Basic Skills for the TOEFL® iBT
Reading - 2
WORD PARTS DEFINITION SAMPLE SENTENCE SYNONYM ANTONYM
a person who writes books, stories, etc. as a H.G. Wells is the writer who wrote the science fiction
writer n author reader
profession book, The Time Machine.
a person who acts and performs in plays, Many people's favorite actor is Angelina Jolie, but I
actor n performer audience
movies, on TV, etc. don't like her films!
play n a story written to be performed and acted I saw a play last week that had my favorite actor in it. theater piece
to depend on someone or something for Many people invest money that they plan to live off
live off v
money when they retire.
Great Britain and France are divided by a body of
divide v to separate into parts or groups separate join
water called the English Channel.
to finish; to have all parts with nothing Michael Johnson completed a 200-meter race in only
complete v accomplish incomplete
missing 19.32 seconds!
a written document containing information or
record n Banks keep records of all their customers. archive
an amount of time during which one main In the final period of his life, Van Gogh painted around
period n duration
thing happens 900 paintings.
the time that followed the end of somebody's Most people in North America begin their retirement
retirement n end start
working life when they turn sixty-five.
Almost seventy percent of the Earth is covered by
cover v to be all over the surface of something conceal expose
researcher n a person who searches for information Researchers are working hard to find a cure for cancer. analyst
a design that has been cut from a solid material One of the oldest stone carvings in the world is of a
carving n sculpting
such as wood or stone woman, and it may be 800,000 years old.
If you need to see a priest, you can find one in a
priest n a spiritual leader in some Christian churches churchman
a group of countries ruled by one The British empire was very big and contained many
empire n kingdom
Marco Polo explored many areas and wrote about his
explore v to investigate unknown places investigate neglect
travels to China.
believing in a set of beliefs based on a god
religious adj Many religious people often go to a place of worship. divine atheistic
or group of gods
The Windsors are the royal family of the United
royal adj being related to a king or queen aristocratic common
a social rank usually depending on family, Communists believe that they should not be divided
class n hierarchy
wealth, or education by class.
Albert Einstein was very influential in the development
influential adj having or exercising importance or influence powerful insignificant
of the atomic bomb.
Evolution has ensured that most animals are suited to
suit v to match well; to be appropriate for adapt ill-suited
These days, companies like to hire people that have
hire v to give a job to someone commission dismiss
many different skills.
conforming to what people consider right; Right and wrong are often defined differently by
moral adj ethical immoral
just in behavior individuals who each have a unique moral code.
one who designs and supervises the I.M. Pei is the architect that created the Pyramids of
architect n designer
construction of buildings the Louvre in 1989.
Many people protested the construction of the Eiffel
construction n the art, trade, or work of building building demolition
Tower in 1887.
Michelangelo designed the uniforms worn by the
design v to create or to think of sketch
Swiss guards at the Vatican.
to describe the meaning, nature, or basic The age we live in is defined by a deep sense of
define v describe confound
qualities of something uncertainty.
The Dalai Lama believes that all religious traditions
a body of distinctive practices that is passed on
tradition n carry the same message of love, compassion, and custom
from generation to generation
Raising the Titanic to the surface has proved to be
impractical adj unwise to use or maintain unrealistic practical
impractical because of the great expense involved.
Most hotels in North America and Europe that are
the set of rooms on the same level of a over thirteen stories high still don’t have a thirteenth
story n floor
building floor because the number thirteen is considered
part of a radio, television, and radar systems There was no TV reception because the antenna had
antenna n that directs incoming and outgoing radio been damaged in the storm. sensor
a top part or point that tapers to a point at The spire of the Salisbury Cathedral is the tallest in the
spire n summit abyss
the top United Kingdom.
The Mayan civilization is the only American culture
an advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and prior of the arrival of Christopher Columbus that had a
civilization n fully developed language, as well as spectacular art culture barbarism
material development in human society
and architecture and sophisticated mathematics and
Some people ignore all moral constraints in the
constraint n something that restricts, limits, or regulates coercion free will
pursuit of success.
Today, there is still great debate over who really killed
debate n argument discussion agreement
John F. Kennedy.
element n a basic, essential part of something larger The common element of racism is ignorance. feature compound
a method used in dealing with something/doing Great dancers aren't great because of their technique;
technique n method
something they are great because of their passion.
the act of expanding, enlarging, or improving The development of the oil industry in the Middle East
development n growth deterioration
the quality of something was started by Great Britain.
