• Get your new notes and prepare to learn about Ole’ Hickory in the early 1800’s • Acute Angle is the TOTD for today . It is 11/24 an angle that measures between 0 and 90 degrees • New inspectors are on the whiteboard • All those entering their papers in the contest must send it to me on-line so I can enter it. Only papers sent to my email will be submitted. My email is firstname.lastname@example.org • I also need some personal info so see me today. I have Lauren and Eddie entering so far. • TOTD is Angle Bisector -a ray that divides an angle 11/25 into 2 congruent angles • Tell me all you know about Andrew Jackson in a short paragraph, label it quick write # 4, and place it in your reading folder. Then…. on to the notes. • Lauren, Dylan, and Eddie’s papers submitted to the contest. Room for more. • Have a safe , delicious and happy Thanksgiving. At my table, I’ll tell everyone that I am thankful for you! 11/25 -5th Period • Get out your work from yesterday and finish. Then complete graphic organizer on Jackson that I will pass out. The Text and your work from yesterday have the answers to the Graphic organizer (GO). You will hand all three assignments in as your notes after you take the test, next week. • The GO sums up Jackson and will be your class notes for the test on Jacksonian Democracy. • Have a safe , delicious and happy Thanksgiving. At my table, I’ll tell everyone that I am thankful for you, even the chit chatty ones! • TOTD is Angle Bisector -a ray that divides an angle into 2 congruent angles. Dec 1 • Bell ringer is to answer these 2 questions: What did Andrew Jackson do with the money in the Federal bank? Why did he do it? What are pet banks? • TOTD is Circumference or the Distance around a circle • Redneck Word of the day is Barium- what doctors do to their patients after they die Dec 2, 2008 • US History Bell ringer- Write a short paragraph about what you would like to reform in America or the School, your choice. • World Studies: Market Day is Wed. Bring all costumes, supplies, posters and booklet and be in character. • TOTD is diameter or the distance across a circle, through its center • My word of the day is prolix as in Tippecanoe was prolix (too long) at his inauguration which resulted in his untimely death. Democratic Strength 1825-1845 SSUHS7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it. e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding the suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism Essential Questions: • How did the concept of democracy change in America during the early days of the union? • What is Jacksonian Democracy? • How do voting rights expand? • How did the present emphasis on political populism begin? • How does the issue of states’ rights, slavery, and tariffs begin to tear the country apart? • What is Andrew Jackson’s presidency noted for? Vocabulary • Jacksonian, Trail of Tears, Cherokee, Seminole, Corrupt, spoils system, kitchen cabinet, popular sovereignty, Democrat party, Tariff of Abominations, Ordinance of Nullification Democratic Party • Republican Party begins to find disfavor w/ Americans. • 1824- Democratic Party begins to emerge. – Current one today. Election of 1824 • Many “favorite son” candidates run as Republicans. – Placed on the ballot as an honor to a state or region. • John Quincy Adams – Massachusetts – Northeast • William H. Crawford – Georgia – South • Andrew Jackson – Tennessee – West • Henry Clay – Kentucky – West – Only candidate w/ a plan. Results • 131 electoral votes needed to win. – Jackson- 99 – JQ Adams- 84 – Crawford- 41 – Clay- 37 • No candidate had the required # to win. “… and the winner is” • 12th Amendment – House of Representatives chooses from the top 3 candidates. • Henry Clay encourages House to vote for JQ Adams. • John Quincy Adams WINS !! – Henry Clay appointed Secretary of State. • A bitter Andrew Jackson calls it a “corrupt bargain.” Political Parties • National Republican Party – JQ Adams • Democratic-Republican Party – Andrew Jackson • Whig Party – Henry Clay – Emerges in 1834 – Rivals to the Democrats. – Named after the Whig Party in England. The Failed Presidency of John Quincy Adams • Asks Congress for “internal improvements to the United States. – REJECTED!! • Asks Congress for a uniform standard of weights and measures. – REJECTED!! • Negotiates a fair removal of the Creek Indians from Georgia. – Congress renegotiates. • Signs the Tariff of Abominations into law. – Alienates the South. Creation of the Democratic Party • Engineered by Martin Van Buren. • Brings together supporters of Calhoun, Crawford, and anti- banking westerners. • Joined by William Lewis and John Eaton to create a party to elect Andrew Jackson as President. • Hold rallies, parades, and fund-raising events. Election of 1828 • Democrats – Andrew Jackson • Republicans – JQ Adams – Has a miserable presidency w/ no support from Congress. • Jackson soundly wins. • Supported by common people. – 56% of the white male citizens