square kilometres.
Udine, which is considered one of the greenest of our country, it is half way between the mountains,
the Carniche Alps, and the Adriatic Sea, surrounded by lovely hills: in about one hour by car
towards the North you can reach the mountain villages (ski resorts during winter time) of Tarvisio,
Sella Nevea, Ravascletto, or, going the South you get to Lignano Sabbiadoro or Grado, two of the
most beautiful seaside resorts on the Adriatic.
Furthermore, after about one hour and half by car you are in Venice.
Friuli Venezia Giulia Region covers slightly under eight thousand square kilometres of territory and
has slightly over one million two hundred thousand inhabitants. It is one of the smallest Regions of
Italy from an administrative point of view.
Beside the Italian language, also Friulano is spoken here. Friulano is not a dialect but a real
language, which belongs to the group of Neo-Latin tongues, called „Ladin‟. This tongue is the result
of the exchanges with Germanic and Slav civilisations. Especially in the border areas particular
idioms are preserved by ethnic minorities.
For the COMENIUS Project a poem in Friulano, inspired by the title of the Project „Intercultural
Relationships in Europe. A European itinerary through art and traditions‟, has been written.
In this poem there is a short summary of all the traditional annual feasts in Friuli. The „writer‟ wrote
about Epiphany, he tells about Carnival, Easter, the grape harvest, the killing of the pig and he
arrives at Christmas, that is the most important feast for the Friuli family. Translating the poem to
English, a lot of words have lost the poetical power of the original: the sentences were written in
rhyme, and this has obviously been lost in the translation.


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Friulano is the typical language of the Region of Friuli and it is a compound of hard sounds. The
pronunciation of the single words changes from zone to zone but the meaning is the same. This
minor language is spoken only in Friuli (even though many universities throughout the world have
courses dedicated to it) and it is very different to Italian, the national language.
It was written specifically for the students of Malcolm Willis, an English teacher in our school.
This is the poem. We do hope you enjoy it!
                                                     “Friûl”


Si sa che le pifanie                                        E cun gran devozion
We know that Epiphany,                                      And then devoutly we haste
duties lis fiestis‟ puarte vie                              vinars‟ sant in procession
All the feasts it leads away,                               To the Good Friday procession.
e te patrie dal Friûl                                       Pasche grandiose zornade
And in the territory of Friuli                              Easter is a solemn day
s‟impie il pignarûl                                         Pascute prime scampagnade
Bonfires are lit                                            Easter Monday is the first outing
par interogà il fogaròn                                     cun musiche nostrane
This to question the bonfire                                End with our merry music
su come ca sarà la stagion:                                 ogni fastidi si slontane
About the coming season:                                    Every problem dances away.
cialant il fun là c‟al và                                   D‟estat sagre e perdons
Looking at the smoke                                        In Summer, festivals and „pardons‟
“lui” nus al disara.                                        son sanes tentazions
Where it goes will tell us all.                             Are healthy temptations
Tante int is dà da fâ                                       e le ligrìe de vendeme
Many people are busy,                                       And the gaiety of the grape harvest
carnevâl a stà poc a rivâ                                   nus parte te sieràde.
Carnival is on its way                                      Soon leads us into Autumn.
guarnì i cjârs „l è lavôr par fâ ridi tanc‟ di lôr          Ciastinis e rosari
Decorate the floats, there is much to be done,              Whose chestnuts and rosaries
son mascaras di inventâ                                     tal decim mês dal lunari
There are masks to invent,                                  Announce the tenth lunar month
fritules e crostui di praparâ (o mangiâ)                    a novembre ringraziament
Pancakes and crostoli* have to be prepared                  November brings Thanksgiving
la quaresime proviodarà                                     pe ve blave e forment
Lent will call us                                           For the grapes, grain and wheat
a fanus „zunâ                                               e a sant Andrèe
To go on a fast                                             And then by Saint Andrew‟s
                                                        4
il purcit su la brèe
The pig is stretched out on the table!
„l è par ogni furlan
This is for all in Friuli
il miôr dì da l‟àn
The best day of the year
cussì al emple il camarìn
The pantry is full
e content al bêf un tai di vin.
And everybody is happy to drink a glass of wine, the
New year‟s wine is so good.
Po spietant Nadâl
After, waiting for Christmas
la fieste plui traditionâl
The feast most traditional
ai ven un grop tal cûr
My heart misses a beat
pensant: “cence il Friul o mur”.
As I think: “Without Friuli I‟d die”.
Del Toso Paolo


* Crostoli – typical crispy pancake




                                                       5
                                    OUR SCHOOL
ISTITUTO STATALE D‟ARTE „GIOVANNI SELLO‟

In today‟s society, characterised by rapid change in all sectors, schools must be able to adapt to the
ever-changing requirements both of the pupils and the very competitive job-market. This is why our
school has developed courses which cover the need for a wide cultural grounding and accurate
technical competence. The flexibility of the programmes offered, together with the regular
introduction of new courses, guarantees our students a qualification which well equips them for the
future, whether they decide to continue their studies at a university or post-diploma level, or set out
on their professional career.
Founded in 1958, our School is a Secondary State School, which, in the present year 2003, has 935
students (age: from 14 to 18) while the number of staff (teachers and other employers) is 169.

The students are offered two different curricula of study:
    1. Traditional Course (which lasts three years but also five years if one decides to attend a
       further two-year course).
    2. Experimental Michelangelo Course (which lasts five years).
In both, besides the humanistic and scientific subjects, specialized subjects are taught, which differ
according to the department in which a student is enrolled.

                                        Humanistic Subjects

The study of humanistic subjects enables the students to learn to express their thought in a coherent
and correct way. It enriches their vocabulary, gradually widening their linguistic registers, allowing
them to correctly distinguish ancient texts from modern and contemporary works, recognising the
characteristics of their style, lexicon and rhetoric. These subjects have as one of their principal
objectives the understanding of historic processes - not only what happened but why it happened.
This is done through an accurate and critical study of works in their original context (political,
social, artistic, economic, etc.). Much attention is given to a correct use of the sources of
information and the different critical methodologies.
The study of the past helps the students understand and decode the present. It makes them more
fully aware of and interact with the contemporary world with its literature and historical-artistic and
environmental heritage. In a few words, through the study of these subjects, the students become
better citizens.

                                         Scientific Subjects

The didactic objective of these subjects is to furnish the students with a scientific culture. This goes
well beyond the mere knowledge of scientific information: it stimulates curiosity and interest,
granting an understanding of the fundamental concepts governing each technological discipline.
A modular, interdisciplinary approach has been adopted, to better relate theory to the real world of
the student.
Much time is dedicated to environmental problems, the physiological and motorial working of the
human body, health-related themes and questions.


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                                         Specialised Subjects

The main aim of the subjects which characterise each art course is to study and apply the ancient
and modern visual languages and techniques, and to stimulate the students‟ expressive and creative
abilities. A solid theoretical basis is given, together with the rules that are essential for correct two-
and three-dimensional representation.
The reading or interpretation of an image has an important role. It is done by examining the
historical-artistic, iconographic and perceptive factors related to it, or by analysing the place of
origin, the work-of-art or the object designed. Developing their knowledge and appreciation of their
historical, artistic and environmental heritage, the students are helped in taking on their moral and
civil responsibilities.
A critical analysis is made of the languages of the media to encourage a more qualified use of the
visual messages transmitted.

The two courses offered: the Traditional Course and the Experimental Michelangelo Course.


                                THE TRADITIONAL COURSE

The Traditional Course, which last three or five years, is made up of four different departments:

   THE ART OF ADVERTISING GRAPHICS AND PHOTOGRAPHY
   THE ART OF METAL-WORKING
   THE ART OF FURNITURE DESIGN
   THE ART OF TEXTILE DESIGN

The five-year course of studies is divided into two parts: a three-year diploma course followed by a
two-year course. This further qualification allows our students to continue their studies at university
or follow other higher education courses.


               THE ART OF ADVERTISING GRAPHICS AND PHOTOGRAPHY

Technical drawing, design and the studio characterise this course. The pupils cover fields which
include perception, means of communication and the different visual languages. They learn how to
transform an idea into a visual image thanks to their creativity, research technique and
experimentation. The world of graphics is undergoing regular and radical changes as far as
materials and printing technology are concerned. Thus much space is dedicated to engraving, silk-
screen printing, computer graphics, electronic page-setting and the numerous languages of
communication (photography, television, cinema, etc.). The school often works on projects co-
operating with the local authorities and private companies, designing their printed matter.
After taking their final exams, our pupils are qualified to enter the professional world of graphics,
photography or publishing, or to continue their studies at university level.


                                 THE ART OF METAL-WORKING

The specific aim of this course is to master design methodology, from the initial idea to the final
product, which could be anything from a jewel to an item linked to interior design. The projects
undertaken are geared to the requirements of both the craftsman and industrial production. During
the course the pupils study design, working and experimenting with both traditional and innovative
                                                    7
materials, together with the latest production techniques. Display is also included in their course of
studies, and this helps them link industrial design to visual communication. All theoretical work is
later tested and developed in the workshop. This is also due to the fact that much of the work is not
just an exercise in itself but commissioned by local companies and institutions. One of the most
important commissions we have had is the designing of the commemorative medal for Udine
Pedala, an annual cycle race organised by Udine Town Hall.
The course offers many career opportunities, in artistic craftwork and in design.

                              THE ART OF FURNITURE DESIGN

Following this course the students learn the finer points of furniture designing geared to both
interior decoration and production, a sector which represents one of the key-stones of the local
economy.
The lessons of Technical Drawing and Design develop the students‟ ability to find original and
exciting solutions in furnishing projects. The creative phase is accompanied by extensive studies in
the nature and use of a wide variety of materials, working techniques, and in production processes.
The department participates in many local exhibitions and trade fairs, and co-operates with
organisations active in the fields of research, design, production and marketing.

                                THE ART OF TEXTILE DESIGN

The two main subjects in this course are Professional Drawing and Design & Workshop. By the end
of the course the students learn how to build on an idea, developing it through the stages of design,
choice and preparation of materials and final production.
The course is keyed to textile design for both interior furnishing and clothing. Technical aspects are
given much attention. The characteristics and production methods of all textiles are studied, as are
visual communication, design, history of fashion and modern trends in the sector.
The practical side of the course includes traditional and modern production techniques (weaving,
printing, dyeing, computer graphics, etc.). The two main markets (the small workshop and large-
scale industries) and their requirements are examined. The art world, with its tapestries, carpets,
scarves, etc., is certainly not neglected.
Local companies and associations often request our co-operation in projects they have undertaken,
and this gives our students first-hand knowledge of world of textiles, thus better qualifying them for
a successful and very satisfying career.



                 THE MICHELANGELO EXPERIMENTAL COURSE



In 1995 Udine Art School launched an experimental course entitled „Michelangelo‟, a five-year
course which runs parallel to the traditional course.

The project, introduced into Art Schools throughout Italy, applies the General Guidelines of the
latest Education Reform Act, whereby greater emphasis is placed on the acquisition of a wider
cultural grounding, with a more solid base in humanistic, scientific and technological studies.
The project aims at developing the students‟ full learning potential rather than just teaching them
how to do specific tasks. Suggesting that specialisation should be undertaken after completion of
the school career (in post-diploma courses), much attention is given to the development of
communicative, logical, creative and self-motivating abilities.
The need for such change was dictated by a world that is undergoing such rapid transformation,
where new technology, materials and services become outdated almost as soon as they are

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introduced. Furthermore, new fields of study have been added – English, Law Studies, Philosophy –
and there is a greater balance in the time allocated to each subject.


The curriculum is divided into three main areas of study:


    Composition


    Visual Communication


    Cultural Heritage

After being introduced to all the different areas in the first two years, the „Michelangelo‟ students
select one of the following departments for the final three years:


   1. ARCHITECTURE & FURNISHING
   2. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN
   3. FASHION
   4. CATALOGUING
   5. GRAPHICS
   6. FILM MAKING, PHOTOGRAPHY & TELEVISION


                                  ARCHITECTURE & FURNISHING
The Diploma course in Architecture & Furnishing brings the students to an intermediate level which
includes both theoretical and practical aspects of the specialisation. It leads to careers in the specific
fields of interior decorating, window dressing, town planning, etc. Alternatively, the diploma opens
the doors to either a College of Further Education (Design and Furnishing course) or a university
faculty. The subjects which characterise this course are: Design, Descriptive Geometry and
Laboratory.

                                       INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

The Diploma course in Industrial Design brings the students to an intermediate level which includes
both theoretical and practical aspects of design. It leads to careers in the specific fields of design for
both small and large-scale industrial production, pattern designing, etc.. Alternatively, the diploma
leads to either a Design course at a College of Further Education or a university faculty.
The subjects which characterise this course are: Design, Descriptive Geometry and Laboratory.




                                                    9
                                              FASHION

The Diploma course in Fashion brings the students to an intermediate level which includes both
theoretical and practical aspects of one of Italy‟s most important industries. After qualifying, the
students can enter the professional world of fashion, fashion design, clothing or textile design.
Alternatively, the diploma leads to either a Textile Design course at a College of Further Education,
or a university faculty.
In the area the main objective is to develop creative, operative and planning abilities. Particular
attention is paid to extra-curriculum activities, such as: taking part in competitions or in exhibitions
(National and International), visiting textiles firms, developing national and international links,
exchanges and co-operations. Furthermore, it is considered very important to give students basic
knowledge about textile historical background.
The subjects which characterise this course are: Design, Descriptive Geometry and Laboratory
(Weaving, Fabric Printing and Dress Making).


                                          CATALOGUING

The Diploma course in Cataloguing qualifies the students at an intermediate level that includes both
theoretical and practical aspects of the cataloguing of Friuli‟s and Italy‟s cultural and artistic
heritage. Apart from the possibility of continuing their studies, the diploma qualifies the students
for fascinating careers in local, regional and national museums, libraries and archives.
The subjects which characterise this course are: Cataloguing, Descriptive Geometry, Architectural
and Artistic Studies and Practice.

                                             GRAPHICS

The Diploma course in Graphics is an intermediate-level qualification which includes both
theoretical and practical aspects of the field of study, and leads to careers in the advertising
graphics, computer graphics, graphic design, publishing, etc.. Alternatively, the diploma leads to
either a course in Graphic Design or Advertising at a College of Further Education, or a university
faculty.
The subjects which characterise this course are: Design, Descriptive Geometry and Studio work.


                       FILM MAKING, PHOTOGRAPHY & TELEVISION

The Diploma course in Film Making, Photography & Television brings the students up to an
intermediate level which includes both theoretical and practical aspects of this very extensive field
of studies. The career possibilities are numerous: professional photography, advertising studios,
film directing and production, etc.. The diploma qualifies the students for enrolment either at a
College of Further Education or at University.
The subjects which characterise this course are: Design, Descriptive Geometry and Studio work.




                                                  10
          SOCRATES COMENIUS SCHOOL PROJECT
                         years 2000/01-2002/03-2003/04
              INTERCULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS IN EUROPE
         A European itinerary through art and traditions




                 “Nice to meet you”

Our School is taking part in a COMENIUS Project because we would like to learn to co-operate and
to share cultural experiences with foreign colleagues. We are sure that this opportunity of
exchanging and creating links among schools in Europe is very important.
It is a fact that peoples, cultures and ethnicity are not monolithic and each culture is the daughter of
many fathers.
Our local heritage is a result of the exchanges and fusion that have taken place in many different
forms throughout the centuries so we believe that it is possible to understand ourselves by the
relationship that we will be able to create with other peoples, mostly European considering our
background.

    SUMMARY OF THE DIDACTIC RESEARCH CARRIED OUT

 FULL TEXTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF EACH RESEARCH PROJECT MENTIONED
                BELOW HAVE BEEN STORED IN A CD-ROM
              (For further information you may contact the School)

    IL FRIULI – History and Traditions
Classe 3B, year 2001/2002, teacher: Malcolm Willis (English).


    THE TRADITIONAL COSTUME: a source of professional knowledge and creative
       inspiration for textile and fashion design
Classe 5C, year 2001/2002, teachers: Carmen Romeo (Fashion Design), Claudia Franz (English),
Maddalena Mesaglio (Printing on Fabric and Dress Making Workshop), Luciano Omet (Literary
Studies).


