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					                                SAFESPOT


        « FROM USER NEEDS TO APPLICATIONS: THE SAFESPOT
       APPROACH BASED ON ROAD ACCIDENT DATA ANALYSIS »



            Fabien Bonnefoi, Francesco Bellotti, Tobias Schendzielorz

    1*.Cofiroute, France, 6 à 10 rue Troyon 92316 Sèvres, tel: +33 1 41 14 71 52, fabien.bonnefoi@cofiroute.fr
                  2. Dept of Electronics and Biophysical Engineering, University of Genoa, Italy
             3. Dept. of Traffic Engineering and Control, Technische Universität München, Germany




From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                 The SAFESPOT IP

          Project of the European Commission Information Society and media

•     Cooperative system /Communication V2V and V2I
•     8 Sps and 51 partners from all domains…




    « By combining data from vehicle and road-side sensors, the SAFESPOT applications will
    allow an extension of the time in which a potential accident is detected(…). »



From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                  COSSIB and WP2
• SP5 – COSSIB                                                                                    Cofiroute
                                                                                                      PEEK
  Cooperative system Infrastructure based
                                                                                                      ANAS
                                                                                      Centro Ricerche Fiat
• Applicative Sub Project                                                   Conseil Général Côtes d’Armor
                                                                                         Daimler Chrysler
• COFIROUTE = SP5 leader + WP2 leader                                                                 DIBE
                                                                                                      LCPC

• Planning: Five main steps (WP)                                                              Lacroix Trafic

     WP2 User need and requirement analysis                                                           Mizar

     WP3 Specifications and Simulation                                                München University

     WP4 Development and prototype                                                                  Renault

     WP5/6 Field Test/Evaluation                                                                  SIEMENS
                                                                                                      Sodit
                                                                                                       TNO




From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                             COSSIB




From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                             Objective and Method

WP5.2 Objective:
  « Define clearly the needs and requirements of infrastructure-based safety
  systems within the context of the overall SAFESPOT project.»




WP5.2 Method:




From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                        Data Analysis

1st analysis: European data (Complete but coarse grain)
     – Eurostat
     – Database CARE – EACS
     – Project SAFETY NET Rankers PENDANT

                                             Type of results:
         Indicators Vs                                                                        Mortality
                            Accidents          Injury          Death           Risk level 1
         Classification                                                                       index2

         1st                Urban – 75%        70%             55%             0.57 – 1.10    18.7%


         2nd                Rural – 20%        20%             35%             0.43           4,6%


         3rd                Motorway – 5%      10%             10%             0.06           1.4%


             Urban      Rural      Motorway
         1 (deathper million vehicles/km)
         2 (percentage of lethal accidents in the total number of accidents)



From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                              Data analysis by areas
•Detailed data from countries / regions or
                                                                                                                               0,40
cities (related to partners and Urban roads
                                test sites)                                                                                    0,35
                                                                                                                                               TOTAL
                   Motorways
                                                                          Death                                                                    Death                Injure
                     12%
                                                 Accid.
                                                 Urban Area               s                       Injured                 0,30
                                                                                                                        Accid.                     s                    d
•Specific papers, ex: road 25%
                       Fine
                              departure or
                            135.670   1.779  179.754
                                                                                                                               0,25
                                                                                                                          172.471                   4.067                 4.566                                                                     motorway
Intersection
   Causes of accidents Rain  18.406 Urban Roads
                                        235   26.213                                                                       %
                                                                                                                               0,20
                                                                                                                           26.327                        663                   810
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ruraal
                                                                                                                               0,15                                                                                                                 city
   Driving in distracted or erratic fashion
Sources (examples):             Fog                         757                      14               30 649
                                                                                                      1.081                    1.402
                                                                                                                               0,10                        5620                  89

