Democratic Strength 1825-1845

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Democratic Strength 1825-1845 Powered By Docstoc
					• Get your new notes and prepare to learn
  about Ole’ Hickory in the early 1800’s
• Acute Angle is the TOTD for today . It is
                                              11/24
  an angle that measures between 0 and
  90 degrees
• New inspectors are on the whiteboard
• All those entering their papers in the
  contest must send it to me on-line so I
  can enter it. Only papers sent to my
  email will be submitted. My email is
  quarryhome@gmail.com
• I also need some personal info so see
  me today. I have Lauren and Eddie
  entering so far.
        • TOTD is Angle Bisector -a
          ray that divides an angle
11/25     into 2 congruent angles
        • Tell me all you know about
          Andrew Jackson in a short
          paragraph, label it quick
          write # 4, and place it in
          your reading folder.
          Then…. on to the notes.
        • Lauren, Dylan, and Eddie’s
          papers submitted to the
          contest. Room for more.
        • Have a safe , delicious and
          happy Thanksgiving. At my
          table, I’ll tell everyone
          that I am thankful for you!
    11/25 -5th Period
• Get out your work from yesterday and finish. Then
  complete graphic organizer on Jackson that I will
  pass out. The Text and your work from yesterday
  have the answers to the Graphic organizer (GO). You
  will hand all three assignments in as your notes after
  you take the test, next week.
• The GO sums up Jackson and will be your class notes
  for the test on Jacksonian Democracy.

   •               Have a safe , delicious and happy
                    Thanksgiving. At my table, I’ll tell
                           everyone that I am
                 thankful for you, even the chit chatty
                           ones!

• TOTD is Angle Bisector -a ray that divides an angle
  into 2 congruent angles.
Dec 1
• Bell ringer is to answer these 2
  questions: What did Andrew Jackson do
  with the money in the Federal bank?
  Why did he do it? What are pet banks?
• TOTD is Circumference or the Distance
  around a circle
• Redneck Word of the day is Barium-
  what doctors do to their patients after
  they die
   Dec 2, 2008

• US History Bell ringer- Write a short
  paragraph about what you would like to
  reform in America or the School, your choice.
• World Studies: Market Day is Wed. Bring all
  costumes, supplies, posters and booklet and
  be in character.
• TOTD is diameter or the distance across a
  circle, through its center
• My word of the day is prolix as in Tippecanoe
  was prolix (too long) at his inauguration which
  resulted in his untimely death.
Democratic Strength

      1825-1845
SSUHS7 Students will explain the process
  of economic growth, its regional and
national impact in the first half of the 19th
century, and the different responses to it.




e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy,
expanding the suffrage, the rise of
popular political culture, and the
development of American nationalism
   Essential Questions:
• How did the concept of democracy change in
  America during the early days of the union?
• What is Jacksonian Democracy?
• How do voting rights expand?
• How did the present emphasis on political
  populism begin?
• How does the issue of states’ rights, slavery,
  and tariffs begin to tear the country apart?
• What is Andrew Jackson’s presidency noted
  for?
          Vocabulary
• Jacksonian, Trail of Tears, Cherokee,
  Seminole, Corrupt, spoils system,
  kitchen cabinet, popular sovereignty,
  Democrat party, Tariff of Abominations,
  Ordinance of Nullification
       Democratic Party
• Republican Party
  begins to find
  disfavor w/
  Americans.
• 1824- Democratic
  Party begins to
  emerge.
  – Current one today.
Election of 1824
        • Many “favorite son”
          candidates run as
          Republicans.
           – Placed on the ballot as
             an honor to a state or
             region.
        • John Quincy Adams
           – Massachusetts
           – Northeast
        • William H. Crawford
           – Georgia
           – South
        • Andrew Jackson
           – Tennessee
           – West
        • Henry Clay
           – Kentucky
           – West
           – Only candidate w/ a
             plan.
                Results
• 131 electoral votes
  needed to win.
  –   Jackson- 99
  –   JQ Adams- 84
  –   Crawford- 41
  –   Clay- 37
• No candidate had
  the required # to
  win.
“… and the winner is”
          • 12th Amendment
             – House of
               Representatives
               chooses from the top 3
               candidates.
          • Henry Clay encourages
            House to vote for JQ
            Adams.
          • John Quincy Adams WINS
            !!
             – Henry Clay appointed
               Secretary of State.
          • A bitter Andrew Jackson
            calls it a “corrupt
            bargain.”
        Political Parties
• National Republican
  Party
  – JQ Adams
• Democratic-Republican
  Party
  – Andrew Jackson
• Whig Party
  – Henry Clay
  – Emerges in 1834
  – Rivals to the
    Democrats.
  – Named after the Whig
    Party in England.
   The Failed Presidency of
     John Quincy Adams
• Asks Congress for
  “internal improvements to
  the United States.
   – REJECTED!!
• Asks Congress for a
  uniform standard of
  weights and measures.
   – REJECTED!!
• Negotiates a fair removal
  of the Creek Indians from
  Georgia.
   – Congress renegotiates.
• Signs the Tariff of
  Abominations into law.
   – Alienates the South.
           Creation of the
          Democratic Party
• Engineered by Martin
  Van Buren.
• Brings together
  supporters of Calhoun,
  Crawford, and anti-
  banking westerners.
• Joined by William Lewis
  and John Eaton to create
  a party to elect Andrew
  Jackson as President.
• Hold rallies, parades,
  and fund-raising events.
Election of 1828
        • Democrats
          – Andrew Jackson
        • Republicans
          – JQ Adams
          – Has a miserable
            presidency w/ no
            support from
            Congress.
        • Jackson soundly wins.
        • Supported by common
          people.
          – 56% of the white male
            citizens w/ the right
            to vote.
Jackson’s Inauguration
• “King Mob”
• 10,000 Jackson
  supporters come to
  Washington, DC to
  celebrate the new
  president.
• Jackson holds an
  “open house” at the
  White House.
  – Jammed w/
    “common folk.”
                       Andrew
                       Jackson