    FRIULAN FOLK DANCES – COSTUMES FOR THE DANCERS – SCULPTURES
       INSPIRED BY DANCE STEPS
Classe 4C, year 2002/2003, teachers: Maria Corrao (Physical Education), Carmen Romeo (Fashion
Design), Claudia Franz (English), Maddalena Mesaglio (Printing on Fabric and Dress Making
Workshop), Laura Calò (Weaving Textile Workshop), Calogero Condello (Sculpture & Cataloguing
Workshop), Lorena Urli (Literary Studies).




                                                  11
                             IL FRIULI – History and Traditions

We have decided to follow the COMENIUS Project because it is an occasion for us to rediscover
and revalue the memory of the ancient customs of our Region. We refer particularly to daily life,
traditions and the work in the farms, starting from the end of the 18th century to the 1950s, before
the great changes of the subsequent decade. All these things with some hints taken from the
museums dealing with regional traditions in Friuli Venezia Giulia.

The subject we deal with are:

    1. Village life in the past.
    2. Celebrations and feasts.
    3. The butchering of the pig, the celebration meal.
    4. The D.O.P. cheese of Friuli.
    5. The cycle of the months. Medieval frescoes which tell about the jobs of the farmers in Friuli
       month by month in Magredis.
    6. The breeding of silkworms: a job in danger of extinction.
    7. Wine shops and taverns. Meeting places and wine tasting.
    8. Wines and grapes. History, traditions and specialities.
    9. Textile tradition. Lace-pillow, typical cloths, weaving know-how and footwear.
    10. Cjase Cocél: the friulan farmers‟ life 50 years ago that is being revived by „eco-museum‟.


    1. Village life in the past
The lifestyle of the population of Friuli has changed a lot over the centuries. Nowadays, the rhythm
of life is breaking the customs and the traditions. Fortunately, in some areas of our region there are
still some persons who haven’t changed their way of life in spite of the passing of time. In these
villages, the population still wake up early in the morning to go and make hay, to stock up for the
winter, or to lead the flocks and herds to pasture. These persons are accustomed to hard work since
they are young and they are very proud of this. Their character is rather closed and they might seem
shy and hard. In reality, they are very sensitive, free, autonomous and wise. Only few persons have
resisted the growth of the towns and have decided to continue to lead the difficult lifestyle of the
farmer. They produce almost all they need: they keep on working in the dairies to get milk and
cheese and they work their fields to produce all the land products that they need. An important
product of Friuli is the wine. In fact, this tradition is very old and it is well-known particularly in the
villages of our region. Besides, regarding the wine, we must not forget Friuli’s local type of brandy,
known as grappa, which is famous all over Italy, and also abroad. But, in our society, wine and
grappa constitute a problem that should not be undervalued – alcoholism has been a serious issue
that has interested most of the people who live in the mountain zones, also because of the lack of
socialisation and facilities.
And what about the typical food polenta has always been one of the most important components of
the local diet: it was eaten around the fogolâr, the fire-place that was situated in the centre of the

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kitchen, the hearth, and which was the symbol of the Carnia house. In the kitchen of each of these
houses we can also see one of the most typical things of Friuli: the cjavedal. It is an iron framework
that was set in the fire-place and that was used to hold up saucepans, pots and also the firewood. In
the kitchen, in the past, a wall was taken up by a big wash-basin made of stone, called seglar.
Usually, above this there were a lot of copper buckets, used to draw water from the wells.
In addition to polenta, we must remember all the different types of cakes that Friuli women have
always made. Some years ago they produced these delicious treats especially in occasion of the
village festivals, for all the children. It was also an excellent chance to show everybody what good
cooks they were. These events were also a possibility, for the people, to talk to one another, to share
their own ideas and to keep alive the customs of the country.
Talking about the women’s lifestyle, there’s one thing that witnesses how hard their days were: in
the past, women carried wood, land products and manure on their back with a gerla, a basket-like,
wickerwork pannier. Nowadays, because of the neglect of the mountains, the panniers are becoming
rarer and rarer, as are the craftsmen who produce them.
Unfortunately, most of these villages, where the lifestyle is so different from the city one, are
populated only with old people; and when they die, probably the traditions of these zones will die
with them. It’s so sad, but nowadays young people look for a good and successful career and they
don’t want to be so distant from the growth of the towns, from the expansion of trade. Besides, lots
of people think that those who work the land have not got a respectable job. Anyway, traditions are
a basic aspect of the life of a region and, without them no history is complete.

   2. Celebrations and feasts

Concerning the traditional festivities of Friuli Venezia Giulia, only a few of these have survived the
passing of time. For example, we can think about the Procession of the Cross in Zuglio; or the Mass
of the Great Sword in Cividale on the occasion of Epiphany. And during that day there is another
important tradition. In fact, every evening of the 6th January we can see a lot of bonfires which light
up the whole Friuli plain. Unfortunately, this rite has lost most of its charm and almost all its
meaning. It was a magic agrarian rite and it was to propitiate the increase of the harvest. Returning
to the first feast that we mentioned, the Procession of the Cross is held in Carnia during Ascension
Day, when the crosses of the various churches form a solemn procession and are taken to the top of
the mountain which overlooks the village, right up to the cemetery.

THE EPIPHANY

Epiphany (from late Latin „epiphania‟, and Greek „tà epiphaneia‟, means „manifestations of
divinity‟) is the feast of Christ's apparition and it is celebrated on the 6 th January.
In Friuli, on the night of Epiphany, people light bonfires, called pignarul. These fires recall
medieval traditions and bring to life the magic of the fire, a symbol of the sun, that gains strength
after long and cold winter months and which donates new life to plants, animals and Man.
The bonfire is lit in the fields by a boy who hasn't yet received Holy Communion, or by the oldest
man in the village. The boys run with pieces of lighted wood which they beat against the trunk of
fruit trees. From the direction of the smoke, people guess whether the omens are good or bad. In
some village the people put chestnuts (a symbol of fecundity) on the fire or burn something old,
trusting in a plentiful harvest. Another tradition is that of the cidular (an unmarried man of the
village), who launches a red-hot disk of fir or beech. This disk has a hole in the middle, so that it
can go down a slope, bouncing and rolling down towards the bottom of the hill. At every launch,
the name of a girl is associated with the name of her boyfriend (or a possible boyfriend).
                                                  13
As a matter of fact, all these customs evidence the continuance of the original character of the
magic customs that reflect the hope for a rich harvest the following year. These rituals are therefore
part of the annual ceremonies which characterise the winter season.

CARNIVAL

During carnival time the population of Friuli usually takes part in a masked procession. This fete is
very important for the people and this is the reason why the making of the floats keeps people busy
for long time. In many areas of the region the tradition is to cover your face with very scary and
very expressive masks made of wood. In the past, the people who took part in that event dressed up
in a strange way and usually men dressed up as woman and vice versa.
In ancient times during the carnival period, they used to do some typical dances accompanied by
characteristic music of Friuli. This fete was held in two different moments - Shrove Tuesday, which
was called „Children's Carnival‟ because that day they spent a lot of time going around the houses
to get some sweets and „Shrove Thursday‟ a great carnival when they held a party where all the
population could participate.
The carnival closed with the burning of a dummy that represented the carnival period that was
coming to an end.

ALL SAINTS' DAY

On 2nd November in some villages it was believed that the dead persons came out of their graves
carrying a bone in their hand. They then proceeded on foot to the churches, singing a mournful
song. Only after that could they return to their sepulchre, even while the cock was still crowing.
To show the dead the way, the population used to put a lot of lights in their windows. Just for these
customs this day could be remembered as a very frightening day.

THANKSGIVING DAY

A typical autumnal fete in Friuli is „Thanksgiving Day‟ that was held after the ploughing-time was
over. During the offertory, people took to the altar some baskets that contained some typical
products of the land, for example, pumpkins, cabbages, bauk fruits, winter chicory. When the Mass
was finished, the priest blessed the farm equipment (in the past, carts and horses, now farm tractors
and thrashers). Subsequently, gastronomy products were shared during a banquet. This fete was to
give thanks for the harvest of the past year, while at the same time praying for the coming year‟s
crop.
Probably, Thanksgiving Day was only a heathen rite when the population began to do it, but with
the passing of time it became a religious fete.

EASTER DAY

During Palm Sunday the population of Friuli usually takes part in a solemn procession, where a lot
olive-branches are offered in the streets of the villages.
In the towns the Good Friday procession was always well attended. In the country nobody ever
ploughed the land that day because it was like further wounding the buried body of the buried
Christ.
On the Sunday, while the bells were ringing, thus breaking the three-day silence, a resurrection
procession was held, and in the country areas the Easter Lamb was slain.
In this period it is still a tradition to prepare the typical cake, la pinza, and to decorate boiled eggs
with many colours.
On the Monday, a lot families organised a picnic in the park or in the open countryside.

                                                   14
   3. The butchering of the pig, the celebration meal
Butchering a pig we can obtain many cuts of meat.
For example to produce ham we need: the back, the buttock and the leg. From the shoulder we can
get a particular kind of ham which is called shoulder ham and even the ears can be used to make a
special type of fillet.
Also the skin and the hairs are useful to make, for example, bristle brushes or leather (for shoes and
clothes) or fertiliser.
Moreover, a typical Italian Christmas dish is the „zampone‟ which is a stuffed pig‟s trotter.
A pig is killed in this way.
First of all it is shot in the head, then it is washed to remove the hair; then its nails are torn off.
After, it is slit open and the intestines are taken out, to be then used to „wrap‟ the sausages!!! In the
past the blood of the pig was used to make blood puddings and sweets. The „sanguinaccio‟ was a
real delicacy.
Also the fat was used to make the seasoning in the winter months, and this was sure to keep you
really warm.


   4. The D.O.P. cheese of Friuli

MONTASIO CHEESE

Montasio cheese is produced in all of the territory of the provinces of Udine, Pordenone, Gorizia
and Trieste.

Its use is characterised by three ageing stages:
- „Fresco‟ - fresh is aged 60 to 120 days
- „Mezzano‟ – semi-aged 5 to 10 months
- „Stravecchio‟ – very old is aged 12 months or longer
The fresh cheese has a soft and delicate flavour; semi-aged, the flavour is more decisive with a
particular fullness; „stravecchio‟ (very old) assumes a distinct aromatic flavour.
The Montasio cheese has small, regular holes which is one of its many characteristics.
Fresh Montasio has a smooth, elastic and compact crust of a light brown colour. The cheese itself is
compact, white or yellow, but as the ageing period lengthens the crust becomes hard with crumbly
paste granules.

HISTORICAL NOTES
Montasio belongs to the great Alpine cheese families. Its name deriving from the Montasio massif
in Friuli, it was first produced in the 13th century, in the valleys of the Giulia and Carnia Alps,
thanks to the intelligence and continuity of the Benedictine monks. The convent which saw the birth
of this fine cheese is located at Moggio Udinese and is probably where the various techniques of
production became refined by the herdsmen of the area. The first documentation that records the
caption „Formaggio Montasio‟ is a price list from the town of San Daniele, dated 1775.

PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
Production techniques of Montasio cheese have maintained their typical origins. The milk is
transformed into cheese using centuries-old expertise. The producers use a low acionity procedure
and after there is the pasteurisation a low thermal level. The milk is then placed in copper boilers.

                                                   15
The milk together with the processed milk is brought to a temperature of 32°-34° C and then the
rennet is added. After approx. 20-25 min of coagulation, the mass is cut using a special tool called
„lira‟ until the granules obtained have the dimension of a grain of rice. Now the phase of reheating
commences. The temperature of the mass is brought to 44°-46° C. After 20-30 min the process of
extraction is commenced. The moulds are in the characteristic fascere, and these are pressed to drip
off the whey, thus giving it its characteristic shape. After 24 hours the cheese is placed in „salamoia‟
for 48 hours. After it is put through a final salting phase and placed in the warehouse for ageing.

MALGA CHEESE

This whole milk cheese, that reproduces the typical mountain tradition, is consumed as a fresh,
white dough product. Malga cheese is produced just in the mountain malghe (mountain lodges)
Thanks to the high altitude, the cheese acquires a special sweet taste - it has a pleasantly light taste.
The original production process is still a closely kept secret.

FRICO CHEESE

Frico is a classic food of Friuli‟s gastronomy. You prepare it with semi-seasoned cheese cut thin
and enriched with other ingredients (200g of cheese, 2 onions, 50g of speck, 200g of potatoes, salt,
pepper, extra vergine olive oil), and then fried.
It is served already-cooked, using a mixture of different cheeses , that allows you to obtain this very
popular cheese dish.

Preparation of the frico:
Cut the ham(speck) into small pieces, than brown the onions in the oil. Add the potatoes to the
onions and oil.
Then add a pinch of salt and pepper. Cook the mixture slowly on the stove, then add one spoonful
of water and stir the mixture with a wooden spoon. Add the cheese and mix until it is fully
amalgamated. Cook until a golden crust is formed; once the golden crust has formed, the frico is
ready to be eaten.

   5. The cycle of the months. Medieval frescoes which tell about the jobs of the
       farmers in Friuli month by month in Magredis village

In the Friulan tradition, until a short time ago, work was divided by months: each one, in fact, had a
different job, like sowing or reaping.
In our region we have got a lot of oral testimonies about these activities, but there are also some art
works that are older: we have found important evidence about this: the church of San Pietro in
Magredis (Udine), where there is a fresco of the months‟ cycle. Its origins date back to 1518, when
a great Friulan artist, who was called Gian Paolo Thanner, painted it. Born in Cividale del Friuli, he
was the son of Leonardo Thanner, but he didn‟t follow in his father‟s footsteps. In fact, Gian
Paolo‟s paintings were very natural and by no means academic. Even if he didn‟t know the
perspective, the colours that he used were beautiful and his figures were very sweet.
During his life, Gian Paolo produced many frescos in a lot of the region‟s villages: Magredis is one
of them and here, in a little church that dates back to 1406, there is the unique fresco about the
months of Friuli Venezia Giulia. In this building, around the walls, there are twelve small paintings,
that show some episodes of country life:




                                                   16
1. in January you give an apple;
2. in February you have a party, dancing and singing;
3. in March you prune the vine;
4. in April you take a little rest;
5. in May you hunt with the falcon;
6. in June there is the reaping;
7. in July there is the threshing;
8. in August you prepare the barrel;
9. in September there is the wine harvest;
10. in October you plough the field or dig up the potatoes;
11. in November some eat game, and some work wood;
12. in December you kill the pig, that is wealth for all the family.

These are frescos of 1518, but they show a world in Friuli not very far from ours and that was
certainly our grandparents’.

   6. The breeding of silkworms: a job in danger of extinction
The breeding of the silkworm, in the past, was an important economic resource especially for poor
farming families. This was a way for them to make money and improve their living conditions.
The season of the silkworm starts in April, when the eggs were put in the incubator. The
introduction of silk production into Friuli is well documented from the first decade of 14th century.
Since then there were more and more spinning works (‘filande’) that assumed notable economic
importance in Friuli.
Here, the silkworm was put on wooden tables covered with mulberry leaves it’s favourite food.
                                                                                   –


The Friulan families bred the silkworm as a home industry. They kept the silk in the loft where
there were all the other tools for working it.
The silkworm, when it matured, issued a slaver (bave o galete) which became a cocoon (galete).
About ten days later the cocoon was complete and then the final operations began.
This, in the past, was manual work but sometimes machines were used to reduce the cocoon to
yarn. Most of the silk thus produced was then sent to the silk-spinning works, where the industrial
stage was carried out.

   7. Wine shops and taverns. Meeting places and wine tasting

OSTARIE: this is the way we name, in our local Friulano language, the taverns, places where you go
to drink wine, to meet people, where stories are told and you listen to the news of the day.

