# Democratic Strength 1825-1845 by xiangpeng

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```									• Get your new notes and prepare to learn
about Ole’ Hickory in the early 1800’s
• Acute Angle is the TOTD for today . It is
11/24
an angle that measures between 0 and
90 degrees
• New inspectors are on the whiteboard
• All those entering their papers in the
contest must send it to me on-line so I
can enter it. Only papers sent to my
email will be submitted. My email is
quarryhome@gmail.com
• I also need some personal info so see
me today. I have Lauren and Eddie
entering so far.
• TOTD is Angle Bisector -a
ray that divides an angle
11/25     into 2 congruent angles
• Tell me all you know about
Andrew Jackson in a short
paragraph, label it quick
write # 4, and place it in
Then…. on to the notes.
• Lauren, Dylan, and Eddie’s
papers submitted to the
contest. Room for more.
• Have a safe , delicious and
happy Thanksgiving. At my
table, I’ll tell everyone
that I am thankful for you!
11/25 -5th Period
• Get out your work from yesterday and finish. Then
complete graphic organizer on Jackson that I will
pass out. The Text and your work from yesterday
have the answers to the Graphic organizer (GO). You
will hand all three assignments in as your notes after
you take the test, next week.
• The GO sums up Jackson and will be your class notes
for the test on Jacksonian Democracy.

•               Have a safe , delicious and happy
Thanksgiving. At my table, I’ll tell
everyone that I am
thankful for you, even the chit chatty
ones!

• TOTD is Angle Bisector -a ray that divides an angle
into 2 congruent angles.
Dec 1
• Bell ringer is to answer these 2
questions: What did Andrew Jackson do
with the money in the Federal bank?
Why did he do it? What are pet banks?
• TOTD is Circumference or the Distance
around a circle
• Redneck Word of the day is Barium-
what doctors do to their patients after
they die
Dec 2, 2008

• US History Bell ringer- Write a short
paragraph about what you would like to
reform in America or the School, your choice.
• World Studies: Market Day is Wed. Bring all
costumes, supplies, posters and booklet and
be in character.
• TOTD is diameter or the distance across a
circle, through its center
• My word of the day is prolix as in Tippecanoe
was prolix (too long) at his inauguration which
resulted in his untimely death.
Democratic Strength

1825-1845
SSUHS7 Students will explain the process
of economic growth, its regional and
national impact in the first half of the 19th
century, and the different responses to it.

e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy,
expanding the suffrage, the rise of
popular political culture, and the
development of American nationalism
Essential Questions:
• How did the concept of democracy change in
America during the early days of the union?
• What is Jacksonian Democracy?
• How do voting rights expand?
• How did the present emphasis on political
populism begin?
• How does the issue of states’ rights, slavery,
and tariffs begin to tear the country apart?
• What is Andrew Jackson’s presidency noted
for?
Vocabulary
• Jacksonian, Trail of Tears, Cherokee,
Seminole, Corrupt, spoils system,
kitchen cabinet, popular sovereignty,
Democrat party, Tariff of Abominations,
Ordinance of Nullification
Democratic Party
• Republican Party
begins to find
disfavor w/
Americans.
• 1824- Democratic
Party begins to
emerge.
– Current one today.
Election of 1824
• Many “favorite son”
candidates run as
Republicans.
– Placed on the ballot as
an honor to a state or
region.
– Massachusetts
– Northeast
• William H. Crawford
– Georgia
– South
• Andrew Jackson
– Tennessee
– West
• Henry Clay
– Kentucky
– West
– Only candidate w/ a
plan.
Results
needed to win.
–   Jackson- 99
–   Crawford- 41
–   Clay- 37
the required # to
win.
“… and the winner is”
• 12th Amendment
– House of
Representatives
chooses from the top 3
candidates.
• Henry Clay encourages
House to vote for JQ
!!
– Henry Clay appointed
Secretary of State.
• A bitter Andrew Jackson
calls it a “corrupt
bargain.”
Political Parties
• National Republican
Party
• Democratic-Republican
Party
– Andrew Jackson
• Whig Party
– Henry Clay
– Emerges in 1834
– Rivals to the
Democrats.
– Named after the Whig
Party in England.
The Failed Presidency of
“internal improvements to
the United States.
– REJECTED!!
uniform standard of
weights and measures.
– REJECTED!!
• Negotiates a fair removal
of the Creek Indians from
Georgia.
– Congress renegotiates.
• Signs the Tariff of
Abominations into law.
– Alienates the South.
Creation of the
Democratic Party
• Engineered by Martin
Van Buren.
• Brings together
supporters of Calhoun,
Crawford, and anti-
banking westerners.
• Joined by William Lewis
and John Eaton to create
a party to elect Andrew
Jackson as President.
and fund-raising events.
Election of 1828
• Democrats
– Andrew Jackson
• Republicans
– Has a miserable
presidency w/ no
support from
Congress.
• Jackson soundly wins.
• Supported by common
people.
– 56% of the white male
citizens w/ the right
to vote.
Jackson’s Inauguration
• “King Mob”
• 10,000 Jackson
supporters come to
Washington, DC to
celebrate the new
president.
• Jackson holds an
“open house” at the
White House.
– Jammed w/
“common folk.”
Andrew
Jackson