w/ the right to vote. Jackson’s Inauguration • “King Mob” • 10,000 Jackson supporters come to Washington, DC to celebrate the new president. • Jackson holds an “open house” at the White House. – Jammed w/ “common folk.” Andrew Jackson General, Politician, and Statesman Roots • “Back woods” upbringing. – Born in a log cabin. – Tobacco chewer. – No formal schooling. • “Old Hickory”- Jackson’s nickname – Tall, slender, white hair. • Contradictory views – Praised blacks for their service in War of 1812. – Yet a cruel slave owner. Appeal to the Voters • Before 1829, all presidents had been wealthy– Jackson born into poverty and risen up. • Appeals to “average” Americans. • From Tennessee – Jackson first President elected from a state not on the Atlantic Coast. • A self-made man – Jackson vows to help those who have helped themselves. – Ordinary white Americans. 3 Firm Convictions 1. Greater political democracy. • Government belongs to all the people. • Works to have constitution amended so all white men can vote not just propertied ones 2. Preserve the nation at any cost. 3. Power of the President. The Spoils System • The victorious political party can fill public offices w/ party supporters. • Jackson has all people suspected of having supported his opponents removed from office. • Believed that any person was good as any other to hold an office. • Felt that people who stayed in one office too long became indifferent to the public welfare. • Spoils system encouraged many people to use the public payroll at the taxpayer’s expense. The Jackson Cabinet • Made up of men Jackson barely knew, but had helped get him elected- spoils system created. • From all parts of the country. – Martin Van Buren, Secretary of State – John Eaton, Secretary of War – Samuel Ingham, Secretary of Treasury – John Berrien, Attorney General – William T. Barry, Postmaster General – John Branch, Secretary of the Navy The “Kitchen Cabinet” • The “unofficial” advisors to President Jackson. • Entered the White House by a back door. Roger Taney, Frank P. Blair, attorney • Newspapers editors editor on the “cabinet.” – Help Jackson mold public opinion, to gain good publicity, and win support for policies. • People like…. Edward Livingston, US Amos Kendall, Senator journalist Head of the “humbler members of society” • Daniel Webster – Northeastern merchants and manufacturers • John Calhoun – Southern planters • Thomas Hart Benton – Western farmers • Andrew Jackson – Represented farmers and laborers who had no time to get involved in politics. Peggy Eaton Affair • Wife of Secretary of War John Eaton. • She comes from a poor family. • Cabinet member wives “snub” her because of her background. • President Jackson orders cabinet members to treat Eaton equally. – Vice-President Calhoun outraged!! Indian Policy • Jackson felt Indians were primitive people who were blocking the westward movement of civilization. • Felt Indians would be “happier” on the lands west of the Mississippi- far from the whites. Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Removal of Indian tribes to lands west of the Mississippi in the area of the Red and the Arkansas River. The Five Civilized Tribes • Creeks • Choctaws • Chickasaws • Cherokees • Seminoles • All agree to be removed from Florida and Georgia except the Seminoles. Second Seminole War • Seminoles refuse to leave Florida. • 1842- finally defeated and removed. Cherokee Indians • Refuse to sign a removal treaty from Georgia. • Have own self- government, alphabet, and written language. – Sequoyah leads • State of Georgia makes all Cherokee treaties, “null and void.” – Supreme Court declares unconstitutional. – Jackson- “let Marshal enforce it.” • Removal continues!! Trail of Tears • Removal of the Cherokee Indians to the Oklahoma Territory. • Driven from homes in bitter, cold winter. • Example of Jackson’s uncompromising support for Indian resettlement. “The Bank” Jackson’s Dislike • Hates banks because he could never understand how they worked. • “money power”- a monopoly that the rich and powerful used to their own advantage. – Jackson believed that the wealthy investors in the sea-board states controlled the Bank. • Believed that the Bank’s policy of granting loans to members of Congress was influencing legislation. Election of 1832 • Democrats- Andrew Jackson – Chooses Van Buren as his new VP. – Anti-Bank • National Republicans- Henry Clay – Pro-Bank • Anti-Masonic- William Wirt – First time a legitimate 3rd Party candidate runs for President. • Jackson attacked as a corrupt would-be monarch. • Jackson wins in a landslide. The Treasury Department • Jackson orders new Treasury Secretary Louis McLane to remove federal money from The Bank. – McLane refuses. • McLane removed and replaced by William Duane. – Duane refuses to remove the money. • Duane fired 5 days later and replaced by Roger Taney. – Taney removes $2.3 million. The Destruction of the Bank • Jackson gradually withdraws all federal deposits. • Places