HISTORY

You can find the first historical accounts about taverns from 14th century, and they were very
popular until the end of 16th century. The Ostarie is a place where you get refreshments and light or
local meals, and find a bed for travellers. There were no habitual customers.
It is really interesting to note that an ordinance of the city council of Udine dated August 1559
forbade offering hospitality to local residents. During the 17th century taverns offered wine, food
and lodgings, but often those were places for shady dates and dubious business. Later, after the birth
of the Locande, the taverns became a place just for drinking and eating.
The wine was usually produced by the local farmers and it was rarely of a good quality.
The habit of going to the Ostarie, in the sense of going out to the pub every night, started in the 19th
century. After a day‟s work in the country or in the factories, people like to close their day meeting

                                                   17
friends and spending some money on wine, playing cards and eating bread, salame and sometimes
polenta and cheese. In the last century the „bars‟, have replaced the Taverns. It is just in the last
decade that people, mainly men but also whole families, choosing a slower style of life, have taken
up once again the pleasure of stopping off for a glass of wine, locally known as a taj, as an aperitif,
in the meantime discussing everything from football to politics.

TAVERN‟S STYLE

The tavern has cheap, homely furniture: wood tables, counter, chair stuffed with straw and a typical
kind of fireplace named fogolâr, lit all through the winter.
The glasses and the dishes are really simple like the drinks and food served; the Ostarie is however
a very warm and welcoming place.

WINES, DRINKS AND FOOD AT THE TAVERN

The wine you can find in the taverns come generally from the local cellars or Friuli‟s vineyards, and
stored in a space under the public room.
Sometimes it is possible to have a bigger selection of special wines, from the rest of Italy and
Europe.
Typical Friuli wines are: Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Tocai, Picolit, Fragolino.
Together with wine, you can eat bread and salami, fresh and saesoned cheese, pickles and
vegetables.
About sweets: if you are in the Collio hills zone, you can eat a piece of cake with raisins and pine
walnuts, it is named „Gubana‟. If you are in Udine, try some dry biscuits or almond cake.
Those who come to Friuli really must stop in a tavern and try a local wine. In fact, the poet says:
“…I think he who lives where the wine is grown is very lucky”.


   8. Wines and grapes. History, traditions and specialities
WINE
A large amount of historical proof testifies that: since the times of the Roman Empire, our land has
been famous for the production and trading of wine.
Nowadays this activity is still a strong point of the local economy.
Production is similar in most parts of Friuli. Some examples of white grapes are: Pinot bianco,
Sauvignon, Tocai friulano, Verduzzo friulano.
As far as black grapes are concerned, we have: Cabernet Sauvignon/ Franc, Merlot, Refosco.
There are also imported vines, notably those from Istria (Malvasia) which is produced in the Isonzo
area, and Ribolla, which is made only in the Colli Orientali.
In the past, before industrialisation, most wine was made in small, local cellars, truly home made.
People would pick the bunches of grape and put them in a wooden barrel, which would be half-
filled with the grapes. The people then got into the barrel to tread them with their quite clean feet.
This centuries-old process was not modified until the 1970s – wine production had become
industrialized.

GRAPPE

Lot of people know it as acquavite (spirit that comes from vine), but in Friuli it‟s known as
„grappa‟.
„Grappa‟ is just a slightly wrong way to define graspa or raspa, because it is from bunch of grapes
that you can distil this product.

                                                  18
Let‟s remember the Alpine soldiers at the time of First World War, when grappa was seen as man‟s
best and sometimes only friend inside the trenches, his only consolation.
It was used to revive people after too much hard work, to lower fevers and heal hurts, to keep you
warm when it was cold and as a symbol of friendship, because it had a taste reminiscent of all good
things, with an aroma that always reminds you of home, however far away you be.

   9. The textile tradition. Lace-pillow, typical cloths, weaving know-how and
       footwear
FAGAGNA LACE SCHOOL

During the last years of the 1800s in Fagagna there was a sharp increase in the craft activity of the
„lace school‟. This gave profitable and dignified employment to many Fagagna girls. Thanks to this
artistic asset, Fagagna lace became a fashion and was much sought after by the feminine society,
reaching also the Royal Household. In fact, Fagagna lace led to fame for its craftswomen, who were
awarded the title of „Queen‟s Lace makers‟.
They produced large quantities of lace until the 1950s, even rivalling the more famous „School of
Burano‟.

TEXTILE FIBRES: HEMP, FLAX, WOOL

In Friuli, from the plain up to 1000m of altitude, families cultivated hemp and linen. Even though
they had different times of sowing and reaping, these textile fibres needed the same instruments and
procedures to be freed from the rest of the plant. Farming families were also excellent sheep-
sharers, using just the wool from the shoulders and the back, because these parts provide longer and
cleaner material.

CLOTHES

In the first decades of the 1900s most people were very poor. They usually had just two sets of
clothes: one for „working-days‟ and one for „joyful-days‟. The traditional elements for women
were: the curled skirt with a lined corset and sleeves. On working-days they used a checked
underskirt. They always used the apron and the headscarf.
Men wore a wool smock with neither sleeves nor buttons. They usually had three shirts with a strip
collar. Normally they did not use underpants, but if they did they were made of flannel or some
other heavy cloth. The socks were kept up by tapes. They also had a waistcoat and a cloth jacket,
under a black or brown cloak, with an edge that would be thrown over a shoulder. They usually had
two pairs of trousers: a checked pair for summer; in winter they had corduroy trousers.
Until they completed their first year of life children had no special garments to wear. They were
rolled up tightly in rags, because adults thought that, in this way, arms and legs would grow
stronger. When children started to walk they put on the first little garment. Little girls had dark
clothes, with no pants. They usually used a shawl. Every child‟s clothes were obtained using adults‟
discarded garments. Usually they soon got used to walking bare footed.

FOOTWEAR

There were two kinds of clogs. The dalmines were made with a thick wooden sole and with a raised
border, to protect the feet from the cold and from the wet. They had a leather upper. The cicules
were clogs with a wooden sole and a cloth (velvet/leather) upper.


                                                 19
 „Mulos‟, too, had a wooden sole and leather upper, but they were slippers, like the
stafes/scarpetti/scarpet, that were open and with an embroidered tip for women, closed and with an
elastic front opening for the men.

   10.Cjase Cocél: the friulan farmers’ life 50 years ago that is being revived by
       the ‘eco-museum’

CJASE COCÈL
MUSEO DELLA VITA CONTADINA, FAGAGNA (UDINE)

Cjase Cocèl is an „eco-museum‟: it tells us about the farmer‟s life at the beginning of the 20th
century and marks the big changes that have taken place in Friuli since that time. Cjase Cocèl is an
old house, which was built in 1687, and where several farmer families have lived over the years.
The social and economic situation improved after the 1960s. In fact, many farmers had enough
money to build new houses so Cjase Cocèl was abandoned and turned into a store house, where
farmers used to keep their tractors, carts and equipment. This situation changed about 10 years ago
when the mayor of our town, Fagagna, with the support of some people, interested in keeping the
local traditions alive, decided to restore it, changing it into a museum of the customs, habits and
work of the farmers in our area. The museum is divided into 3 main parts: the household, the open
barn, where it is possible to see the thrashing machine, the mill and the furnace and the most recent
part which has just been rebuilt. This is a three-floor building where there is the dairy, the tavern
where people could drink wine and eat the products of the farm, and other rooms where the visitors
will soon be able to admire typical objects of farming life.


                                         THE HOUSEHOLD

The household is a three-floor building. On the ground floor there is the fireplace, the kitchen, the
pantry, the cellar, the room for tools, the shed and a porch. On the first floor there were the parents‟
bedroom and the children‟s bedroom; and some smaller rooms where visitors can now talk to local
guides who explain the activities that used to take place in the house. On the second floor there was
the granary.

THE GROUND FLOOR

The kitchen (le cjase di fur)

The kitchen is the most important room in the house. In winter when it was very cold all the family
sat round the fogolâr and the adults told the little children stories or they talked about lots of
subjects, and sometimes, on important occasions there was a time of prayer. The room is divided
into three parts: the fogolâr, the dining room with a long table, and the pantries; in the dining room
there was also a stone sink next to the wall seglâr and, above it, there was a wooden shelf where
plates, copper pans and buckets for water, were hung. Besides, some furniture could be found in the
kitchen , such as the kneading-trough panarie, were different kinds of flour and bread dough were
kept , the cupboard vetrine in whose highest shelf plates, cups, and special objects were shown,
while lots of pictures of relatives and friends where inserted inside the glass of the doors.




                                                  20
The fire place (el fogolâr)

At the beginning, the fogolâr was made up of four pieces of wood arranged in a cross shape, and
put on the floor, in the middle of the only room that was lived in. As the roof of the oldest houses
was thatched, people didn‟t build any fireplaces; in fact, if a spark came out of the fireplace it could
cause a fire. The smoke came out of the kitchen door or a window above. Before going out, the
smoke spread all over the kitchen and covered the walls and the beams with soot. The kitchen was
called cjase de fum. People didn‟t complain about the smoke; they were happy when they could sit
in the fogolâr even if there was a thick cloud of smoke over their heads. The fogolâr didn‟t have a
fixed place in the house, even though it was considered the most important element in the house, in
Friuli. In fact it was the warmest room for the family. Sometimes near the fogolâr one could see the
silk worms which were kept there because they suffered from the cold, and risked dying. The base
of the fogolâr was made 50-60 cm. higher than the floor and it was covered with bricks on each side
while the top was covered with stone slabs. On the front side there was an arch-shaped surface
where women could cook. Below, near the floor, there was a hole for the wood. On each side of the
fogolâr there were two braziers which were filled with ambers to cook some kinds of food that
couldn‟t be put on the flame. The base of the fireplace was surmounted by a double andiron
cjavedal; it consisted of a structure made up of four bars that formed a rectangle or a circle. The
cjavedal rested on two pairs of feet lined with a traviers. The vertical bars had two turning arms
with a short chain which finished with a hook where the housewife hung the pots to cook the food
or keep it warm. Also les moletes, to pick up the embers, el palet to collect the ash, el tirebores, a
tool to poke the fire were all hanging from the cjavedal. From the ceiling a heavy chain was
hanging. It was usually made of cast iron and supported the cjalderie, a big pot where the polenta, a
typical friulano food was cooked after being stirred with a big wooden ladle. At Easter the cjadenac
blackened with soot was dragged out and made bright. This task was given to children and boys
who dragged it in the country roads full of stones. Other containers put on the fogolâr where the
cjalderin, a small copper pot, used to make barley coffee and a lot of earthenware pans. To cook the
soup housewives used a copper pot called stagnade, because it was covered with tin inside.

The pantries (el camarin)

Next to the kitchen, usually at a lower level there was the camarin. This was a very important room;
in fact, the food was kept in it, and it represented all the richness of the family. The keys of this
important room were usually kept by the landlady, so that nobody could use them. The floor was
made of beaten ground, and the only opening, besides the door, was a small window facing north-
east, to keep the room cool. In this place, usually long and narrow, provisions were kept, such as,
salami hanging from the ceiling, cheeses les pieces which were put on a board over the floor,
surrounded by some knee-holly el ruscli to keep mice away. When the food was eaten only in part,
it was kept in the moscjarole, a small cage with a very thin net to protect it from flies and mice as
well. In the pantries they also put some earthenware vases, where the pig fat was kept gras o sain,
which was used to cook any kind of food. In the same vases eggs were kept in a solution of water
and lime, to make them last longer.

The work room (stanzie dai imprescj)

We can say that every month has got its job. In winter, when the work in the fields was finished, the
farmer spent most of his time repairing something either in the house or in the farm. All these jobs
were carried out mainly in the „work room‟. In fact, in this room the farmer kept all the tools to
repair shoes, kitchen appliances, and clothes. In the work room of the museum the visitors can see


                                                  21
the tools used for the most important jobs in these times such as the carpenter‟s tools marangon, the
butcher‟s tools purcitar, the shoemaker‟s tools cjaliar.
     - In the carpenter‟s workshop there is a wood table with a vice, and a large number of tools
        such as: planes, drills, squares, saws and so on.
    - The butcher, whose job it was to kill the pig to make salami had a large number of tools:
        knives, funnels, the meat grinding machine and the spices.
    - The shoemaker often worked in a very small workshop full of wooden, shaped moulds and
        leather; there was also a small square table covered with small tools and the machine to sew
        uppers.
But there isn‟t just work. In fact, in Friuli, we have got many types of traditional feasts.

The cowshed (le stale)
The cowshed (le stale) was the vital part of the farmhouse in Friuli, not only because it was the
shelter for domestic animals, such as cows, horses, oxen, pigs, calves, but also as a meeting place
for the family and neighbours, during the winter evenings. They met there because it was a warm
place and the adults used to tell the young children beautiful stories; in particular, the women would
spin and sew, and the men would talk about a wide variety of subjects.
The cowshed was located next to the kitchen and it was often linked to it by a door, through which
the heat passed from one room to the other. As the cowshed was usually quite small, it could
contain few animals, usually five or six. The animals usually had their muzzles turned to the wall
opposite the entrance door. They were tied to the manger (grepie) which was made of stone, so that
it was easier to take manure away, and to prepare the litter for the animals every day (scjerni).
Above the cowshed there was the hay-loft, to which it was connected through a trapdoor (trombe)
to let the hay come down.

The cellar (le cantine)
The cellar is the place where wine is kept for it fermentation. The most important tools in the cellar,
are: the tub brancjel, a big barrel bote, and a small one caratel, the funnel le plere, the grape
treading machine, and the wine press turcli. After the grapes had been harvested and trodden, the
juice was put in the barrel to brew.
Brewing was different according to the wine; in fact, white wine was brewed in a closed barrel,
with a small vent for the gas, while red wine, was brewed in an open barrel for about three-five
days. Then it was decanted into glass bottles and plugged with corks. The dregs of the pressed
grapes (trape), were taken to distilleries to make grappa.

THE FIRST FLOOR

The bedroom (le cjamare)

In our great-grand parents‟ bed-rooms the furniture was rudimentary: the bed (jet), could be double
or single, the chest of drawers (l‟armar), the side tables (laterai); the wooden cradle (scune), the
chest (casse) for the outfit, which was sometimes richly embroidered and, to finish, a movable
washbasin. The oldest kind of bed was made of two wooden trestles that supported a bag full of dry
maize leaves.

The side table (el lateral)
It was usually set at each side of the bed, and it was mainly used for the chamber pot (urinal).




                                                  22
The washbasin (el lavandin)

It could be found in almost all the bedrooms, and had different shapes such as: a small table with a
ewer and a basin, a trestle or a bucket. In winter, it was so cold in the bedrooms, that very often the
water turned to ice.

Holy water font (bussul de aghe sante)

It was next to the bed and it was used to bless the bed before getting in.

The bed-warm (el scjaldejet)
It was a kind of copper pan, with a lid full of holes, which was filled with embers, and was used to
make the bed warm.

The cradle (le scune)

For their babies, parents used a small basket that was set on a wooden support. It was convenient
because it could be carried into the kitchen, so the baby could stay next to his mother even while
she was working.

THE SECOND FLOOR

The corn room (il granar)

The barn was the room where the corn, the maize and crops in general, were kept.
The silkworms were kept in the granary. In some granaries there were also fire-places to make the
rooms warm so that the silkworms didn‟t suffer from the cold.




                                                  23
                           THE TRADITIONAL COSTUME
             a source of professional knowledge and creative inspiration for
                               patterns and fashion design

Our class carried out a specific research on the traditional costumes of our Region, Friuli Venezia
Giulia, with particular reference to ten costumes kept in “Civici Musei” of the Municipality of
Udine.


We started our work visiting the archives of the museum, placed at the Castle of Udine, which is
very close to our School. This way we were able to carry out technical inquiry on each costume
chosen.


Thanks to the keeper of the museum we were allowed to go several times to study the costumes: it
was a great emotion for us to examine these historical materials in a such close and direct way.
We made drawings of the decorative subjects, took pictures of the costumes and measured every
garment. We also identified the different fibres, colours, textiles techniques, embroideries and
consulted many books which deal with traditional clothing and Friulan costume.