Most seeds will germinate if they are given water and
germinate v to cause to sprout or grow develop die
plenty of sunshine.
a source of nourishment, especially a
nutrient n Nutrients, like vitamins, are essential for good health. nourishment
nourishing ingredient in a food
to transfer pollen onto the sexual organs of a Bats are important because they pollinate some
pollinate v fertilize
flower, allowing the production of a seed tropical flowers in the rainforest.
Dr. William Hillebrand, a botany expert, was the first to
botany n the science or study of plants horticulture zoology
record and study Hawaii's plant life.
Police typically carry out an investigation in order to
investigation n a detailed inquiry or systematic examination inspection
find out who committed a crime.
A special skin on the F-117 stealth fighter absorbs
absorb v to soak up; to take in osmose reflect
radar waves, making it invisible to radar.
In 1910, Andrew Carnegie established the Endowment
establish v to bring about; to generate for International Peace in an effort to prevent future build disestablish
During the World War II, the Allies distributed
distribute v to supply, deliver, or pass out circulate contain
pamphlets to the Germans to damage their morale.
A doctor can determine the cause of death by
corpse n a dead body carcass living person
examining the corpse.
an often-humorous invented name for "Philly" is a nickname for the city of Philadelphia in the
nickname n alias
someone or something United States.
The deforestation of the tropics is causing loss of habitat
deforestation n the act of removing trees from a forest logging
for many plants and animals.
Indoor botanical gardens are interested in the
cultivation n the act of growing or tending a plant or crop development
cultivation of plants from all over the world.
easily perceived by the senses of intellect; Cockney is a distinct dialect of English spoken in East
distinct adj enunciated ambiguous
The Nazi movement in Germany emerged after the
emerge v to come into existence appear submerge
The mountainous regions of Canada are known for
region n a portion of the Earth's surface area
their ski resorts.
In the sixteenth century, Spain obtained most of its
obtain v to get; to acquire acquire relinquish
gold from the New World.
the work of keeping something in proper Hardware maintenance requires the testing and
maintenance n upkeep
condition cleaning of equipment.
Hourglasses are timing devices that consist of grains
grain n a tiny single piece crumb mound
of sand falling from one glass chamber to another.
The proton is the particle of the atom that carries a negative
positive charge n one of the two electronic properties of matter
positive charge. charge
The electron is the particle of the atom that carries a positive
negative charge n one of the two electronic properties of matter
negative charge. charge
The Manhattan Project was the code name of the
atomic adj having to do with atoms nuclear conventional
project that developed the atomic bomb.
There are approximately three hundred million people
approximately adv about; close to, but exactly nearly exactly
living in America.
The discovery of the atom ultimately led to the
atom n the smallest part of an element particle compound
development of nuclear weapons.
Democracy is the foundation of the American
foundation n the basis of something basis consequence
The owner's guide always specifies how you should
specify v to state something in detail or explicitly stipulate generalize
care for your computer.
Many Asian countries have very dense populations
dense adj packed together tightly crammed sparse
because there are so many people and so little space.
Today's modern laboratories are far more advanced
laboratory n a place to do scientific research testing room
than anything Isaac Newton could have imagined.
dissolve v to disappear or absorb into water If you dissolve salt into water, the water will boil faster. melt coagulate
Citric acid is a weak acid that occurs naturally in
weak adj not strong; lacking power fragile strong
lemons and other citrus fruits.
People often like to blow bubbles with their chewing
bubble n a thin ball of air balloon
Einstein will forever be associated with his famous
associate v to connect with someone or something else affiliate disassociate
Children can make invisible ink by mixing baking soda
invisible adj unable to be seen unseeable visible
The director's goal is to get a positive reaction from
reaction n a response to something happening response
the audience to his or her movie.
occur v to happen; to take place Solar eclipses only occur every eighteen months or so. happen
Some chemicals can react violently when mixed, so
react v to change chemically respond
you must be careful and always listen to your teacher.
An event, such as the World Cup or the Olympics, can
boost v to help or increase increase decrease
be a big boost to the local economy.
Though summer is the off-season for ski resorts, many
off-season n a time of year during which sales are down people still like to visit and spend times in the peak season
during prep over a period of time The student was punished for talking during class. concurrently
It doesn't make sense to leave the windows open if
make sense v to be reasonable cohere not conform
the air conditioner is on.
occurring during certain seasons or times of He is a fisherman. That's seasonal work, so he does odd
seasonal adj cyclical continuous
year jobs to get by in the winter months.
She had enough money to pay tuition, but not enough
expense n a cost costs
to cover her living expenses.