them in “pet banks” of certain states. This will come back to haunt the country • Charter expires in 1836 and is not renewed. “Tariff of Abominations” • Tariff Act of 1828 • Tariffs dramatically raised in attempt to raise govt. revenue. • Southern states upset as tariff does hurt them. • Vice-President John Calhoun ( Nullification Theory) – Felt that each state had the right to nullify any Act of Congress that it considered States unconstitutional. Rights Now, Forever South Carolina Exposition and Protest • Set of resolutions calling the Tariff, “unconstitutional and unjust” secretly written by Calhoun. • Followed in protest by – Georgia – Mississippi – Virginia Senator Robert Hayne • South Carolina • By opposing the Tariff, southerners were resisting “unauthorized” taxation. Senator Daniel Webster • Massachusetts • The United States was the people’s government, and the Supreme Court was the only entity that could declare laws unconstitutional. The national • “Liberty and Union, now Government rules Now, and forever, one and Forever, and inseparable.” Always!!! Jackson’s Reaction to Calhoun and Nullification • April, 1830 dinner. • Jackson offers a toast to VP Calhoun. – “Our Federal Union- it must and shall be preserved.” • Calhoun’s challenge – “The Union- next to our liberty…preserved by respecting the rights of the states.” Tariff Act of 1832 • Lowers tariff rates. • South declares unacceptable. – It was still a protective tariff and the South felt it was still no better than the previous one. Secession !?! • Ordinance of Nullification – South Carolina declares Tariff Acts of 1828 and 1832 null and void. • Threatens to secede from the Union. • Jackson declares that every leader of the South would be hung if any fighting broke out. • Calhoun resigns as VP. • Secession fails because other southern states would not follow. Tariff Act of 1833 • Compromise Tariff • Compromise written by Senator Henry Clay and John Calhoun. • Tariffs reduced to 1816 levels for the next 10 years. Force Act of 1833 • Gave the President the power to enforce federal tariff laws by military force. Jackson’s Farewell Address • Talks about his accomplishments especially giving the vote to all white men. • Warned of trouble ahead. 1. Evils of paper money. 2. North vs. South over slavery. Election of 1836 • Andrew Jackson decides to retire. • Democrats – Martin Van Buren – “The Little Magician” William Henry – Supported by Jackson. Harrison • Whig Party Northwest – Choose several “favorite son” candidates throughout the country in attempt to divide the total vote and force the election to the House of Daniel Representatives. Hugh White Webster • Martin Van Buren South Northeast elected. Election of 1836 Richard Johnson • Van Buren’s Vice- President. • Married to a black slave that had belonged to his father. – They have 2 daughters. • Never accepted into Washington, D.C. society. Depression of 1837 “Easy Money” • Federal money in “pet banks.” • Value of money declines as banks produce “easy money.” – Money easy to borrow. • Value of money is not backed by anything of actual value. Land Speculation • Income from the sale of public land rises from $2 million to about $24 million. • Specie Circular – Executive order that forbade the Treasury Dept. to accept as payment for public lands anything except gold or silver. • Specie=gold & silver Panic of 1837 • People did not have gold and silver to pay for the land so they asked the banks to exchange their money for specie. • Banks do not have enough specie on hand to do so. • Banks fail ! • Businesses unable to conduct transactions ! • Construction comes to and end ! • NO MONEY– NO WORK !!!!!! President Van Buren • Reaction to the Depression of 1837 is that government should not interfere with private pursuits. Election of 1840 • Democrats – Martin Van Buren – Wildly unpopular over Depression issue. • Whigs – William Henry Harrison – Do not even write up a platform of issues– make Depression the #1 issue. “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” • Whig campaign slogan. • First modern “campaign” for President. – Parades, posters, and buttons. – Build log cabins as campaign headquarters. – Gave crowds barrels of hard cider. • Portray William Henry Harrison and running mate, John Tyler as poor, but honest men. – Reality– wealthy plantation owners. “… and the winner is” • 78% voter turnout on election day. • William Henry Harrison and John Tyler. Death of Harrison • March 4, 1841 • 68 year old President delivers the longest Inaugural Speech in history in a cold rain. • Develops pneumonia. • Dies April 4, 1841. • First President to die in office. • Shortest term in office. John Tyler • Becomes President on Harrison’s death. • Former Democrat. – Supports state’s rights. – Despises Andrew Jackson. • “His Accidency” – Constitution unclear if VP becomes new President or Acting President. – Has self sworn in to finish Harrison’s term.
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