Finally, we were able to design an up-to-date garment bringing into evidence the essential elements
of the Friulan costume, to put into practice the knowledge and abilities acquired during the first
part of the work.
Written by the student: Cecilia Cagnani, 5C




Traditional costume is meant as a whole of garments and accessories combined on the basis of
studies carried on in 19th century, when the movement of philosophic and literary thought, known
as “Romanticism”, produces a general interest towards what regards the People and different
identity. The French Revolution had created the essential premises allowing the political rising of
the Third State, but it is Napoleon‟s administration that, thanks to the folkloric survey in 1811,
provides concrete results. It particularly commits drawing masters for graphic reproduction and for
selecting detailed information gathering about costumes. Among so many functions of clothing the
identification of belonging to a community is the privileged one. It underlines differences between
country or city inhabitants, or among different geographic areas. After the Union of Italy (1861)
ethnologists go around the country to recover what is left of ancient costumes, to photograph and
buy them for a projected Museum of Popular Traditions.
Then, during the Fascist period, there is a re-flourishing of studies about popular traditions, but the
results are more inspired - as many ethnographers agree - by nationalistic and racist motivations
than by ethical and ethnical purposes.
Researches about Friulan costume are promoted, at the end of „30, jointly with the following
organisations: Società Filologica Friulana, Museo Civico di Udine, Ente del Turismo, O.N.
Dopolavoro. The concrete results obtained are mostly due to the coming together of Lea
                                                  24
D‟Orlandi‟s experience of research in the field and Gaetano Perusini‟s historical and archive
experience. The two scholars choose to proceed for limited areas rather than trying to define the
Friulan costume.
Costumes express an exceptional creative effort and remarkable technical and professional abilities.
Being an unconscious stratification of former fashions, costumes are to be considered unique
models and endless sources of inspiration for fashion designers and dress makers, as it has
happened and it is still happening in the fashion world.

Notes taken from:
Gian Paolo Gri, Tessere Tela, tessere simboli, antropologia e storia dell‟abbigliamento in area
alpina, Basaldella (Udine), 2000 - Doretta Davanzo Poli, Costumi Popolari d‟Italia, in ”Arte
Tessile” n.3, rivista annuario CISST, Firenze, 1992.


BIBLIOGRAPHY



1) Michele Gortani, “L‟ARTE POPOLARE IN CARNIA “, Udine, 1965.
2) A cura di Giuseppe Bergamini, “CIVILTA‟ FRIULANA di ieri e di oggi”, Pasian di Prato,
   1980.
3) Catalogo di Tiziana Ribezzi, introduzione di Novella Cantarutti e Gian Paolo Gri, “ LA
   CASSAPANCA E IL CORREDO IN FRIULI ”, Udine , 1981.
4) A.A.V.V., “MUSEO FRIULANO DELLE ARTI E TRADIZIONI POPOLARI”, Udine, 1985.
5) Lea D‟Orlandi, Gaetano Perusini, “ANTICHI COSTUMI FRIULANI” a cura di Novella
   Cantarutti, Gian Paolo Gri, Pier Giorgio Gri, Gorizia, 1988.
6) A cura di Tiziana Ribezzi, “PER LO STUDIO DELL‟ABBIGLIAMENTO TRADIZIONALE” ,
   Udine 1989.
7) AA.VV., “CENTRO STUDI DI STORIA DEL TESSUTO E DEL COSTUME, QUADERNO
   1” Venezia, 1989.
8) AA.VV., “RITRATTI DI CARNIA TRA „600 E „800”, Udine, 1990.
9) AA.VV., “IL MERLETTO NEL FOLKLORE ITALIANO”, a cura di Doretta Davanzo Poli,
   Venezia, 1990.
10) AA.VV., “JACOPO LINUSSIO , Arte e impresa nel „700 in Carnia”, Udine, 1991.
11) AA.VV.,”ARTE TESSILE”, Pisa, 1992.
12) AA.VV., “L‟ARTE DELLA DISCREZIONE. Abiti e accessori nella tradizione del Friuli
   Venezia Giulia”, Udine, 1996.
13) Gian Paolo Gri, “TESSERE TELA, TESSERE SIMBOLI. Antropologia e storia dello
   abbigliamento in area alpina”, Basaldella, Udine, 2000.




                                                25
THE COSTUMES STUDIED
The costumes are classified according to the place where each of them originally came from.
The name of the student who studied the specific costume is put between brackets.

   1. Tramonti di Sotto, 18th Century (CAGNANI CECILIA)

   2. Marano Lagunare, early 19th Century (COLUSSA L., PILOT E.)

   3. Guspergo-Cividale, early 19th Century (SIONI PAMELA)

   4. Poffabro, first half 19th Century (VISINTINI ELISA)

   5. Sutrio, first half 19th Century (LUGLI CARLO)

   6. Maniago, 19th Century (MODOLO ALICE, BASSO MIRIAM)

   7. Castel d‟Aviano, 19th Century (MENIN MACHA)

   8. Poffabro, 19th Century (BALZANO SIMONE)

   9. Ciconicco, late 19th Century (DEL FABBRO SARA)

   10. San Pietro al Natisone, late 19th Century (GERIN SARA)



FEMININE WEDDING COSTUME, Tramonti di Sotto (PORDENONE), 18th Century

The wedding garments concentrated the best of the ornaments: embroideries, laces, applications. In
the ceremony these decorations were sided by obligations, by superstitious cares, by taboos which
have always been present in popular tradition.
For example, till fifty years ago there was still, in Friuli, the taboo that hindered the bride to prepare
herself the dress and the wedding sheet, that were gifted by her sister or by a girl friend; while there
was, the duty to make the shirt for her bridegroom.
How we can still see today, the finished dress had to be worn only on the wedding day and only by
the bride; if a girl had disobeyed she would have never got married.
The flowers and the trail were allowed only with the white dress: so the girl from Tramonti, whom
the costume belonged to, didn‟t wear them on the wedding day. For what concerns the colour of the
dress, till the 19th century the favourite ocular was the “turtle-dove”, a grey tonality, whose name in
friulian is cenerin. You had absolutely to avoid the light-blue, because they said it brought ill-luck.
To bring good-luck to the union, the bride had to wear nothing old, not even a hairpin.
The costume is composed by a skirt and a fore opened bodice made of heavy ivory textile decorated
with minute polychromatic patterns. The blue cotton jacket under the waistcoat shows the collar of
the blouse bound with a lace. The apron is made of white like-veil cotton, plaited on the length way
and with flowers embroidered along the lower hem.
Besides the dress the costume is composed by a white neckerchief, folding into the jacket and by a
linen stripe, enriched by a lace, called fazzûl .




                                                   26
The costume is composed by:

A. Blouse
B. Jacket
C. Gown, waistcoat and skirt stitched together
D. Apron
E. Fazzûl


A. The shirt is made of linen cloth and it is composed by two lengths of material united by a carrè
   on the shoulders.
   The sleeves are obtained by a breadth with an insert under the arm-pit. The edge is decorated.
  The fore part of the low-neck is ornamented by a thin binding realized by bobbins and it ends
  with a small openings closed by two small pearl buttons.

B. The jacket is made by six blue woollen lengths of material; it has a low-neck and it is closed
   behind by five wood-buttons covered with the same fabric of the sleeves.
   The jute lining underlines the primitive shape and makes you suppose that the garment has been
   modified later on.
   The long sleeves, opened at the wrist, have an amaranth coloured woollen cuff.
   The neck opening and the nosing of the button-row are bordered by a light blue silk ribbon, the
    same of the decorative cockade applied to the cuffs.

C. The fabric is made of brocade and the pattern shows grey amaranthine striped bands, which
   alternate with others decorated by stylised flowers and zigzag motifs.

  The waistcoat is composed by eight lengths of material; it has a fore and a back lacing, they are
  both stiffened.
  The interlacing of golden strings through the ten button-holes closes the dress in front and in the
  back. The thin epaulettes are now stitched, but they were originally unbound.
  The inner part is lined with raw hemp lengths of material.

  The skirt is formed by six pieces of linen cloth of the same dimensions and one smaller in the
  centre; this one is unstitched to make it easier to put on the dress.
  The skirt is enriched on the waistline by numerous plaits and it is stiffened by two lines: an inner
  hemp one, and a cotton visible one.

D. The apron is a rectangle made of impalpable cotton gauze, decorated with nine thicker horizontal
    lines. It is enriched by minute spread flowers.
   The wide lower band is full of embroideries: thin flowered twigs and wide central motifs of
   garland made by chain stitch, create a real flounce.

E. The fazzûl is composed by four bands which are eight cm. large. It is 109.5 cm long. It is made
   of linen trimmed by inserts of handmade lace with circular and abstract decorative elements.
   It was bought by a woman who resold it as a towel on 18 February 1939 in Tramonti di Mezzo
   (name of a village in Carnia).




                                                 27
History of headscarf, called fazzûl
Carnic fazzûl have reached us thanks to the sacristans of Carnic churches. The traditional gift of the
headscarf at the end of the wedding ceremony, from the bride to the parish and the vow gift of
clothes in moments of danger, have brought a lot of garments into the Sacristies.
When fazzûl came out of use, in the latest 18th and first 19th Century, their shape made people think
that they were towels, and they have been preserved in the museums under this name.
Today, after the examination of the documents about the ancient Carnic costume, we have found
their real use.
The familiar portraits found in some mansions in Carnia, show clearly how ladies wore, wrapped
around their head, a white embroidered scarf, in the 18th century.
Texts from the 19th century, report how “The aged women used to wear, following an ancient use, a
long white fazzûl wrapped on the forehead like a turban, whose ends, adorned with fringes, fell one
on the chest on the left and one behind the right shoulder”.


FEMININE COSTUME, Marano Lagunare (UDINE), 19th Century

The costumes of northern Italy are still today different from area to area. The history of Alpine hills
is different from the one of the country.
An improvement in the studies of the Friulan traditional costume began at the end of the 30s.
The fabrics became very important in society (as determination of status symbols).
The quadri, humble but characteristic element of the costume, began to be used during the second
half of the 18th century. It was a squared shaped cotton or linen scarf, whose side measured 80/90
cm, it was embroidered and worked.
The apron covered the front part of the skirt, and in the 16th century was also used by rich people.
In the popular use this garment got more and more importance and it was always used, both in the
country and during the wedding day. It could be white (for example of embroidered muslin) and in
the 18th century it became common to wear a coloured one, dotted or with floral or geometric
pattern and made of cloth or silk.

The costume is composed by:

A.   Blouse, length 98cm;
B.   Skirt, length 92cm, width 420cm;
C.   Jacket, length 34cm, sleeves 58cm, shoulders 30cm;
D.   Apron, length 82cm, width 101cm, belt 45cm;
E.   Headscarf, 112 x 112cm.

A. The blouse is made of white cotton cloth; it is gathered at the neckline and it is adorned with a
   fragmentary lace. In the central part there‟s a cut of 16cm, closed by a bottom. The cuffs are
   characterised by 28 pleats of 0,7 x 21cm for the circumference of the wrist. There are two cuts,
   one for each side, of 14,5cm.


B. The skirt, which is made in yellow cloth, is supplied by 44 different pleats (from 1,2cm to 2cm).
   These are concentrated in the front-part and behind. The skirt isn‟t lined and has a small cut on
   one side.




                                                  28
C. The jacket consists of a triangular stomacher stiffed inside, closed on the sides by six buttons,
   this creates a deep squared neckline. The union of the adherent sleeves with the stomacher, is
   made by a grey silk strip. The sleeves are opened along the arm and closed by three bottoms.
   These are made by the same strip that profiles all the borders and signs the silhouette on the
   back.. In the back, the jacket is made of three parts with a small tail with pleats (of 2,5cm each).
   It is lined by an ecrù hemp fabric and it is stiffed by hemp heels, which are near the buttons and
   in the front part.


D. The apron is made of white linen gauze, with a gathering of flat and irregular pleats at the waist.
   The pattern is composed by embroidered chain stitches, spotted by small flowers. In the higher
   part of the border there is a decoration with leaves, ferns and poppies, which frame a big, circle
   flower. During the 1500 this garment was used also in the educated tradition. The apron was
   always used both at home and in the country; even on the wedding day. It is usually white (like
   in this costume), but in 1700 it becomes also common the coloured one, made of silk, with
   flowers or points on dark backgrounds.


E. Women used to wear a scarf on their head; this one has a squared shape (quadri), and it is made
   of white cotton muslin with an embroidered ornament of the same colour, it has scalloped hems
   and the pattern contains a poppy, a sweet violet and a daisy, a bundle with a carnation and two
   poppies in the central corner. This characteristic element of the costume started to be used at
   the half of 18th century.


The stockings were made of raw domestic wool, or of cotton and linen, hand made, white or
coloured. They arrived under the knees, and were blocked by a knit piece of string.
Typical shoes were the scarpet, a low shoe of woollen cloth or velvet with a stiffed sole made of
layers, quilted by a string. The scarpet has no heel. It is symmetric, with a plane tip and with more
or less pronounced opening. The hardest work is quilting thickly the cloth sole, which, after being
basted, was cut around by a sharp chisel.


SUNDAY FEMALE COSTUME, Poffabro (PORDENONE), first half of the 19th Century

The costume is composed by:

   A. Blouse, 96 length cm
   B. Dress, 119 length cm, it is composed by:
      a skirt, 89 length cm , width 300 cm, and a bodice, 30 length cm
   C. Apron, 83,5 length cm , width 88 cm
   D. Headscarf , 81 x 83 cm

A.
The white cotton blouse is gathered at the round shaped neckline. In front, on the centre, there is an
opening of 21 cm, closed by a fabric-covered button; under the opening there is an embroidery
depicting a red and blue flowery heart. The wrists are gathered and present an opening, of 3 cm, the
wrist circumference is of 20,5 cm, while the widest part of the sleeve is of 60 cm.




                                                  29
B.
The dress is composed by the skirt and the bodice:

The woollen and hemp dark brown skirt is striped by lines in relief. It is gathered at the waist and
held by a belt 1cm over the waist-line. In the centre, in front, there is a 21 cm long opening .

The bodice is tied to the skirt at the waist line, there are some darts 2 cm; far one from the other
three darts on the right side and three on the left side. The bodice is low-necked, with the shoulder
straps which join a bit lower than the shoulder; bound by a dark violet tape. On the centre, in front,
it is completely open and kept closed just by a ribbon. The decorative pattern is tartan, the colours
are: purple, brown, green, red and orange.

C.
The apron is of printed cloth; the decorative pattern, “all over” is characterized by three different
bunches of flowers. The apron has some folds which start from the strap. The folds are sewn length
wise for 2 cm and then left free for the rest of the length: these folds are the result of a simple
gathering. The ribbon is another part of the apron and it doesn‟t belong to the belt, being a
prolongation of it and having the function of lancing and adorning. It‟s also of a different colour
and fabric quality; it has a double knot which ends with a bow in the centre.

D.
The head scarf is of white linen and hemp cloth, the measures are            81x83cm. It is hand
embroidered, with a red thread. The decorations consist of two motifs: a flowery heart and a branch
with leaves.

FEMALE COSTUME, Maniago (PORDENONE), 19th Centrury

The costume is composed by:

A. Shirt, length 88,5 cm
B. Petticoat, length 78 cm, width 150 cm;
C. Dress composed by a bodice and skirt sewn together,
   total length 97 cm
D. Pinafore, length 89 cm, width 144 cm, belt 250 cm
E. Headscarf 75 cm x 192 cm.

A. the blouse, cjamese, is in white cotton with lace along the choker and the cuffs, length 8 cm.
   The puffy sleeves, length 93 cm, have a raglan cut.. They are finished up by a square patch
   under the arm hole, 12 cm x 12 cm. In front , just in the centre there is an opening of 27 cm
   closed by a button. The width of the blouse is 84 cm.
B. The petticoat is in white cotton, length 78cm, width 150 cm, it is closed by a string on the right
   side.
C. The dress is composed by bodice and skirt sewn together.
   The bodice cassin is blue with white printed decorations; it was laced on the shoulders and
   closed on the breast by coloured strings. It was often made using a better fabric than the one
   used for the skirt, in this case the bodice has been realized in wool. The waist circumference is
   68 cm, while the length of the front centre is 15 cm.
   The ankle-length skirt cotola is made in wool and hemp over the waist line is sewn in the upper
   part of the dress cassin.
   It has flat pleats and one pocket on the right side.


                                                 30
   The maximum width of the skirt is 155 cm and it is reinforced in the lower part and has an
   opening in the front centre of 22 cm.
D. The pinafore or grimal is made by a light fabric with floral patterns. Its length is 82 cm while
   its maximum width is 144 cm. The belt, sidelong cut, has a minimum height of 2 cm and a
   maximum one of 7 cm. Some ribbons and tapes are generally made by simple materials,
   anyway they are long enough to give the possibility to tie up the apron first on the back and
   then in the front with an evident bow.
E. The headscarf or mantil is a wide piece of plain or embroidered white linen, cloth which
   women used to wear. In this case the mantil is made of linen and its length is 192 cm, it covers
   the shoulders, its borders are frayed and it was mechanically woven. This garment was often
   used as a mourning sign.