General, Politician,
and Statesman
Roots
• “Back woods” upbringing.
– Born in a log cabin.
– Tobacco chewer.
– No formal schooling.
• “Old Hickory”- Jackson’s
nickname
– Tall, slender, white hair.
– Praised blacks for their
service in War of 1812.
– Yet a cruel slave owner.
Appeal to the Voters
• Before 1829, all
wealthy– Jackson born
into poverty and risen up.
• Appeals to “average”
Americans.
• From Tennessee
– Jackson first President
elected from a state not
on the Atlantic Coast.
– Jackson vows to help
those who have helped
themselves.
– Ordinary white
Americans.
3 Firm Convictions
1. Greater political
democracy.
•   Government belongs
to all the people.
•   Works to have
constitution
amended so all
white men can vote
not just propertied
ones
2. Preserve the nation at
any cost.
3. Power of the
President.
The Spoils System
• The victorious political party
can fill public offices w/ party
supporters.
• Jackson has all people
suspected of having supported
his opponents removed from
office.
• Believed that any person was
good as any other to hold an
office.
• Felt that people who stayed in
one office too long became
indifferent to the public
welfare.
• Spoils system encouraged
many people to use the public
payroll at the taxpayer’s
expense.
The Jackson Cabinet
• Made up of men Jackson
get him elected- spoils
system created.
• From all parts of the country.
– Martin Van Buren,
Secretary of State
– John Eaton, Secretary of
War
– Samuel Ingham,
Secretary of Treasury
– John Berrien, Attorney
General
– William T. Barry,
Postmaster General
– John Branch, Secretary
of the Navy
The “Kitchen Cabinet”
• The “unofficial”
Jackson.
• Entered the White
House by a back door.
Roger Taney,
Frank P. Blair,
attorney      • Newspapers editors
editor                          on the “cabinet.”
– Help Jackson mold
public opinion, to
gain good publicity,
and win support for
policies.
• People like….
Edward
Livingston, US    Amos Kendall,
Senator         journalist
members of society”
• Daniel Webster
– Northeastern
merchants and
manufacturers
• John Calhoun
– Southern planters
• Thomas Hart Benton
– Western farmers
• Andrew Jackson
– Represented farmers
and laborers who
involved in politics.
Peggy Eaton Affair
• Wife of Secretary of
War John Eaton.
• She comes from a poor
family.
• Cabinet member wives
“snub” her because of
her background.
• President Jackson
orders cabinet members
to treat Eaton equally.
– Vice-President
Calhoun outraged!!
Indian Policy
• Jackson felt Indians
were primitive people
who were blocking the
westward movement
of civilization.
• Felt Indians would be
“happier” on the lands
west of the
Mississippi- far from
the whites.
Indian Removal Act of 1830

• Removal of Indian
tribes to lands west
of the Mississippi in
the area of the Red
and the Arkansas
River.
The Five Civilized Tribes
• Creeks
• Choctaws
• Chickasaws
• Cherokees
• Seminoles
• All agree to be
removed from Florida
and Georgia except
the Seminoles.
Second Seminole War
• Seminoles refuse to
leave Florida.
• 1842- finally
defeated and
removed.
Cherokee Indians
• Refuse to sign a
removal treaty from
Georgia.
• Have own self-
government, alphabet,
and written language.
• State of Georgia makes
all Cherokee treaties,
“null and void.”
– Supreme Court
declares
unconstitutional.
– Jackson- “let Marshal
enforce it.”
• Removal continues!!
Trail of Tears
• Removal of the
Cherokee Indians to the
Oklahoma Territory.
• Driven from homes in
bitter, cold winter.

• Example of Jackson’s
uncompromising
support for Indian
resettlement.
“The Bank”
Jackson’s Dislike
• Hates banks because he
could never understand
how they worked.
• “money power”- a
monopoly that the rich
and powerful used to their
– Jackson believed that
the wealthy investors in
the sea-board states
controlled the Bank.
• Believed that the Bank’s
policy of granting loans to
members of Congress was
influencing legislation.
Election of 1832
• Democrats- Andrew
Jackson
– Chooses Van Buren as
his new VP.
– Anti-Bank
• National Republicans-
Henry Clay
– Pro-Bank
• Anti-Masonic- William
Wirt
– First time a legitimate
3rd Party candidate
runs for President.
• Jackson attacked as a
corrupt would-be
monarch.
• Jackson wins in a
landslide.
The Treasury Department
• Jackson orders new
Treasury Secretary Louis
McLane to remove
federal money from The
Bank.
– McLane refuses.
• McLane removed and
replaced by William
Duane.
– Duane refuses to
remove the money.
• Duane fired 5 days later
and replaced by Roger
Taney.
– Taney removes \$2.3
million.
The Destruction of the
Bank
withdraws all
federal deposits.
• Places them in “pet
banks” of certain
states. This will
come back to haunt
the country
• Charter expires in
1836 and is not
renewed.
“Tariff of Abominations”
• Tariff Act of 1828
• Tariffs dramatically
raised in attempt to
raise govt. revenue.
• Southern states upset
as tariff does hurt them.
• Vice-President John
Calhoun ( Nullification
Theory)
– Felt that each state
any Act of Congress
that it considered
States        unconstitutional.
Rights
Now,
Forever
South Carolina Exposition
and Protest
• Set of resolutions
calling the Tariff,
“unconstitutional and
unjust” secretly written
by Calhoun.
• Followed in protest by
– Georgia
– Mississippi
– Virginia
Senator Robert Hayne