The are hopes to attract new businesses that will
employ v to pay workers to do a particular job hire dismiss
employ local residents.
typical adj representative; normal; average The building is typical of the Victorian era. usual unusual
The cafeteria staff is going on strike. They are
staff n a group of workers employee employer
demanding better pay and benefits.
When you make a promise to someone, you should try
stick v to adhere; to follow strictly adhere
to stick to it.
It takes more than luck to win at poker. You also need
lucky adj fortunate good fortune misfortune
Even early on in his career, basketball coaches could
early on adv in the beginning; in the first part of an event beginning end
tell that Michael Jordan would be a great player.
products; tangible items that are bought and When you return to your home country, you
goods n sometimes have to pay a tax on goods that you have products
purchased while you were on vacation.
Now, university in America is so expensive that many
finances n monetary resources money
students do not have the finances to go.
He needs to learn to live within a budget and stop
budget n a plan for managing money allowance
spending so recklessly.
a firm that sells a similar product or service, She had to cut her prices when a competitor began
competitor n rival partner
who competes for market share offering the same services for half the price.
The boy tried to persuade his parents to buy him a
persuade v to convince car, but they told him to get a job and save up for convince dissuade
You can choose to write a research paper or,
alternatively adv or; as another choice alternatively, you can do volunteer work and give a instead
class presentation about your experience.
a type of matter than is uniform and is not from
mineral n Gold is one of the most valuable mineral.
a plant or animal
NASA scientists were eager to study the composition
composition n what something is made of constitution
of the rocks brought back from the moon.
texture n the feel of a surface or fabric Silk is a soft material with a very smooth texture. feel
Badland's National Park in South Dakota consists of
landform n a feature of the Earth's surface such landforms as sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles,
and spires blended with the largest protected mixed
grass prairie in the United States.
the study of the Earth and its structures and I'm going on a field trip with my geology class. We're
processes studying landforms.
I don't like psychology. I'm more interested in the
physical adj dealing with material things
The artist discussed every aspect of her work from
aspect n a feature, element, or characteristic feature
subject to color.
A student must maintain a consistent level of
consistent adj the same throughout inconsistent
acceptable work to be successful.
It is a good idea to make sure you know how to
identify v to recognize as being a certain thing
identify poison ivy so you can avoid it.
You have to put the ice cream in the freezer before it
melt v to change from a solid to a liquid state dissolve coagulate
The aircraft had to climb upwards to avoid hitting the
upward adv toward a higher level downward
edge n the line along which two surfaces meet The student's pencil rolled off the edge of the table. border
the ejection of magma and gases onto the The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in the Unites
eruption n outburst
Earth's surface States killed 57 people.
a large landmass such, as Africa or North
continent n I have visited every continent except Antarctica. landmass
One consequence of eating too much is that you will
consequence n a result result
You should let an expert take your computer apart to
apart adv separated; away from each other to pieces together
You can see that this mountain range is very old
range n a series
because the hills are small and round.
She has been training for months and now she can
considerable adj significant or large in amount or degree large inconsiderable
run a considerable distance.
poet n a writer of verse Robert Frost is a famous American poet. balladist
The 'DC' in Washington DC stands for district of
district n a territory; an area of land area
In Flanders Field' is a famous poem about World War
poem n a piece of writing written in verse ballad prose
an event or action that introduces or occurs An undersea earthquake is often the prelude to a tidal
prelude n beginning conclusion
before something more important wave.
celebrate v to honor and praise, often with a party Christmas is celebrated in many different countries. commemorate disregard
After World War II, there was a big shift in world
shift n a change in thinking or feeling; a move switch
Albert Einstein had a different approach to studying
approach n a way of doing something; to move toward procedure
philosophy n a way of thinking; a belief system Confucianism is a famous Asian philosophy. ideology
The teacher stated that the homework would be due
state v to speak; to say declare be quiet
novel n a book that tells a story Moby Dick' is often called the great American novel. narrative instructions
Talking on your phone in the movie theater is rude
rude adj ill-mannered; not polite disrespectful polite
The directions that come with the machine explains
explain v to give reason for something clarify complicate
how to use it.
liar n a person who is not truthful A person who doesn't tell the truth is a liar. cheat
an opinion of yourself that you are better than
pride n Too much pride can be a negative character trait. ego shame
In some places in the world, prejudice based on race is
prejudice n an opinion without knowing bias
still a problem.
Student's should realize the importance of doing their
realize v to understand conceive
Napoleon wrongly assumed that his army was stronger
assume v to think something without knowing presume
Escape artist Harry Houdini often demonstrated his
demonstrate v to show show conceal
ability with daring escapes.