FOOTWEAR

The stockings, made of raw domestic wool, were used both in winter and summer, during the work
in the fields or in the mountains; in the village, in the good season, they used to be of cotton or
linen; always hand worked, they were white for the ceremonies and coloured for other occasions.
Women fastened stockings under their knees with a knitted string; while men used a coloured
string.
Men‟s stockings were sometimes red cross-stitched.
A common footwear all over Friuli is the scarpet. The scarpet is a low shoe made of velvet or cloth,
it has a tissue stiffened sole.
It has a symmetric shape, it may end with a flat point or with a turned up point.
The opening may he more or less marked.
The children‟s ones are often tied by a shoe strap

FEMALE COSTUME, Castel d‟Aviano (PORDENONE), 19th Century

The costume consists of:

A.   Chemise: 63.5 cm long. Sleeve : about 59 cm long.
B.   Dress, consisting of bodice and skirt: 119 cm long.
C.   Apron: 71 cm long , 87 cm wide. Belt: about 41 cm long.
D.   Headscaft


     A. The chemise, (ciamese) made of white cotton cloth, is gathered at the neck-opening. The
        neck-opening is square and trimmed with lace. In the centre, in front, there is a 16 cm long
        opening, closed by a small ribbon. The cuffs are characterised by gathering and lace. The
        sleeve (menage) has a cut “raglan” 28 cm long.

     B. The dress consists of a skirt (cotola) and a bodice (bustino or busì); the skirt is ankle-long,
        gathered at the waist with small pleats, made of brown diagonal cloth with small red stripes.
        It has 8 cm high flounces respectively 35 cm and 59 cm far from the waist. The bodice is
        gathered at the waist by means of pleats, at a distance of 4.5 cm one from the other and 1.5
        cm towards the centre. The front fastening is granted by six bronze buttons. The neck-
        opening is trimmed with violet, green and brown ribbon.

     C. The apron (grimal) is made of diagonal cloth (batavia); it is gathered at the waist by means
        of a small black belt. The weft of the apron is multicolour (green, black, red, yellow and
        blue) and the warp is brown. This group of colours makes the dress tight and colourful .

                                                  31
   D. The headscarf was worn with the ends turned upwards and the fringe downwards.

A lot of headscarves and shawls, used on every occasion, completed the costume. In the 18th century
they were white, embroidered and trimmed with lace. Later, when the Indian cloth began to spread,
they were made of wool or cotton with multicolour drawings on a mark background.
The stockings (gambarelle), made of wool and hand-knitted with various fatteners, were worn on a
thinner pair and, in the whole area of Friuli, women put on clogs and scarpetti.
The scarpetti were made of dark woollen cloth, and were usually black and trimmed with small
roses.

FEMALE WORK-DRESS, Poffabro (PORDENONE), 19th Century, second half
The costume is composed by:
       a) Headscarf (fazzûl): cm83x79cm.
       b) Chemise: 79cm long, 60 cm loose sleeves.
       c) Underskirt
       d) Dress: total length 88 cm, width 370 cm, shoulder 34 cm, composed by:
          Bodice (cassin): length cm37, waist‟s circle cm72;
          Skirt (cotola).
       e) Apron: length cm90, wide cm135.

a) The headscarf has been made by a light yellow cotton cloth. It is decorated by a border with a
floral motif, there is a vertical repetition of a winding stalk hearing heart-shaped flowers, in the
bends there are other stalks and may-lilies. The printing is in the following colours: petrol green,
amaranth and creamy white on a red background.

b) The blouse is made of a hemp cloth of natural colour (8 threads of warp and 9 threads of weft
each centimetre), it presents a flat collar closed by a little button, a gathered shirt in front and puffy
sleeves closed on the wrist. The composition is enriched by some pleats obtained by gathering the
fabric.

c) The fabric used for the underskirt is made of hemp for the warp and unbleached wool for weft. It
has a coffee coloured background and narrow black stripes. Considering the colours of the threads,
the belt is white and aviator-blue with the following sequence on weft threads: 4 light blue, 1 white,
4 light blue and 1 white. In warp threads there are a much more elaborate sequence: 2 light blue, 1
white, 1 light blue, 1 white, 1 light blue, 1 white, 2 light blue, 1 white, 1 light blue, 1 white, 1 light
blue, 1 white, 2 light blue.

d) The dress is composed by:

   - the bodice, which is made by a beige (warp) and hazel brown (weft) hemp cloth. It is closed in
   the front by three buttons (the first is 16.5 cm far from the second, which is 6.5 cm far from the
   third) with a male closing.
   Some pleats have been realized gathering the fabric but they disappear in the front.

   - the skirt is adorned by a cotton flounce. The pattern is similar to tartan and the colours are
   white, blue and red.

e) The large apron is fastened around the waist, made of printed cotton with a black background
dotted with small white points creating the effect of little flowers; the inferior hem, 7cm high, is
striped with vertical lines in light blue, red, white, blue and orange.

                                                   32
  FEMALE COSTUME, Ciconicco (UDINE), 19th Century, last quarter

  The costume consists of :
  A. The blouse: length 83 cm.
  B. The dress:
            1) the bodice: length 36 cm, shoulders width 30 cm.
            2) the skirt: length 81 cm.
  C. The apron: length 75 cm., width 100 cm., belt-length 45 cm.
  D. The headscarf square: 112 x 112 cm.
  E. The neck scarf

      A. The white hemp blouse is a homework man ship. It is widely cut at the neckline and at the
      sleeve hole, tight at the wrist and it is gathered by some braids.

       B. The tight bodice was used to contain the figure and prettify the person who wore it.
       The very rich 0,5 cm. pleated skirt was used to hide the continuous motherhood and to give a
      dancing gait when the woman was walking.

      C. The apron is made of brown cloth with polychrome floral patterns along the border.

      D. The light woollen headscarf has a black background with a polychrome decorated band.

     E. The violet silk neck scarf is bounded by natural white and gold-yellow silk fringe. The
         decoration, given by the light effect of the violet unfastened textures, is of maritime
         inspiration. It proposes, in fact, a sequence of clippers along the border while the centre is
         slotted by little flowers.
  The preservation is quite good except for a central fissure.

FEMALE COSTUME, San Pietro al Natisone (UDINE), 19th Century

The elements that characterize this costume are:

  A) - The headscarf (made in white cotton).
     It looks transparent and it is hemmed by a lace-stripe
  B) - The blouse has a loose linen, the fabric used is cotton and the measures are:
      total length 93cm;
      neckline 13cm;
      the sleeves have the characteristic "T" shape, gathered at the edge and stiffed inside;
      length cuff 9.5 cm;
      the total length of the sleeve 51 cm.
  C) - The bodice, made according to the basic model (loose bodice); consists of two parts (front and
     back), in the front part the most relevant elements are the squared neckline and a rich
     decoration created by twisting different yarns. The fabric used is silk. The total length of the
     front part is 37 cm.
  D) - The jacket has the classical "Redingote" line and it is lined by a red woollen fabric. The
     characteristics of this garment are the absence of darts and the presence of the box pleat in the
     back. The sleeve has been modelled according to men‟s wear. The cuff is 8cm.



                                                   33
E) - The skirt is pleated and made of light blue silk. The most important elements are:
    the pocket clashing with the dart;
    the hip line which is not in its proper position;
    an inside stiffening; there is a cut at 58 cm from the waistline;
    the distance of each pleat is of 1,8 cm and the width is of 1,3 cm.
F) - The apron has been made of transparent cotton, which shows the detailed floral motif.
G) - The necklace is made of a black string.




                                    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione per l‟Innovazione e la Ricerca Educativa I.N.D.I.R.E.
                       AGENZIA NAZIONALE SOCRATES - Firenze
                                        Giuseppe Bergamini
                           Direttore, Civici Musei del Comune di Udine
                                           Tiziana Ribezzi
                        Conservatore, Civici Musei del Comune di Udine
            Maddalena Mesaglio, Luciano Omet , Giovanni Morelli, Sergio Di Bez
                         Istituto Statale d‟Arte “Giovanni Sello” teachers
                                 Luisa Delponte, Gianni Rainone
                       Istituto Statale d‟Arte “Giovanni Sello” technicians




                                               34
                                    FRIULI FOLK DANCES

                             COSTUMES FOR THE DANCERS

                      SCULPTURES INSPIRED BY DANCE STEPS



FRIULI FOLK DANCES

The evolution of Friulan popular dance has had lights and shades in the time.
Little is known about the romaniche or barbaric ritual and archaic dances, even if, on the contrary,
the diffusion of “Carola Medioevale” in our Region is quite possible.

Since 1400 we have had news about public dances mainly organised in occasion of religious feasts
or the coming of kings or emperors to Friuli, both in Udine even in Venice, where a “Campo della
Furlana” (Campo is a Venetian word which means a kind of square) existed.
The local tradition was revealing itself in a particular way during Saint Ermacora‟s celebration.

In 1800 we think that the traditional dance suffered a lot for the influence of the French dance.
In 1914 the interest of the press for “Furlana” exploded and that aroused enthusiasm among the
readers and made it known in European big cities and in New York too.

After the Second World War the formation of some folk groups allowed us, even in a regime
culture, to preserve the music and movements of our folk tradition, which has been extinguishing,
it‟s thanks to them if they arrived till our days.

FEATURES

The friulan traditional dance can be considered to belong to the north-eastern area of our continent.
The music shows a particular vocalist, characterised by a strong rhythm. The coral accompaniment
has got a loving content with archaic chants.
Generally the base of the dances is of a collective kind, without holding hands and the art of
dancing develops mainly on a circular system. The figures turn out genuine in their symbolic
expression. The society balls mainly refer to the most significant moments of community life, like
marriages and feasts as the Carnival, but even they are influenced by the mannerism of the noble
dance. The present instruments are the according, the clarinet and the contrabass even if in the past
the fife, the drum and the violin were used too.



THE EXPRESSION OF THE ART OF DANCING

The human body expresses its feelings with movements; the transformations due to the time and
the influences of the populations nearby don‟t permit us to identify the primitive figure of Friulan
dance. The dance as it appears today, develops in conformity with a scheme of amorous courtship



                                                 35
with footsteps and movements, often deeply emphasized, characterised by the lovers‟ typical
gesture expressiveness.
We can recognise the following choreographic development, where five movements are visible:

1)Approach to dance
2)Disposition of the dancers
3)Amorous gesture, courtship
4)Embrace, rotation
5)Conclusion

MOVEMENTS AND FIGURES

The most characteristic ones are: the rotation of the couple stamping feet and clicking fingers, the
rotation under the arch of the raised arms, the rotation of the man around the kneeling girl, the
rotation waltz, the “twirl”. The two by two is the last passage in the evolution of collective dances
performed by males and females separated.
Other dances of 1500, whose choreography we don‟t know, make us imagine magic influences:
“Scjarazule Marazule” (Scjaraĉule maraĉule) for example is a mime where rain is invoked,
“l‟Amboscello” is a dance which recalls the magic and sacred symbol of life typical of the Celtic
and Longobard cult.




                                                 36
THE DANCES WE STUDIED

       We students of the 4th class are carrying out a very alternative and amusing activity during
the physical education lessons.


       Thanks also to the help of Donatella Santi, an external teacher, expert in folk dance, we
have learnt three typical dances of the Friulan tradition:


      The “Lavandera": this typical popular dance comes from the area of Aviano; it's a
       courtship dance and it dates back to 1700.


      The "Stajera", a popular dance that comes from the area of Gorizia, dates back to 19th
       century, and it is another typical courtship dance where the central couple is supported by
       the other dancers.


      The “Scjarazule marazule", the most ancient dance we studied, dates back to 16th century;
       this is the pantomime of a magic rite used to invoke rain on Whit Sunday night.


This project on folk dances kept us very busy, because these dances are very witty and great fun to
be made in a group, and also because, this way, we got in touch with our traditions, that is certainly
a very important aspect of our cultural background.




                                                   37
FASHION DESIGN FOR THE DANCERS‟ COSTUMES

We girls of the fashion course have carried out a research project about the traditional Friulan
costume. Every student collected some photographic material about a traditional costume of a
different area of the Region Friuli Venezia Giulia.
We studied the clothes in detail, trying to recognize the manufacturing method, the materials and
the decorative elements, which most characterized the production.
Then we designed an up-to-date dress inspired by the traditional costume we chose to analyse.
The models designed adapt to the present taste and aesthetics, but they keep the elements which
characterise and make the Friulan costume recognisable.
We have also made a description of the modern elaboration, specifying the colours, the materials
and the possible techniques for the realization.
Some technical samplings, inspired by the hand weaving of fabrics present in the traditional
costume, have been carried out on the manual looms of our textile laboratory and it‟s our intention
to make serigraphy prints on clothes, regarding some decorative details typical of the popular textile
tradition.




                                                 38
SCULPTURES INSPIRED BY DANCE STEPS

The themes concerning the popular dance and the Friulan costume have been developed over also
during our sculpture lessons.

First of all each of us chose a specific dancing step, the one we liked the most; then we stylised the
figures, and at the end, after everyone had planned his own character, we went on to find out the
scheme of the costume and to test the colours.

After finishing the planning part, we passed on to the realization of the sculpture in clay.

First we built an iron structure, essential to support the clay; after that we started to make up our
sculpture, which grew little by little.




                                                  39
CLASSE 4C
SCHOOL YEAR 2002/03


TEXTILE AND FASHION DESIGN and CATALOGUING


Students : Bello Alessandra, Bello Antonietta, Brovedani Laura, Clemente Michol,
Codotto Sara, Cossaro Sabrina, Cagnolini Elena, Cucovaz Karin, Di Benedetto
Roberta, Fernetich Marianna, Ganis Jessica, Lirusso Marta, Mattiussi Lisa, Mattiuzzo
Elena, Menon Sara, Milan Anna, Morassut Marzia, Moretti Annarella, Nazzi Chiara,
Piazza Anna, Plozzer Sabrina, Rinaldi Elisabetta, Scodellaro Andrea, Tortora Silvia.




Teachers: Maria Corrao (Physical Education), Carmen Romeo (Textile and Fashion
Design), Claudia Franz (English), Maddalena Mesaglio (Textile Workshop), Laura
Calò (Weaving Workshop), Calogero Condello (Cataloguing Workshop).




                                         40
VERSIONE
        IN
ITALIANO


 da pagina 24 a pagina 40




           41
                                 COSTUMI TRADIZIONALI
   una fonte di conoscenza professionale e d‟ispirazione per il moderno design

                                                 tessile


Per quanto riguarda l‟indirizzo di studi “Moda e Costume” abbiamo svolto una ricerca sul
costume tradizionale della nostra Regione, il Friuli Venezia Giulia, studiando, in particolare, dieci
costumi conservati presso i “Civici Musei” del Comune di Udine.
Il nostro lavoro è cominciato con una visita agli archivi del Museo, situati presso il Castello di
Udine.
Su ognuno dei dieci costumi abbiamo condotto un‟indagine tecnica (riproduzione grafica e
fotografica del costume e dei motivi decorativi, rilievo delle misure dei capi, ecc…) e cercato di
riconoscere attentamente i diversi tessuti, i colori, le tecniche tessili e le decorazioni.
Le nostre conoscenze sono state approfondite attraverso la consultazione di testi che affrontano il
tema del costume tradizionale in modo più vasto.