General, Politician,
and Statesman
                         Roots
• “Back woods” upbringing.
   – Born in a log cabin.
   – Tobacco chewer.
   – No formal schooling.
• “Old Hickory”- Jackson’s
  nickname
   – Tall, slender, white hair.
• Contradictory views
   – Praised blacks for their
     service in War of 1812.
   – Yet a cruel slave owner.
Appeal to the Voters
          • Before 1829, all
            presidents had been
            wealthy– Jackson born
            into poverty and risen up.
          • Appeals to “average”
            Americans.
          • From Tennessee
             – Jackson first President
               elected from a state not
               on the Atlantic Coast.
          • A self-made man
             – Jackson vows to help
               those who have helped
               themselves.
             – Ordinary white
               Americans.
       3 Firm Convictions
1. Greater political
   democracy.
   •   Government belongs
       to all the people.
   •   Works to have
       constitution
       amended so all
       white men can vote
       not just propertied
       ones
2. Preserve the nation at
   any cost.
3. Power of the
   President.
The Spoils System
        • The victorious political party
          can fill public offices w/ party
          supporters.
        • Jackson has all people
          suspected of having supported
          his opponents removed from
          office.
        • Believed that any person was
          good as any other to hold an
          office.
        • Felt that people who stayed in
          one office too long became
          indifferent to the public
          welfare.
        • Spoils system encouraged
          many people to use the public
          payroll at the taxpayer’s
          expense.
       The Jackson Cabinet
• Made up of men Jackson
  barely knew, but had helped
  get him elected- spoils
  system created.
• From all parts of the country.
   – Martin Van Buren,
     Secretary of State
   – John Eaton, Secretary of
     War
   – Samuel Ingham,
     Secretary of Treasury
   – John Berrien, Attorney
     General
   – William T. Barry,
     Postmaster General
   – John Branch, Secretary
     of the Navy
   The “Kitchen Cabinet”
                                  • The “unofficial”
                                    advisors to President
                                    Jackson.
                                  • Entered the White
                                    House by a back door.
                  Roger Taney,
Frank P. Blair,
                    attorney      • Newspapers editors
    editor                          on the “cabinet.”
                                     – Help Jackson mold
                                       public opinion, to
                                       gain good publicity,
                                       and win support for
                                       policies.
                                  • People like….
    Edward
Livingston, US    Amos Kendall,
    Senator         journalist
       Head of the “humbler
       members of society”
• Daniel Webster
  – Northeastern
    merchants and
    manufacturers
• John Calhoun
  – Southern planters
• Thomas Hart Benton
  – Western farmers
• Andrew Jackson
  – Represented farmers
    and laborers who
    had no time to get
    involved in politics.
     Peggy Eaton Affair
• Wife of Secretary of
  War John Eaton.
• She comes from a poor
  family.
• Cabinet member wives
  “snub” her because of
  her background.
• President Jackson
  orders cabinet members
  to treat Eaton equally.
  – Vice-President
    Calhoun outraged!!
Indian Policy
      • Jackson felt Indians
        were primitive people
        who were blocking the
        westward movement
        of civilization.
      • Felt Indians would be
        “happier” on the lands
        west of the
        Mississippi- far from
        the whites.
Indian Removal Act of 1830