The rainforests of the Amazon River basin contain
rainforest n a forest or jungle found in a tropical region jungle desert
thousands of species of plants and animals.
something that removes particles from the You have to clean the water filter in your aquarium or
filter n distiller
substance passing through it your fish will die.
The whale shark is not a "whale" as such; it is actually
as such what is indicated; applicable to the situation
You must cover up on sunny days because UV rays can
harm v to damage or injure injure benefit
harm your skin.
species n a specific type of living thing The team discovered a new species of birds. breed
Wetlands are the natural habitat of many different unnatural
habitat n the area in which a plant or animal lives dwelling
types of birds. surroundings
extinct adj no longer in existence The dodo bird became extinct in 1681. abolished thriving
program n a planned set of actions The new recycling program has been very successful. plan
The U.N. is doing what it can to ease poverty in the third
poverty n the condition of being poor poorness wealth
In order to lose weight, you should cut back on the
cut back v to reduce something reduce waste
number of calories you consume each day.
One of the most limiting factors to putting a vehicle in
limit v to set a standard that cannot be exceeded restrict allow
space is weight.
The threat of global warming has many people
threat n a danger to safety or security danger
considering alternative energy resources.
Airport workers try to keep birds away from the
endanger v to put in danger runways because they can endanger planes trying to jeopardize assist
land or take off.
I'm looking for a car that doesn't consume so much
consume v to use up use accumulate
The governor is planning an aggressive campaign for
campaign n a set of activities aimed at reaching a goal operation
Some students receive scholarships in order to fund
fund v to provide money for something finance
rely v to depend on Plants rely on the Sun for energy. depend
conserve v to save for future use; to use wisely It is important that we conserve water for the future. save waste
My professor is so boring. I find it hard to stay awake
awake adj not asleep conscious asleep
Meditation is a good way to relieve stress and improve
well-being n a state of overall health and happiness health
you overall well-being.
disturbed Our study session was disturbed by all the noise on
v upset; interfered with bother settle
(disturb) the streets.
the bodily processes that protect the body from AIDS is a condition that affects the immune system,
immune system n
illness and help it recover making it difficult to fight illness.
You should make sure you have adequate lighting when
adequate adj enough; sufficient sufficient inadequate
studying so you don't strain your eyes.
A bowl of granola fruit and yogurt constitutes a
constitute v to establish; to make up comprise
An effective exercise program should vary the activities
vary v to change change remain
you do every day.
You should study in a quiet place so that you can pay no
concentrate v to focus contemplate
the act of different elements working Drinking and driving is illegal because alcohol impairs uncoordinatio
coordination n together smoothly; the ability of body parts judgment and coordination. grace
to work together well
fast food n processed food prepared quickly You should try to avoid eating fast food. junk food healthy food
a unit of measurement of the energy derived I am trying to lose some weight, so I am limiting the
calorie n kilojoules'
from food number of calories that I take in.
admiration or approval of someone or The popularity of the iPod means that they are hard to
popularity n recognition
something by people in general find because they sell out so quickly.
Being overweight is unhealthy because it places a
overweight n heavier than the ideal weight heavier underweight
strain on your heart.
Failing to attend will have a negative impact on your
negative adj bad; unfavorable unfavorably positive
to have or include as an important Lab work is an essential feature of this class. It is worth
feature n characteristic
characteristic fifteen percent of your grade.
Your research will involve an analysis of the literature,
involve v to include or contain include exclude
an experiment, and a summary of your findings.
The survey will assess consumer attitudes toward
attitude n the way a person feels about a certain thing outlook
corporate ethics with regards to the environment.
I can't go camping with you this weekend. My boss is
insist v to demand demand request
insisting that I work on Saturday.
We need to get film for the camera. I want to get lots
film n a special material used to store images
We need to load the fridge with beverages for the
load v to place into cram unload
Don't wind it yet! There are still ten more photos on
wind v to return film to its plastic container roll unwind
I have to pick up my photos from my vacation. I had
develop v to process; to make into a photograph materialize store
them developed at the camera store.
Prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall, East Germany existed
prior adj before earlier subsequent
as a separate country.
The introduction of digital cameras has hurt the
digital adj representing data or information as numbers analog
companies that produce film.
I couldn't purchase a newspaper this morning because
purchase v to buy buy refund
I had no money.
Scientists say the new vaccine is a breakthrough in the
breakthrough n an important development development recession
fight against disease.