Abbiamo concluso la ricerca progettando un capo d‟abbigliamento moderno che riteniamo
esprima, in chiave attuale, quei valori estetici e professionali che abbiamo imparato a riconoscere
durante la fase dello studio diretto di materiali originali.
L‟esperienza è stata conclusa con l‟elaborazione di disegni per tessuti stampati, ispirati a quelli
presenti sugli abbigliamenti tradizionali, la realizzazione di campionature di stoffe stampate e la
ricostruzione sartoriale di due dei costumi tradizionali esaminati.
Cecilia Cagnani, classe 5C

Per costume tradizionale s‟intende un insieme d‟indumenti e accessori abbinati in base agli studi
svolti nel secolo XIX, quando quel movimento di pensiero filosofico e letterario, noto con il nome
di Romanticismo, determina un interesse generale verso tutto ciò che riguarda il popolo e le diverse
identità.
La Rivoluzione Francese aveva creato le premesse essenziali permettendo l‟emergere politico del
Terzo Stato, ma è il governo di Napoleone, con l‟inchiesta folklorica del 1811, a fornire risultati
concreti impegnando, in particolare, i professori di disegno nella riproduzione grafica e nella
raccolta di dettagliate informazioni sui costumi.
Fra le tante funzioni dell‟abbigliamento si privilegia quella d‟identificazione della collettività
d‟appartenenza che sottolinea le differenze fra gli abitanti delle campagne e quelli delle città, fra
aree geografiche diverse.
Fatta l‟Unità d‟Italia (1861) gli etnologi vanno in giro a recuperare quello che resta degli antichi
costumi, a fotografarli ed acquistarli per un previsto Museo delle Tradizioni Popolari.
In seguito, durante il periodo Fascista, si vedono rifiorire gli studi delle tradizioni popolari che però
risultano più ispirati da motivazioni nazionalistiche e razziste che da scopi etici ed etnici.

                                                    42
Ricerche sui costumi del Friuli sono promosse, alla fine degli anni Trenta, in collaborazione con la
Società Filologica Friulana, il Museo Civico d‟Udine, l‟Ente del Turismo, O.N. Dopolavoro. I
risultati concreti ottenuti si devono, in particolare, all‟incontro fra l‟esperienza di ricerca sul campo
di Lea D‟Orlandi e l‟esperienza storica e d‟archivio di Gaetano Perusini. I due studiosi scelgono di
procedere per aree circoscritte piuttosto che cercare di definire il “costume friulano”.

L‟abbigliamento popolare esprime un eccezionale sforzo creativo e notevoli abilità tecniche e
professionali: stratificazione inconsapevole di mode passate, essi sono da considerare modelli unici
e fonte inesauribile d‟ispirazione per stilisti e sarti, come spesso è accaduto e accade anche oggi
nell‟universo Moda.


(Note tratte da: Gian Paolo Gri, “Tessere Tela, tessere simboli, antropologia e storia dell‟abbigliamento in
area alpina”, Basaldella (Udine), 2000; Doretta Davanzo Poli, “Costumi Popolari d‟Italia”, in ”Arte
Tessile” n.3, rivista annuario CISST, Firenze, 1992).


                                            BIBLIOGRAFIA


14) Michele Gortani, “L‟ARTE POPOLARE IN CARNIA”, Udine, 1965.
15) A cura di Giuseppe Bergamini, “CIVILTA‟ FRIULANA di ieri e di oggi”, Pasian di Prato
    (UD), 1980.
16) Catalogo di Tiziana Ribezzi, introduzione di Novella Cantarutti e Gian Paolo Gri, “ LA
    CASSAPANCA E IL CORREDO IN FRIULI ”, Udine , 1981.
17) A.A.V.V.,”MUSEO FRIULANO DELLE ARTI E TRADIZIONI POPOLARI”, Udine, 1985.
18) Lea D‟Orlandi, Gaetano Perusini, “ANTICHI COSTUMI FRIULANI” a cura di Novella
    Cantarutti, Gian Paolo Gri, Pier Giorgio Gri, Gorizia, 1988.
19) A cura di Tiziana Ribezzi, “PER LO STUDIO DELL‟ABBIGLIAMENTO TRADIZIONALE” ,
    Udine 1989.
20) AA.VV., “CENTRO STUDI DI STORIA DEL TESSUTO E DEL COSTUME, QUADERNO
    1”, Venezia, 1989.
21) AA.VV.,”RITRATTI DI CARNIA TRA „600 E „800”, Udine, 1990.
22) AA.VV., “IL MERLETTO NEL FOLKLORE ITALIANO”, a cura di Doretta Davanzo Poli,
    Venezia,1 990.
23) AA.VV., “JACOPO LINUSSIO, Arte e impresa nel „700 in Carnia”, Udine, 1991.
24) AA.VV.,”ARTE TESSILE”, Pisa, 1992.
25) AA.VV., “L‟ARTE DELLA DISCREZIONE. Abiti e accessori nella tradizione del Friuli
    Venezia Giulia”, Udine, 1996.
Gian Paolo Gri, “TESSERE TELA, TESSERE SIMBOLI. Antropologia e storia dell‟abbigliamento
in area alpina”, Basaldella, Udine, 2000.
                                                    43
I COSTUMI STUDIATI

I costumi sono classificati in base al luogo dal quale provengono.
Il nome/i dello/degli studente/i che ha/hanno studiato il manufatto è/sono scritti fra parentesi.


   1. Tramonti di Sotto, Secolo XVIII (CAGNANI CECILIA)

   2. Marano Lagunare, Secolo XIX, inizi (COLUSSA LISENA, PILOT ELISA)

   3. Guspergo -Cividale, Secolo XIX (SIONI PAMELA)

   4. Poffabro, Secolo XIX, prima metà (VISINTINI ELISA)

   5. Sutrio, Secolo XIX, prima metà (LUGLI CARLO)

   6. Maniaco, Secolo XIX (MODOLO ALICE, BASSO MIRIAM)

   7. Castel d’Aviano, Secolo XIX (MENIN MACHA)

   8. Poffabro, Secolo XIX (BALZANO SIMONE)

   9. Ciconicco, Secolo XIX, ultimo quarto (DEL FABBRO SARA)

   10. San Pietro al Natisone, Secolo XIX, ultimo quarto (GERIN SARA)



COSTUME FEMMINILE NUZIALE, Tramonti di Sotto (PN), Secolo XVIII

I capi nuziali condensavano su di sé il meglio degli ornamenti: ricami, merletti, applicazioni. Nel
rito questi ornamenti si affiancavano agli obblighi, alle preoccupazioni superstiziose, ai tabù che
mai mancavano nella tradizione popolare.
Ad esempio, fino a cinquant‟anni fa era ancora vivo, in Friuli, il tabù che impediva alla sposa di
preparare da sé l‟abito e il lenzuolo nuziale, che generalmente venivano regalati dalla sorella o da
un‟amica; mentre ancora vigeva l‟obbligo che fosse lei a confezionare la camicia dello sposo.
Come ancora oggi possiamo vedere, l‟abito doveva essere indossato e terminato solo il giorno delle
nozze e solo dalla sposa: altrimenti colei che avesse disubbidito a tale precetto non si sarebbe
maritata più.
I fiori e lo strascico erano concessi solo con il vestito bianco; la giovane a cui appartenne quello
proveniente da Tramonti di Sotto, quindi, non ne portò il giorno delle proprie nozze. Sempre per
quanto riguarda il colore della veste, fino alla fine dell‟Ottocento il colore più apprezzato era il
color tortora, una tonalità di grigio che in friulano viene detto “cenerìn”, mentre andava
assolutamente evitato il celeste, portatore di disgrazie. Per portare fortuna all‟unione la sposa non
doveva indossare niente che non fosse nuovo, neanche una forcina.

L‟abito è formato dalla gonna e dal corpetto aperto davanti, in pesante tessuto color avorio con
minuti disegni policromi. Il giacchino, sotto al corpetto, è in cotone blu e lascia intravedere il collo
della camicia bordata da un merletto. Il grembiule é in leggero cotone bianco con piccole pieghe a


                                                  44
tutta altezza e ricamo a fiori lungo l‟orlo inferiore. Fazzoletto bianco al collo con le estremità
ripiegate entro la giacchetta. In capo il fazzûl in lino con ricchi tramezzi a merletto.

Il costume è formato da:

A. Camicia
B. Giacchino
B. Abito, corpetto e gonna cuciti assieme
C. D. Grembiule
E. Fazzûl

A. La camicia (cjamese), confezionata in tela di lino, è costituita da due teli che si uniscono al carré.
   Le maniche sono ricavate da un telo unico a cui è stato inserito un triangolo ascellare. Il bordino
   è decorato da cappe a punto festone e “tagliato”.
   La parte anteriore dell‟amplissima scollatura ovale, decorata da una bordura, è realizzata a fuselli
   e termina in una breve apertura, chiusa da due piccoli bottoni di madreperla.

B. Confezionato con sei teli di tessuto di lana blu, la scollatura fatta a barchetta, il giacchino è
   chiuso davanti da cinque bottoni di legno rivestiti dello stesso spinato che costituisce la parte alta
   e le maniche. La fodera, in tela di juta a larga tramatura, sottolinea la foggia primitiva e fa
   supporre che il capo sia stato maneggiato in tempi posteriori.
   Le maniche, lunghe e aperte al polso, terminano con un risvolto di tela di lana color amaranto,
   operata a righe bianche e marroni.
   Lo scollo e gli orli della bottoniera sono bordati da un nastro di tela di seta azzurra con cui sono
   realizzate anche le ciocche decorative apposte alle maniche come decorazione, unitamente a due
   piccoli bottoni. Le asole sono rifinite a punto festone.

C. Il tessuto della veste (còtule ) è formato da una trama di lana bianca e orditi di lane policrome.Il
    disegno presenta fasce grigie rigate in color amaranto che si alternano ad altre con fiori stilizzati
    o motivi zig-zag.

   Il corpetto, costituito da 8 teli, è dotato di doppia allacciatura sul dietro e sul davanti, dove
   termina con una punta accentuata e rigida. Sia dietro che davanti presenta due grosse stecche a
   bastoncino, una per parte.
   La chiusura avviene mediante l‟intreccio di cordoncini dorati (risalenti a epoca recente)
   attraverso gli occhielli del vestito, sia davanti che dietro.
   Le spalline sottili, che ora risultano cucite, erano originariamente allacciabili.
   L‟ interno è foderato con quattro teli di canapa greggia e due di tela ad armatura più larga.

   La gonna è costituita da sei pannelli di uguali dimensioni e di uno centrale più piccolo, scucito
   ai lati per permettere alla persona di indossare il vestito. La gonna, arricciata in vita tramite
   numerose pieghe, intervallate da cannoni, è mantenuta rigida da due fodere: una interna di
   canapa e una esterna di cotone.

D. Il grembiule (grimal) è un rettangolo di garza di cotone che l‟usura del tempo ha reso
  impalpabile, ma che si infittisce in nove nervature orizzontali decorative arricchite ulteriormente
  da minuscoli fiorellini sparsi.
  L‟ampia fascia inferiore è ricca di ricami: esili tralci fioriti e ampi motivi centrali di ghirlande
  realizzati a punto catenella formano una vera e propria balza.



                                                   45
D. Il fazzûl è un rettangolo formato da quattro fasce di 8 cm ciascuna, e una più lunga di 109.5 cm.
   Il capo è in tela di lino ornata da tramezzi di merletto a fuselli, a punto treccia, punto foglia e
   punto tela del tipo genovese, con decorazioni a elementi circolari ed astratti.
   La bordura è lavorata a fuselli e ventagli a punto treccia e punto tela.
  Fu comprato da una donna che lo vendette come asciugamano il 18/02/1939 a Tramonti di
  Mezzo.

Vicende storiche del fazzûl
Conservatisi in maniera fortunosa perché interessati a variazioni funzionali, i fazzûi carnici sono
pervenuti a noi tramite le sacrestie delle chiese carniche. La tradizione del dono rituale del
fazzoletto carnico della sposa alla parrocchia, a conclusione della cerimonia nuziale e l‟uso del
dono votivo di capi d‟abbigliamento in altre situazioni di crisi, hanno fatto entrare molti capi nei
corredi di sacrestia; spariti dall‟uso i fazzûi nel tardo Settecento e nel primo Ottocento, la loro forma
ha fatto sì che venissero letti come asciugatoi e come tali venissero conservati e poi recuperati dai
musei.
Oggi, dopo l‟esame dei documenti dell‟antico costume carnico, è stata scoperta la loro reale
destinazione d‟uso. I ritratti di famiglia rimasti in alcune case signorili della Carnia, mostrano con
tutta evidenza come nel Settecento le signore indossassero, avvolta intorno al capo, una sciarpa
bianca ricamata. Alcuni resti laceri ritrovati in qualche soffitta, indicano come non si trattasse di un
ornamento riservato alle gentildonne, ma, bensì, di un indumento largamente diffuso.
Testi risalenti alla fine dell‟Ottocento riferiscono come “Le vecchie portassero, alla fine del
Settecento, secondo un uso antico, un fazzoletto bianco bislungo chiamato fazzûl, avvolto sulla
fronte a guisa di turbante, e le cui estremità, fregiate di peneri e frange, ricadevano una sul petto, a
sinistra e l‟altra dietro la spalla destra”.

COSTUME FEMMINILE, Marano Lagunare (UD), Secolo XIX, inizi

Il fazzoletto da testa, detto quadri, caratteristico elemento del costume, incomincia ad introdursi
verso la metà del „700. E‟ un fazzoletto di tela, di cotone o di lino, di forma quadrata, il cui lato
misura 80/90 cm, ricamato o realizzato in tessuto operato.

Il costume è composto da:

A.   Camicia, lunghezza 98cm ca.
B.   Gonna, lunghezza 92cm, ampiezza 420cm
C.   Giacchino, caraco, lunghezza 34cm, maniche 58cm, spalle 30cm
D.   Grembiule, lunghezza 82cm, ampiezza 101cm, cintura 45cm
E.   Fazzoletto da testa quadrato (quadri), 90 x 90 cm

A. La camicia, di tela bianca di cotone, è arricciata allo scollo, arrotondato e ornato da un
   frammentario merletto. Sul centro davanti c‟è un‟apertura di 16 cm,chiusa da un bottone. I
   polsini sono caratterizzati da 28 pieghette di 0,7x21cm di circonferenza polso.
   Ci sono due spacchi laterali di 14,5cm.


B. La gonna, realizzata in tela di cotone giallo, è arricchita da 44 pieghe di grandezza diversa (da
   1,2cm a 2 cm), concentrate sulla parte anteriore e sul dietro, sfoderata e con breve apertura
   laterale.



                                                   46
C. Il giacchino, caraco è formato da una pettorina triangolare, rinforzata internamente e congiunta
   lateralmente con sei bottoni agli sparati, con cui crea una profonda scollatura quadrata. Dalle
   spalle un nastro di seta azzurra evidenzia l‟unione delle maniche aderenti, aperte sulla linea
   dell‟avambraccio con tre bottoni, asole e fiocchi. Questi sono prodotti dallo stesso nastro che
   profila tutti gli orli e segna la sagomatura del retro, che è di tre pezzi con faldoncino a pieghe
   (di 2,5cm l‟una). Foderato in tela di canapa ecrù e rinforzato con stecche di canna.


D. Il grembiule è di garza di lino bianco, con un‟arricciatura a pieghe piatte e irregolari in cintura;
   il decoro è costituito da un ricamo a punto catenella lungo i lati merlati con fiorellini disposti
   sulle anse che si ripetono; mentre nella fascia superiore all‟orlo è ripetuto per tre volte il modulo
   del disegno: foglie, felci e papaveri che incorniciano un grosso fiore tondeggiante con tramezzo
   a fuselli.

Il grembiule copriva la parte anteriore della gonna. Nell‟uso popolare questo capo viene portato
sempre, sia in casa che in campagna, come (impreziosito da ricami e merletti) il giorno delle nozze.
Lo troviamo di colore bianco (fine tela ti lino o di mussola di cotone ricamata). Nel „700 diventa
comune quello di stoffa (seta, mezzalana o cotone) stampata a fiori o a puntini a tinte piuttosto
scure.


E. Sul capo un fazzoletto di forma quadrata (quadri) di mussola bianca di cotone, con decoro
   bianco a ricamo (punti: catenella, sfilato, a giorno, nodini) esteso su due lati con orli smerlati,
   boccioli e altri petali. Tutto ciò fa da sfondo ad una sequenza ovale che racchiude un papavero,
   una mammola ed alcune margheritine, un mazzo con garofano e due papaveri nell‟angolo
   centrale.

Il fazzoletto da testa, detto quadri, caratteristico elemento del costume, incomincia ad essere usato
in Friuli verso la metà del „700. E‟ un fazzoletto di tela, di cotone o di lino, di forma quadrata, il cui
lato misura 80/90 cm, ricamato o realizzato in tessuto operato.