• Removal of Indian
  tribes to lands west
  of the Mississippi in
  the area of the Red
  and the Arkansas
  River.
The Five Civilized Tribes
             • Creeks
             • Choctaws
             • Chickasaws
             • Cherokees
             • Seminoles
             • All agree to be
               removed from Florida
               and Georgia except
               the Seminoles.
  Second Seminole War
• Seminoles refuse to
  leave Florida.
• 1842- finally
  defeated and
  removed.
Cherokee Indians
        • Refuse to sign a
          removal treaty from
          Georgia.
        • Have own self-
          government, alphabet,
          and written language.
          – Sequoyah leads
        • State of Georgia makes
          all Cherokee treaties,
          “null and void.”
          – Supreme Court
            declares
            unconstitutional.
          – Jackson- “let Marshal
            enforce it.”
        • Removal continues!!
Trail of Tears
 • Removal of the
   Cherokee Indians to the
   Oklahoma Territory.
 • Driven from homes in
   bitter, cold winter.

 • Example of Jackson’s
   uncompromising
   support for Indian
   resettlement.
“The Bank”
Jackson’s Dislike
   • Hates banks because he
     could never understand
     how they worked.
   • “money power”- a
     monopoly that the rich
     and powerful used to their
     own advantage.
      – Jackson believed that
        the wealthy investors in
        the sea-board states
        controlled the Bank.
   • Believed that the Bank’s
     policy of granting loans to
     members of Congress was
     influencing legislation.
            Election of 1832
• Democrats- Andrew
  Jackson
   – Chooses Van Buren as
     his new VP.
   – Anti-Bank
• National Republicans-
  Henry Clay
   – Pro-Bank
• Anti-Masonic- William
  Wirt
   – First time a legitimate
     3rd Party candidate
     runs for President.
• Jackson attacked as a
  corrupt would-be
  monarch.
• Jackson wins in a
  landslide.
 The Treasury Department
• Jackson orders new
  Treasury Secretary Louis
  McLane to remove
  federal money from The
  Bank.
   – McLane refuses.
• McLane removed and
  replaced by William
  Duane.
   – Duane refuses to
     remove the money.
• Duane fired 5 days later
  and replaced by Roger
  Taney.
   – Taney removes $2.3
     million.
The Destruction of the
        Bank
     • Jackson gradually
       withdraws all
       federal deposits.
     • Places them in “pet
       banks” of certain
       states. This will
       come back to haunt
       the country
     • Charter expires in
       1836 and is not
       renewed.
“Tariff of Abominations”
                • Tariff Act of 1828
                • Tariffs dramatically
                  raised in attempt to
                  raise govt. revenue.
                • Southern states upset
                  as tariff does hurt them.
                • Vice-President John
                  Calhoun ( Nullification
                  Theory)
                   – Felt that each state
                     had the right to nullify
                     any Act of Congress
                     that it considered
       States        unconstitutional.
      Rights
       Now,
      Forever
South Carolina Exposition
       and Protest
• Set of resolutions
  calling the Tariff,
  “unconstitutional and
  unjust” secretly written
  by Calhoun.
• Followed in protest by
   – Georgia
   – Mississippi
   – Virginia
  Senator Robert Hayne