The new product was unsuccessful because consumers
consumer n a person who buys things; a customer buyer producer
were unhappy with the change.
I got a new portable DVD player. Now I can watch
portable adj easy to carry transportable
whatever I want on the plane.
My computer can't handle this program. I'm going to
memory n the capacity to store data storage
need some more memory.
If there is a problem with the hard drive, you should
hard drive n an internal storage disk
get a professional to open up the computer.
My favorite band is putting out a new album next week! I
album n a recording containing a collection of songs record movie
can't wait to hear it.
My primary role is as an educator. My research comes
primary adj main; most significant main secondary
second to teaching.E212
My old printer was quite bulky but my new one is
bulky adj inconveniently large huge tiny
The Vatican has one of the most valuable art collection
collection n a group of things or people gathering scattering
in the world.
I'm hoping to acquire some Aboriginal artwork for my
acquire v to get; to obtain receive forfeit
a system that incorporates sound, images, Teachers are increasingly utilizing multimedia devices to
multimedia n intermedia
video and text appeal to different learning styles.
Some countries, such as Saudi Arabia, are still ruled by
rule v to govern; to control administer follow
They were ruled by a ruthless dictator for many years
dictator n a ruler with unlimited power oppressor
before they revolted.
to do something as an established custom or The protester wished to practice his right to free
practice v routine
My grandfather lived in the US for many years before
citizen n a recognized member of a political society native immigrant
becoming a citizen.
a system of government in which the people The founding fathers of the United States created the commonwealt
democracy n autocrat
effectively hold the power first modern democracy. h
The disease originated in birds, but it can be spread to
originate v to begin; to start begin end
the humans who handle them.
We are governed by elected officials, not a king or
govern v to rule over; to control command
A good teacher must establish authority without
authority n the right to command or make decisions control servitude
appearing as the enemy.
a gathering; the coming together of people The principal announced that the assembly would
assembly n congregation dispersal
for a peaceful purpose begin at three o'clock.
The US President is in charge of the executive branch
executive adj the decision-making section of government administrative menial
a body of government officials who advise The president made the decision based on the advice
cabinet n counselors
the President of his cabinet.
The Supreme Court overruled the original ruling,
Supreme Court n the highest court in the US high court district court
declaring it unconstitutional.
The Supreme Court belongs to the judicial branch of
judicial adj relating to court judgments' legal
The rights of the individual must be protected from
individual n one person person collective
The function of the lab assistant is to help you with
function n a purpose; what something is used for purpose
The president vetoed the legislation, forcing the law
legislation n a law; the process of making laws laws
makers to compromise in order to pass the bill.
Congress n the US government body that makes laws Elections for the US congress are held every two years. committee
Some of the larger banks have branches all over the
branch n a division of a larger organization department company
The cell phone is a very convenient form of
communication n the ways people tell each other information exchange secret
revelation of one's thoughts or feelings
expression n A smile is an expression of joy or friendliness. countenance
body posture and facial expressions that can A good detective can tell if you are lying by observing nonverbal verbal
body language n communicatio communicatio
be used to express feelings or emotions your body language.
frown n an angry or worried look People who frown too much will get wrinkles. scowl smile
verbal adj relating to spoken words The law does not always recognize verbal agreements. spoken nonverbal
relating to unspoken communication; not
nonverbal adj Frowning is an example of nonverbal communication. gestures verbal
Instead of speaking, most deaf people use hand body
gesture n an action, usually with arms and/or hands speech
being sure of yourself and your
confident adj Hitler was confident that he will win the war. certain insecure
Scientists would like to make contact with intelligent communicatio
contact n interaction; connection
space life. n
to say or speak with difficulty, by stopping and Children who stutter can often be helped by a speech
stutter v stammer
starting several times therapist.
impediment n an impairment or obstacle Smoking is an impediment to good health. obstruction benefit
If you have a hard time with your car, you should visit
hard time n difficulty adversity fortune
People who suffer from stomach problems should
avoid v to try not to do or be near abstain confront
avoid acidic foods.
Writer Oscar Wilde enjoyed being perceived as a great
perceive v to get an idea by using one's senses recognize ignore
During one's teenage years, it is common to feel
awkward adj clumsy; without style or grace uncoordinated graceful
awkward and shy.
Humans need enough sleep to concentrate on their
concentration n the condition of having a focused mind contemplate
Many schools have public speaking contests for
public speaking n speaking before a large group of people speechmaking
John F. Kennedy made a famous speech at the Berlin
speech n a public address address gossip
Wall in the 1960s.