Le calze (cjalzis) normalmente erano di grezza lana casalinga, o di cotone e lino, comunque sempre
lavorate a mano, bianche per solennità o di vario colore altrimenti. Le donne fermavano le calze
sotto il ginocchio con un legaccio fatto a maglia.

Tipica calzatura del costume friulano era lo scarpèt, una scarpa bassa di panno o di velluto, con
suola di tela a molti strati, fittamente trapunta con spago, senza tacco. E‟ una scarpetta simmetrica,
finita a punta piatta o rivoltata in alto, più o meno arrotondata, con la scollatura più o meno
pronunciata. Nella fattura dello scarpèt, il lavoro più lungo e penoso è quello di trapungere la fitta
suola di tela che, dopo imbastita, viene tagliata in giro con un piccolo scalpello tagliente.




                                                   47
   COSTUME DA FESTA , Poffabro (PN), XIX Secolo

   Il costume è composto da:

   A. Camicia, lunghezza 96 cm
   B. Abito, lunghezza 119cm, esso è composto da:
          B1. Gonna, lunghezza 89cm, ampiezza 300cm
          B2. Corpetto, lunghezza 30cm
   C. Grembiule, lunghezza 83,5cm, ampiezza 88cm
   D. Fazzoletto da testa, 81x83cm

   A.
   La camicia, di tela bianca (cotone o tela di pedàl), è arricciata allo scollo, arrotondato. Sul centro
   davanti c‟è un'apertura di 21cm, chiusa da un bottoncino di stoffa; sotto questa apertura notiamo un
   ricamo eseguito con filo rosso e azzurro che rappresenta un cuore fiorito.
   I polsini sono arricciati e anch‟essi presentano un‟apertura, 3cm, la circonferenza polso è di
   20,5 cm, mentre la parte più ampia della manica è di 60cm.

   B.
   L‟abito è composto dal corpetto e dalla gonna:

   B1. Il corpetto è cucito alla gonna sul punto vita, dove sono presenti delle riprese di 2cm; più
   precisamente tre riprese sul centro davanti destro e tre sul centro davanti sinistro. Il corpetto è molto
   scollato, con gli spallacci che scendono ad unirsi sul davanti un po‟ più al di sotto della spalla, legati
   con un fiocco di fettuccia colorata (viola scuro). Sul centro davanti è completamente aperto e tenuto
   chiuso solo da un nastro. Il tessuto usato per la confezione è uno scozzese dai colori: viola, marrone,
   verde, rosso e arancio.

   B2. La gonna è realizzata in stoffa mezzalana (lana e canapa) marrone scuro, tessuta in modo tale
   da formare un effetto di minute righe in rilievo. Essa appare arricciata in vita e bloccata da una
   cucitura distante 1cm dal punto vita. Sul centro davanti è presente un‟apertura lunga 21cm.

C. Il grembiule è di tela stampata; il motivo decorativo, “all over” è caratterizzato da tre diversi
   mazzetti di fiori. Il grembiule ha delle pieghe che prendono origine dal cinturino. Le pieghe sono
   cucite per parte della lunghezza (2cm) e lasciate libere per il resto della lunghezza; queste pieghe
   sono il risultato di una semplice arricciatura. Il nastro è un altro elemento che compone il grembiule
   e non fa parte della cintura, essendo di questa un suo prolungamento e avendo la funzione di
   allacciare, ornare, con la differenziazione del colore e della qualità che si conclude con un fiocco o
   un nodo anteriore centrale.

   E. Il fazzoletto da testa è di tela bianca di lino e misura 81x83 cm; è ricamato a mano, con un filato
      rosso. Le decorazioni sono due: un cuore-fiorito e un rametto con foglioline




                                                      48
COSTUME FEMMINILE, Maniago (PN), Secolo XIX

Il costume è composto da:

A.   Camicia, lunghezza 88,5 cm.
B.   Sottogonna, lunghezza 78 cm, ampiezza 150 cm.
C.   Abito, corpetto e gonna cuciti assieme, lunghezza totale 97 cm.
D.   Grembiule, lunghezza 89 cm, ampiezza 144 cm, cintura 250 cm.
E.   Fazzoletto da testa di tela bianca di lino, dai margini non rifiniti (mantil), 75 x 192 cm.

A. La camicia (cjamese) è in cotone bianco con bordure di pizzo lungo il girocollo e i polsini,
   lungh. 8cm. Le maniche, lungh. 93 cm, presentano un taglio raglan e sono a sbuffo, sono rifinite
   da una toppa sotto ascellare dalla forma quadrata di 12cm x 12cm. Sul centro davanti c‟è
   un‟apertura di 27cm, chiusa da un bottone. La massima ampiezza della camicia è di 84cm.

B. La sottogonna è in cotone bianco, lungh. 78cm, largh. 150cm, presenta una chiusura sul fianco
   destro, tramite un laccio.

C. L‟abito è composto da corpetto e gonna cuciti assieme.
   Il corpetto (cassin), a fondo blu con disegni bianchi stampati, è allacciato sulle spalle e chiuso
   sul petto con cordelle colorate. Spesso era in stoffa più pregiata rispetto a quella della gonna, in
   questo caso è stato realizzato in lana. La circonferenza vita misura 68 cm, mentre la lunghezza
   del centro davanti è di 15 cm. La gonna (cotola), nera a tinta unita, realizzata in lana e canapa, è
   lunga fino alle caviglie ed è cucita alla parte superiore dell‟abito (cassin). La gonna presenta
   pieghe aperte e una tasca sul fianco destro. L‟ampiezza massima della gonna che nella parte
   inferiore presenta un rinforzo interno alto 9cm ed un‟apertura sul centro davanti di 22cm., è di
   150.5 cm.

D. Il grembiule (grimal) è in bombasina (tela di cotone) leggera con ricami a fiorami. La sua
   lunghezza è di 82cm mentre l‟ampiezza massima è di 144 cm, il cinturino, tagliato sbieco,
   presenta un‟altezza minima di 2 cm e una massima di 7 cm. La cintura è costituita da nastri e
   fettucce, abbastanza lunghi da offrire la possibilità di allacciare il grembiule prima sul dietro e
   poi anteriormente, sul centro davanti, con un fiocco evidente.

E. Il fazzoletto da testa (mantil) è un ampio drappo di tela bianca, semplice o lavorata, di lino o
   bombasina, che le donne portavano sul capo allorché uscivano da casa.
   In questo caso il mantil è di lino e la sua lunghezza, 192 cm, ricopre anche le spalle, inoltre i
   bordi sono stati lasciati sfilacciati e la tessitura è stata eseguita meccanicamente. In molti casi
   questo indumento veniva indossato come segno di lutto.

CALZE E CALZATURE

Le calze (cjalzis) erano di lana grezza, filata a mano, sia d‟inverno sia d‟estate, durante i lavori
agricoli o in montagna; in paese nella buona stagione erano di cotone o di lino, sempre lavorate a
mano, bianche per le solennità e di vario colore per l‟uso quotidiano. Le donne fermavano le calze
sotto il ginocchio con un legaccio fatto a maglia; gli uomini con un cordoncino colorato. Le calze
per gli uomini erano talora ricamate in rosso a punto croce.
Calzatura tipica di tutto il Friuli è lo scarpet: una scarpetta bassa di panno, di velluto o di tela, con
suola di tela fittamente trapuntata con lo spago, senza tacco. Questo tipo di calzatura è ora finita a
punta, piatta o rivoltata in alto, ora più o meno arrotondata con scollatura più o meno pronunciata,
intera e rotonda ovvero fornita anch‟essa di una punta (pic) volta all‟indietro. Si usa spesso,

                                                    49
soprattutto per i bambini, assicurarla meglio al piede per mezzo di un paio di orecchiette laterali
(voreles) che si uniscono con un bottone ovvero con una linguetta (tirele) cucita da un lato e
abbottonata da un lato.

IL COSTUME DELLA ZONA DI MANIAGO

Nel corso del „700 e del primo „800 i vestiti erano confezionati con roba casalinga: con tessuti, in
altre parole, di fabbricazione casalinga o locale e soltanto a metà del secolo scorso comparve la
stoffa stampata, diffusa nei paesi dagli uomini che si recavano a lavorare a Trieste; ma quest‟ultima
era sempre considerata stoffa di lusso e destinata ai capi buoni.
Nel corso del XVIII sec., le donne indossavano una gonna (cotola) molto ampia, leggermente
increspata in vita, di solito in tinta unita, che durante i lavori nei campi era ripiegata e trattenuta in
cintura a formare un sacco. Ciò metteva in evidenza la cotole sot (sottoveste) generalmente di
tessuto rigato.
Il corpetto (cassin), unito o staccato dalla gonna, era all‟inizio scollatissimo, allacciato sulle spalle e
chiuso sul petto con cordelle colorate e in stoffa più pregiata rispetto a quella della gonna.
La camicia, sempre bianca, era tagliata molto ampia, con le maniche larghe e strette con una
fascetta ai polsi; al collo era arricciata e leggermente increspata con cordelline e se era destinata ai
giorni di festa, era chiusa da una fascetta e bordata da un piccolo merletto.
Il grembiule, come indumento quotidiano, rispetto alle altre zone del Friuli comparve in un periodo
relativamente tardo agli inizi del XVIII sec. I più belli erano di leggero tessuto di bombasina
(cotone), impalpabili e velati, arricchiti da eleganti ricami.
Il mantîl, capo assai frequente nei corredi delle giovani, era un‟ampia pezzuola di tela bianca di
cotone o di lino con cui le donne coprivano il capo quando uscivano di casa. Talvolta il mantîl da
corotto…mantîl par un displasè, era indossato come segno di lutto.
Posati sulle spalle erano i fazzoletti di lino o cotone semplici o operati, chiamati drappi o golêta.
La veste femminile era completata da una giacchetta (camisola) corta in vita, in tessuto buono e
profilata ai bordi con belle passamanerie e galloni colorati.
Nel corso dell‟800 la gonna, sempre ampia, scendeva fino alla caviglia e veniva completata dal
corpetto (casso, cassôn o cas grant) sempre senza maniche, attillato a segnare la vita, ma più chiuso
e dalla linea più austera.

(Appunti tratti dal catalogo di Tiziana Ribezzi, introduzione di Novella Cantarutti e Gian Paolo Gri
“LA CASSAPANCA E IL CORREDO IN FRIULI” Udine, 1981, pag. 20, e dal libro di Michele
Gortani “L‟ARTE POPOLARE IN CARNIA” Udine, 1965, pagg. 59-60.)

COSTUME FEMMINILE, Castel d‟Aviano (PN), Secolo XIX

Il costume è composto da:

A. Camicia, lunghezza 63,5cm, lunghezza manica 59cm ca.
B. Veste, composta da corpetto e gonna, lunghezza 119cm
C. Grembiule, lunghezza 71cm, ampiezza 87cm, cintura 41cm ca.
D. Fazzoletto da testa


A. La camicia, (ciamese) di tela bianca di cotone, è arricciata allo scollo quadrato e ornato da un
  merletto. Sul centro davanti c‟è una apertura di 16cm, chiusa con un nastrino.
  I polsini sono arricciati e guarniti di merletto. La manica (manega) ha un taglio lungo 28 cm.



                                                    50
B. La veste è composta dalla gonna (cotola) e dal corpetto (bustino o busì); la gonna è lunga fino
  alle caviglie, stretta in vita da piccole pieghe distanti l‟una dall‟altra 4,5cm e rientranti 1,5cm. Il
  corpetto è in tessuto diagonale marrone, percorso da piccole righe rosse. In essa sono presenti
  due balze alte 8 cm, distanti dalla circonferenza vita rispettivamente 35 cm e 59 cm.
  La chiusura anteriore, avviene tramite sei bottoncini di metallo. La scollatura è ornata da una
   passamaneria color viola, verde e marrone.

C. Il grembiule (grimal) è in tessuto diagonale (batavia) ed è serrato in vita tramite un cinturino
  nero, dove è infilato un fazzoletto bianco ricamato con filo rosso. Il grembiule ha la trama
  multicolore (verde, nero, rosso, giallo e blu), mentre l‟ordito è marrone. Questo uso di colori
  contrastanti caratterizza questo costume come un abbigliamento particolarmente significativo
  dal punto di vista cromatico.

D. Il fazzoletto da testa veniva portato con le estremità rivolte verso l‟alto e la frangia pendente.
   Numerosi i fazzoletti sia da testa che da spalle: usati in ogni occasione completavano il costume.
  Nel „700 erano bianchi ,ricamati e orlati di pizzo.
  Successivamente ,col diffondersi delle tele indiane ,erano in lanetta o cotone a fondo scuro con
  disegni multicolori.

Le calze (gamberelle) in lana, lavorate a mano a motivi vari , erano indossate sopra un paio più
fini; ai piedi e, come in tutta l‟area friulana, erano indossati zoccoli o scarpetti, questi ultimi erano
in panno scuro, in prevalenza nero, con ricami a roselline.

COSTUME FEMMINILE DA LAVORO, Poffabro (PN), XIX Secolo, seconda metà

Il costume è composto da:

   1. Fazzoletto(fazzûl): 83x79cm.
   2. Camicia: lunghezza 79cm, maniche 60 cm.
   3. Veste: lunghezza totale 88 cm, ampiezza 370 cm, spalle 34 cm,composta da:
      - Corpetto(Cassin): lunghezza 37 cm, circonferenza vita 72 cm.
      - Sottana (Cotola).
   4. Grembiule: lunghezza.90 cm, ampiezza 135 cm.

Il fazzoletto è realizzato in tela di cotone, color giallino, ed è decorato da motivi floreali: il campo è
percorso dalla ripetizione parallela verticale di uno stelo sinuoso recante fiori cuoriformi con un
modulo di disegno di 8 x15.3 cm, nelle anse s‟incurvano altri steli con mughetti, il bordo presenta
diversi motivi floreali. Il decoro è stampato nei seguenti colori: verde petrolio, rosso (per la tintura
di sfondo) che viene sovrapposto al verde per creare un‟ulteriore tonalità, un amaranto viene
ulteriormente sovrapposto a questi colori e un bianco crema riempie parti delle decorazioni.

La camicia è di tela (canapa e lino), di colore chiaro, la fittezza del tessuto è di 8 fili di ordito x 9
fili di trama al cm, presenta un collo a fascetta chiuso da un bottoncino: una pallina di filo. Lo
sparato è arricciato e le ampie maniche sono strette al polso. Il modello è arricchito da delle pieghe
ottenute arricciando il tessuto.

Il corpetto è realizzato con tela di canapa color beige (ordito) e nocciola (trama), con una fittezza
pari a 8 x 9fili al cm, l‟allacciatura è formata da tre bottoni (il primo dista dal secondo 16.5cm, il
secondo 6.5cm dal terzo) sul davanti, con chiusura maschile. Arricciando il tessuto sono state



                                                   51
realizzate delle pieghe che spariscono sul davanti. Presenta una fodera in tela di canapa di 7fili al
cm di trama e 9fili al cm di ordito.

La sottana è di tela (canapa per l‟ordito e lana grezza e irregolare per la trama), color caffè, a
sottilissime righe nere orizzontali.
Il cinturino è realizzato con una stoffa di tela azzurro aviatore e bianco che in trama presenta le
seguenti trame di colore diverso: 4 azzurri, 1 bianco, 4 azzurri e 1 bianco; e in ordito una sequenza
molto più elaborata: 2 azzurri, 1 bianco, 1 azzurro, 1 bianco 1 azzurro, 1 bianco, 2 azzurri, 1 bianco,
1 azzurro, 1 bianco, 1 azzurro, 1 bianco, 2 azzurri.
La gonna è ulteriormente ornata da una balza di tela di cotone scozzese (bianco, blu e rosso)
applicato sbieco, con una fittezza pari a 26 fili al cm di ordito e 23 fili di trama. Il bordo inferiore
della gonna è rifinito da un cordoncino ritorto, composto da sette capi.
L‟ampio grembiule allacciato in vita è realizzato in diagonale di cotone nero, stampato con matrici
metalliche. Il decoro consiste in minuti pois bianchi e, in corrispondenza dell‟orlo inferiore, una
cornice a reticoli romboidali. Sul rovescio del bordo inferiore del grembiule è cucita una fascia di
tessuto a righe alta 7 cm che presenta i seguenti colori: azzurro, rosso, bianco, blu e arancio.