• South Carolina
• By opposing the
  Tariff, southerners
  were resisting
  “unauthorized”
  taxation.
Senator Daniel Webster
               • Massachusetts
               • The United States was
                 the people’s
                 government, and the
                 Supreme Court was the
                 only entity that could
                 declare laws
                 unconstitutional.
The national   • “Liberty and Union, now
Government
 rules Now,      and forever, one and
Forever, and     inseparable.”
  Always!!!
  Jackson’s Reaction to
Calhoun and Nullification
            • April, 1830 dinner.
            • Jackson offers a toast
              to VP Calhoun.
               – “Our Federal Union- it
                 must and shall be
                 preserved.”
            • Calhoun’s challenge
               – “The Union- next to
                 our liberty…preserved
                 by respecting the
                 rights of the states.”
       Tariff Act of 1832
• Lowers tariff rates.
• South declares
  unacceptable.
  – It was still a
    protective tariff
    and the South felt
    it was still no
    better than the
    previous one.
Secession !?!
       • Ordinance of Nullification
          – South Carolina declares
            Tariff Acts of 1828 and
            1832 null and void.
       • Threatens to secede from
         the Union.
       • Jackson declares that
         every leader of the South
         would be hung if any
         fighting broke out.
       • Calhoun resigns as VP.
       • Secession fails because
         other southern states
         would not follow.
       Tariff Act of 1833

• Compromise Tariff
• Compromise written
  by Senator Henry
  Clay and John
  Calhoun.
• Tariffs reduced to
  1816 levels for the
  next 10 years.
Force Act of 1833


        • Gave the President
          the power to enforce
          federal tariff laws by
          military force.
        Jackson’s Farewell
             Address
•   Talks about his
    accomplishments
    especially giving the
    vote to all white men.
•   Warned of trouble
    ahead.
    1. Evils of paper
       money.
    2. North vs. South over
       slavery.
          Election of 1836
• Andrew Jackson
  decides to retire.
• Democrats
   – Martin Van Buren
   – “The Little Magician”
                                           William Henry
   – Supported by
     Jackson.                                Harrison

• Whig Party                                Northwest
   – Choose several
     “favorite son”
     candidates
     throughout the
     country in attempt to
     divide the total vote
     and force the election
     to the House of                         Daniel
     Representatives.         Hugh White     Webster
• Martin Van Buren              South       Northeast
  elected.
Election of 1836
       Richard Johnson
• Van Buren’s Vice-
  President.
• Married to a black
  slave that had
  belonged to his
  father.
  – They have 2
    daughters.
• Never accepted into
  Washington, D.C.
  society.
Depression of
    1837
          “Easy Money”

• Federal money in “pet
  banks.”
• Value of money
  declines as banks
  produce “easy money.”
   – Money easy to
     borrow.
• Value of money is not
  backed by anything of
  actual value.
Land Speculation
        • Income from the sale of
          public land rises from
          $2 million to about $24
          million.
        • Specie Circular
           – Executive order that
             forbade the Treasury
             Dept. to accept as
             payment for public
             lands anything except
             gold or silver.
              • Specie=gold & silver
             Panic of 1837
• People did not have gold
  and silver to pay for the
  land so they asked the
  banks to exchange their
  money for specie.
• Banks do not have enough
  specie on hand to do so.
• Banks fail !
• Businesses unable to
  conduct transactions !
• Construction comes to
  and end !
• NO MONEY– NO WORK
  !!!!!!
President Van Buren

         • Reaction to the
           Depression of 1837
           is that government
           should not interfere
           with private
           pursuits.
Election of 1840
        • Democrats
          – Martin Van Buren
          – Wildly unpopular over
            Depression issue.
        • Whigs
          – William Henry
            Harrison
          – Do not even write up
            a platform of issues–
            make Depression the
            #1 issue.
    “Tippecanoe and Tyler
            Too”
• Whig campaign slogan.
• First modern “campaign” for
  President.
   – Parades, posters, and
     buttons.
   – Build log cabins as
     campaign headquarters.
   – Gave crowds barrels of
     hard cider.
• Portray William Henry Harrison
  and running mate, John Tyler
  as poor, but honest men.
   – Reality– wealthy
     plantation owners.
  “… and the winner is”

• 78% voter turnout on
  election day.
• William Henry
  Harrison and John
  Tyler.
Death of Harrison
        • March 4, 1841
        • 68 year old President
          delivers the longest
          Inaugural Speech in
          history in a cold rain.
        • Develops pneumonia.
        • Dies April 4, 1841.
        • First President to die in
          office.
        • Shortest term in office.
               John Tyler
• Becomes President on
  Harrison’s death.
• Former Democrat.
  – Supports state’s
    rights.
  – Despises Andrew
    Jackson.
• “His Accidency”
  – Constitution unclear if
    VP becomes new
    President or Acting
    President.
  – Has self sworn in to
    finish Harrison’s term.

				
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