• South Carolina
• By opposing the
Tariff, southerners
were resisting
“unauthorized”
taxation.
Senator Daniel Webster
• Massachusetts
• The United States was
the people’s
government, and the
Supreme Court was the
only entity that could
declare laws
unconstitutional.
The national   • “Liberty and Union, now
Government
rules Now,      and forever, one and
Forever, and     inseparable.”
Always!!!
Jackson’s Reaction to
Calhoun and Nullification
• April, 1830 dinner.
• Jackson offers a toast
to VP Calhoun.
– “Our Federal Union- it
must and shall be
preserved.”
• Calhoun’s challenge
– “The Union- next to
our liberty…preserved
by respecting the
rights of the states.”
Tariff Act of 1832
• Lowers tariff rates.
• South declares
unacceptable.
– It was still a
protective tariff
and the South felt
it was still no
better than the
previous one.
Secession !?!
• Ordinance of Nullification
– South Carolina declares
Tariff Acts of 1828 and
1832 null and void.
• Threatens to secede from
the Union.
• Jackson declares that
would be hung if any
fighting broke out.
• Calhoun resigns as VP.
• Secession fails because
other southern states
would not follow.
Tariff Act of 1833

• Compromise Tariff
• Compromise written
by Senator Henry
Clay and John
Calhoun.
• Tariffs reduced to
1816 levels for the
next 10 years.
Force Act of 1833

• Gave the President
the power to enforce
federal tariff laws by
military force.
Jackson’s Farewell
accomplishments
especially giving the
vote to all white men.
•   Warned of trouble
1. Evils of paper
money.
2. North vs. South over
slavery.
Election of 1836
• Andrew Jackson
decides to retire.
• Democrats
– Martin Van Buren
– “The Little Magician”
William Henry
– Supported by
Jackson.                                Harrison

• Whig Party                                Northwest
– Choose several
“favorite son”
candidates
throughout the
country in attempt to
divide the total vote
and force the election
to the House of                         Daniel
Representatives.         Hugh White     Webster
• Martin Van Buren              South       Northeast
elected.
Election of 1836
Richard Johnson
• Van Buren’s Vice-
President.
• Married to a black
belonged to his
father.
– They have 2
daughters.
• Never accepted into
Washington, D.C.
society.
Depression of
1837
“Easy Money”

• Federal money in “pet
banks.”
• Value of money
declines as banks
produce “easy money.”
– Money easy to
borrow.
• Value of money is not
backed by anything of
actual value.
Land Speculation
• Income from the sale of
public land rises from
million.
• Specie Circular
– Executive order that
Dept. to accept as
payment for public
lands anything except
gold or silver.
• Specie=gold & silver
Panic of 1837
• People did not have gold
and silver to pay for the
banks to exchange their
money for specie.
• Banks do not have enough
specie on hand to do so.
• Banks fail !
conduct transactions !
• Construction comes to
and end !
• NO MONEY– NO WORK
!!!!!!
President Van Buren

• Reaction to the
Depression of 1837
is that government
should not interfere
with private
pursuits.
Election of 1840
• Democrats
– Martin Van Buren
– Wildly unpopular over
Depression issue.
• Whigs
– William Henry
Harrison
– Do not even write up
a platform of issues–
make Depression the
#1 issue.
“Tippecanoe and Tyler
Too”
• Whig campaign slogan.
• First modern “campaign” for
President.
buttons.
– Build log cabins as
– Gave crowds barrels of
hard cider.
• Portray William Henry Harrison
and running mate, John Tyler
as poor, but honest men.
– Reality– wealthy
plantation owners.
“… and the winner is”

• 78% voter turnout on
election day.
• William Henry
Harrison and John
Tyler.
Death of Harrison
• March 4, 1841
• 68 year old President
delivers the longest
Inaugural Speech in
history in a cold rain.
• Develops pneumonia.
• Dies April 4, 1841.
• First President to die in
office.
• Shortest term in office.
John Tyler
• Becomes President on
Harrison’s death.
• Former Democrat.
– Supports state’s
rights.
– Despises Andrew
Jackson.
• “His Accidency”
– Constitution unclear if
VP becomes new
President or Acting
President.
– Has self sworn in to
finish Harrison’s term.

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