COSTUME FEMMINILE, Ciconicco (UD), Secolo XIX , ultimo quarto

Il costume consiste in:

A. Camicia, lunghezza 83 cm.

B. Abito:
            corpetto, lunghezza 36 cm, spalle 30 cm.
            gonna, lunghezza 81 cm.

C. Grembiule, lunghezza 75 cm, ampiezza 100 cm, cintura 45 cm.

D. Fazzoletto da testa, 112 x 112 cm.

E. Fazzoletto da collo.


A. La camicia, di colore bianco, realizzata in tela di cotone, è di fattura casalinga, tagliata molto
ampia sullo scalfo e sul collo, stretta ai polsi e arricciata con delle cordelline.

B. Lo stretto corpetto conteneva le forme e dava grazia alla figura.
La gonna molto ricca, a pieghe di 0.5 cm, permetteva di celare le continue maternità.

C. Il grembiule è di tela marrone con disegni a fiorami policromi lungo il bordo inferiore.

D. Il fazzoletto da testa è in lanetta stampata a sfondo nero con fascia a disegni policromi.

 E. Il fazzoletto da collo, di seta viola, è delimitato da frangia (cm. 15) di seta bianca naturale e
giallo oro incrociata con doppia annodatura. Il disegno, dato dall‟effetto lucido delle trame viola
slegate, è d‟ispirazione marinara: propone, infatti, una teoria di velieri che si rincorrono lungo il
perimetro, mentre il centro è occupato da una serie di piccoli fiori.
Stato di conservazione è discreto a parte una fenditura al centro.


                                                   52
    COSTUME FEMMINILE, San Pietro al Natisone (UD), XIX Secolo

     Gli elementi che compongono il costume sono:

    A) Il fazzoletto da testa (realizzato in cotone bianco).
    L‟indumento si presenta trasparente e bordato mediante alcune strisce di merletto.

    B) La camicia , che viene creata partendo dal corpetto lento.
       Il tessuto impiegato è il cotone e le misure fondamentali sono:

         lunghezza totale 93cm;
         scollo 13cm;
         le maniche presentano la caratteristica forma a ”T”, arricciate ai bordi e rinforzate
            internamente;
         lunghezza polsino pari a 9,5cm
         lunghezza totale manica 51 cm

C)     Il corpetto viene realizzato traendo spunto dal modello base (corpetto lento), suddiviso in due
       parti (anteriore e posteriore).
       Sulla parte anteriore, predomina una scollatura quadrata ed una ricca decorazione realizzata
       mediante l‟intreccio di diversi fili. Il tessuto usato è di seta. La lunghezza totale della parte
       anteriore è di 37 cm.

D)      La giacca possiede la classica linea a “redingote” e l‟interno è foderato con una maggior
       ampiezza. Il tessuto impiegato è panno di lana rossa. Alcune delle caratteristiche di questo
       “capospalla” sono l‟assenza delle riprese e la presenza del cannone nella parte posteriore del
       corpetto. La manica è stata costruita prendendo spunto dalla linea maschile modellata, il risvolto
       è alto circa 8 cm.

E)      la gonna, a pieghe, è realizzata in seta azzurra. I particolari di maggiore importanza sono:

      la tasca che coincide con la ripresa;
      il fianco che viene spostato;
      l‟inserimento di un rinforzo interno. A 58 cm dalla circonferenza vita;
      la profondità di ogni piega è di 1,8 cm circa, la larghezza di 1,3 cm.

F)      Il decoro del grembiule, realizzato in cotone trasparente, evidenzia minuziosi particolari, che
       rievocano un motivo tratto dal mondo vegetale.

G)     La collana è stata creata mediante l‟uso di un cordoncino nero.




    IL COSTUME POPOLARE

    Presso il museo Friulano delle Arti e Tradizioni Popolari di Udine vennero raccolti diversi costumi
    che furono presentati all‟Esposizione Provinciale di Udine nel 1883. Questi modelli illustrano
    diverse caratteristiche etnico-geografiche della provincia. Gli abiti vennero raccolti durante le
    ricerche di Gaetano Perusini e Lea D‟Orlandi.

                                                     53
L‟abbigliamento popolare non è omogeneo, perché “povero”, ma diversificato ed esprime tempi e
momenti della vita stessa.


L‟ABBIGLIAMENTO COME SISTEMA DI SIGNIFICATI

L‟abito non rappresenta semplicemente ciò che s‟indossa nelle sue caratteristiche morfologiche, ma
richiama un aspetto tecnologico (materie prime, lavorazione e trasformazione) che può comunicare
valenze etniche sociali (status sociale e anagrafico), acquistando funzioni simboliche e magiche e
costituendo, infine, anche un bene economico (in quanto parte integrante della dote). Il costume
popolare si definisce attraverso una gerarchia di funzioni, ed è il risultato del rapporto tra uomo e
ambiente. A differenza del fenomeno moda, il costume rappresenta la tendenza alla conservazione
delle proprie linee distintive, riferendosi al passato. Come elemento tradizionale è soggetto a
trasformazioni lente e costanti: il costume si evolve, si modifica nel tempo e nello spazio. La
trasformazione del costume è influenzata anche dall‟innovazione delle tecnologie produttive. Un
esempio concreto è dato dalla rivoluzione del cotone e dal diffondersi della produzione delle stoffe
stampate che influenzano forme e colori dei manufatti, favorita dallo sviluppo delle comunicazioni
e da un progressivo benessere economico.

IL MERLETTO

Il merletto è sempre stato presente, con discrezione, nel costume popolare friulano. Entrato nel
sistema attraverso la biancheria di casa, già alla fine del 1500, ha iniziato ad ornare, sempre con
parsimonia, associato al ricamo, i capi di biancheria personale di maggior pregio. La nuova
rivoluzione si sviluppa grazie all‟introduzione degli stampati e delle cotonine. Nell‟ultimo periodo
del 1600, negli inventari sono menzionate alcune merlature collocate su vesti e camisole, si tratta
però di casi rari. Il merletto di per se non costituisce un elemento caratteristico dell‟abbigliamento
della tradizione popolare, non influenzando, in maniera particolare, la moda delle donne di quel
periodo.

IL COSTUME DI SAN PIETRO AL NATISONE

Nei documenti del XVIII secolo il vestito femminile è menzionato con il nome di veste (abito),
costituita dalla gonna in mezza lana e dal corpetto senza maniche. Le stoffe erano di fattura
casalinga, pesanti e ruvide al tatto e soltanto verso la fine del secolo fecero la loro comparsa le tele
stampate a colori. Il costume dell‟epoca era caratterizzato dalla gonna con corpetto molto aperto sul
davanti ed allacciato mediante cordelline. I fazzoletti in tela di lino, sia da testa che da collo, erano
bianchi. Questi ultimi avevano le estremità ripiegate verso il bustino. Il corpetto (cas) era molto
scollato, aperto sul davanti ed allacciato mediante una serie di nastri, esso lasciava intravedere le
sgargianti ed eleganti pettorine (petoral) indossate tra camicia e corpetto. Verso la fine del secolo il
cas, assume la forma che tutt‟oggi è tipica dell‟area friulana. Veniva profilato con stoffa, in tinta
unita, di bavella, alto fin sotto il collo e cucito alla gonna. Sopra al corpetto veniva indossata una
giacchetta corta fino in vita, aperta sul davanti e con lunghe maniche. Il fazzoletto da testa più
importante ed elegante, usato fino a fine Ottocento per andare in chiesa, era la piece (bianca) con
ricami a punto croce o merletto ai bordi, indossato senza essere annodato.
Su qualunque abito da lavoro o da festa veniva indossato il grembiule: la canovace, realizzata in
canapa bianca, ampia a coprire tutta la gonna. Per le grandi occasioni il grembiule era, invece, in
seta ed allacciato con nastri.
La sottoveste (cotule sot) e la camicia erano rigorosamente bianche.
                                                   54
Quest‟ultima, in cotone o in lino, quando veniva usata per le festività era arricchita da un merletto a
giro collo e polsini alle maniche, mentre quella indossata nei giorni lavorativi era di fattura molto
più semplice.
La gonna scendeva fino a coprire la caviglia, lasciando intravedere le calze di cotone o di lana
bianca, che venivano decorate con ricchi motivi ornamentali.
Le calzature, usate nelle occasioni festive, prendevano il nome di ciupei erano delle scarpette basse,
con suola di legno, tacco alto circa due centimetri, tomaia di pelle ed al centro avevano una fibbia in
metallo, generalmente di forma ovale.




                                       RINGRAZIAMENTI

          Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione per l‟Innovazione e la Ricerca Educativa
                  I.N.D.I.R.E. - AGENZIA NAZIONALE SOCRATES - Firenze

                                         Giuseppe Bergamini
                            Direttore, Civici Musei del Comune di Udine

                                          Tiziana Ribezzi
                          Conservatore, Civici Musei del Comune di Udine

                      Maddalena Mesaglio, Omet Luciano, Giovanni Morelli,
                                          Sergio Di Bez
                           Docenti, Istituto Statale d‟Arte “G. Sello”

                                  Luisa Delponte, Gianni Rainone
                         Assistenti Tecnici, Istituto Statale d‟Arte “G.Sello”




                                                  55
                               DANZE POPOLARI FRIULANE


                                COSTUMI PER I DANZERINI


                 SCULTURE ISPIRATE A TIPICI PASSI DI DANZA




DANZE POPOLARI FRIULANE


L‟evoluzione della danza popolare friulana ha avuto luci e ombre nel tempo. Poco si conosce delle
danze rituali arcaiche, romaniche e barbariche. Al contrario la diffusione della Carola Medievale
anche nella nostra regione è più credibile. A partire dal 1400 abbiamo avuto notizie riguardo danze
pubbliche specialmente organizzate in occasione di feste religiose o del passaggio di re o imperatori
in Friuli, sia a Udine sia a Venezia, dove esisteva un Campo della Furlana. La tradizione locale si
rivelava in particolare durante la festa di Sant‟Ermacora.
Si pensa che nel 1800 la danza popolare subì l‟influenza della danza francese. Nel 1914 l‟interesse
della stampa per la Furlana esplose accrescendo l‟entusiasmo dei lettori, rendendola conosciuta
nelle grandi città europee e anche a New York.
Dopo la seconda guerra mondiale la formazione di gruppi folclorici ci permise, anche in una cultura
di regime, di preservare la musica e i movimenti della nostra tradizione popolare che si stavano
estinguendo, ed è grazie a loro se sono arrivati fino ai nostri giorni.


CARATTERISTICHE
La danza popolare friulana può essere considerata appartenente all‟area nord orientale del nostro
continente. La musica mostra una particolare vocalità, caratterizzata da un forte ritmo.
L‟accompagnamento corale ha contenuto amoroso con cantilene arcaiche.
Generalmente la base delle danze è di tipo collettivo, con coppie aperte e l‟espressione corale si
sviluppa principalmente su un sistema circolare. Le figure sono genuine nella loro espressione
simbolica. I balli di società si riferiscono specialmente ai momenti più significativi della vita
comunitaria, (matrimoni, feste, il Carnevale), ma sono anche influenzati dal manierismo delle danze
nobili. Gli attuali strumenti sono la fisarmonica, il clarinetto e il contrabbasso sebbene in passato
fossero usati anche il piffero, il tamburo e il violino.

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L‟ESPRESSIONE COREUTICA
Il corpo umano esprime i suoi sentimenti con il movimento; le trasformazioni dovute al tempo e
all‟influenza delle popolazioni confinanti non permettono l‟identificazione delle figure primitive
della danza friulana. La danza come appare oggi, si sviluppa in conformità con uno schema di
corteggiamento amoroso con passi e movimenti, spesso molto enfatizzati, caratteristici
dell‟espressione gestuale tipica degli innamorati.
Possiamo riconoscere il seguente sviluppo coreografico, in cui sono visibili cinque momenti:


1) Approccio alla danza
2) Disposizione dei ballerini
3) Gestualità amorosa, corteggiamento
4) Abbraccio, rotazione
5) Conclusione


MOVIMENTI E FIGURE
I più caratteristici sono: la rotazione della coppia battendo i piedi e schioccando le dita, la rotazione
sotto l‟arco delle braccia sollevate, la rotazione dell‟uomo attorno alla ragazza inginocchiata, il
walzer, la piroetta.
Altre danze del 1500, la cui coreografia è sconosciuta, ci fa immaginare influenze magiche:
“Scjarazule Marazule” ad esempio è un mimo in cui si invoca la pioggia, “l‟Amboscello” è una
danza che richiama la magia e i simboli sacri della vita tipici del culto celtico e longobardo.
Durante le lezioni di Educazione Fisica stiamo sviluppando un'attività molto speciale e divertente,
grazie anche alla presenza di Donatella Santi (insegnante esterna, esperta di ballo popolare),
abbiamo imparato tre danze tipiche della tradizione friulana:


       La "Lavandera": questa tipica danza popolare viene dall'area di Aviano, è una danza di
        corteggiamento del 1700.


       La "Stajera", un ballo popolare che proviene dall'area di Gorizia, databile al 1800 è un'altra
        tipica danza di corteggiamento dove la coppia centrale è supportata dagli altri ballerini.


       La "Scjarazule marazule", la danza più antica da noi studiata, risale al 1500; è la pantomima
        di un rito magico usata per invocare la pioggia nella notte di Pentecoste.


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Questo progetto sulla danza popolare ci ha così coinvolti perché queste danze sono molto spiritose e
divertenti da fare in gruppo, ma anche perché in questo modo siamo entrati in contatto con le nostre
tradizioni e questo è sicuramente un aspetto molto importante.


I COSTUMI PER I DANZERINI


Le allieve del corso di Moda e Costume hanno sviluppato una ricerca sul costume storico friulano.
Ogni studentessa ha raccolto materiale fotografico riguardante un costume tradizionale di una
diversa area della regione Friuli Venezia Giulia. Gli abbigliamenti sono stati studiati dal punto di
vista tecnico, in particolare sono stati presi in considerazione: materiali, colori, elementi decorativi e
tecniche sartoriali di costruzione degli indumenti.
Riferendosi alla ricerca storica svolta, ogni allieva ha progettato un costume per la danza folk. Gli
abbigliamenti proposti si adattano al gusto e all‟estetica attuali, mantenendo però gli elementi che
caratterizzano e rendono riconoscibile il costume friulano scelto come fonte d‟ispirazione.
Per ognuno dei modelli progettati è stata elaborata una descrizione tecnica dove, di ogni capo che
compone il costume, sono indicati colori, materiali, decori e possibili tecniche di realizzazione
sartoriale.


Oltre che in Progettazione, l‟indagine sul costume popolare si è sviluppata anche nell‟ambito dei
Laboratori: Tessitura, Stampa e Decorazione del Tessuto e Taglio e Confezione.


Alcuni campioni, ispirati alle stoffe presenti nei costumi tradizionali studiati, sono stati tessuti
utilizzando i telai manuali a licci del Laboratorio di Tessitura.


La ricerca continua nel Laboratorio di Stampa e Decorazione, dove tipici motivi decorativi tratti dal
repertorio dei disegni dei grembiuli e fazzoletti da testa, rielaborati in chiave moderna, saranno
riprodotti su stoffa attraverso la tecnica della Stampa Serigrafia.


Nel Laboratorio di Taglio e Confezione saranno eseguite le “planimetrie” dei costumi progettati e
qualche verifica tecnico-pratica dell‟intero capo.




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SCULTURE ISPIRATE A TIPICI PASSI DI DANZA


I temi riguardanti la danza ed il costume friulani sono stati portati avanti anche durante le ore di
Rilievo Plastico.

Per prima cosa ognuno di noi ha scelto un preciso passo di danza, quello che più ci piaceva;
abbiamo poi stilizzato le figure, e alla fine, quando noi tutti avevamo progettato il nostro
personaggio, siamo passati alla schematizzazione del costume e alle prove colori.

Dopo aver finito la parte progettuale, siamo passati alla realizzazione della scultura in argilla.

Prima abbiamo costruito una struttura in ferro, utile a sostenere l'argilla, dopo di che abbiamo
cominciato a fare la nostra scultura che man mano prendeva forma.




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