- Italy and the city of Turin
    Vehicle not respecting safety distance
                                Snow       511   7     22 703
                                                        758                                                                    0,05
                                                                                                                                 917                       1815                  30
- French motorways and rural roads of the Brittany 77
    Exceeding speed limit       Hail        54   1     21 780                                                                  0,00
                                                                                                                                   115                       514                     1
                                                                                                                                             singular         vulnurable head-tail                                 frontal                  aside
provincean irregular manoeuvre
    Making          Rural Roads Wind       186   5     14 011
                                                        250                                                                        304                         9      13
                                                                                                                                                           12 road user
- Urban areaspriority
    Failure to give   in Germany, and from the Netherlands.
                       63%
                                      25,0%            13 594                                                                                                      9
                                  Other               14.309                    269                19.412    23.017                                      804                   792
   Failure to stop at stop sign                                                                     13 140                                                         9
                                 Total        169.893  2.310                                      227.545   224.553                       5.625   6.301
                                       20,0%                                                #     with bodily                           # fatal   % with bodily                                                                 % fatal
                                          Type of
   Failure to give priority to vehicle from right Accident                                          13 593                                      9
                                                                                                                 injury              accidents           injury                                                              accidents
   Turning in an irregular way                                                                           7 186                                                     5
          Accident caused by turning into a road
                                      15,0%
                                                                                                    60960                                    212                                     27%                                         15%
   Overtaking in irregular way                                                                           4 984                                                     3
          Accident between vehicles moving
   Proceeding in wrong direction      10,0%                                                         46698
                                                                                                      4 924                                  103                   3                 21%                                          7%
          along in carriageway
   Pedestrian run over on zebra crossing                                                                 5 004                                                     3
          Accident caused by turning off the road                                                   35474                                    128                                     16%                                          9%
   Avoiding another vehicle           5,0%
                                                                                                         2 228                                                     1
          Other accident                                                                            26710                                    190                                     12%                                         13%
   Vehicle stopped without any stop sign shown                                                               144                                                   0
          Driving accident
   Avoiding an animal
                                      0,0%
                                              turning, U-     priority,   distance        speed     25507
                                                                                                       332
                                                                                                    use of the     improper     driving      366
                                                                                                                                            overtaking             0
                                                                                                                                                         driving side   stationary   11%
                                                                                                                                                                                     driving past   load, number    failure to   25%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   other
                                                 turn,      precedence                                road        behaviuor     fitness                    by side       vehicles,                        of         observe     mistakes
                                               reserving                                                           tow ards                                               safety                     passengers      lighting    made by
           Accident caused
   Insufficient headlights        by crossing the road                                              19511
                                                                                                        55       pedestrians                 422                   0    measures         9%                        regulations   29%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  driver

                                                                                                                   accidents with bodiliy injury   accidents with fatalities
        Accident due to driving behaviour
   TOTAL accidents involving stationary vehicles                                                     8454
                                                                                                    154 327                                   18             100                         4%                                       1%

 From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                          Safety related scenarios

   •General scenarios:        8
   •Special black spot scenarios: 5
   •By areas (total):         15
                   Name                 Speed and dangerous driving
                   Type                 Wrong speed, dangerous driving                        42%
                   Aggravating factor   Speed
                   Location             Highway
                                                        Extension 1
                   Type                 excessive speed                                       19%
                                                        Extension 2
                   Type                 overtaking                                            12%
                                                        Extension 3
                   Type                 wrong speed with traffic condition                    5,9%
                                                        Extension 4
                   Type                 wrong speed with weather condition                    3,4%
                                                        Extension 4
                   Type                 insufficient safety distance                          1,7%

    NB: Factors not always considered as main cause (cf Excessive Speed vs Priority)

From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                                                                  Use cases
       24 use cases classified by categories
       Example:                                                                                    Frequency of           Failure to observe the traffic control by policemen or traffic lights is
   Case Name              Safe signalized intersection (red light violation)                       occurrence             the reason for 2.0% of accidents with injured people and 0.8% with
   Case ID                SP5_UC31_v1.0                                                                                   fatalities in the urban area in Germany.
   Status                 Final                                                                    Primary Actor          SAFESPOT equipped Vehicles and RSU.
   Short description                                                                               Secondary Actor(s)     Road-side sensors and acoustic warning devices
                                                                                                   Scenario Description   Step         Action
                                                                                                                          1            Additionally to the infrastructure-based sensing
                                                                                                                                       technologies all vehicles shall transmit their location,
                                                                                                                                       speed, acceleration and turning intention (indicator on/off)
                                                                                                                                       to the RSU when they approach the intersection.
                                                                                                                          2            A RSU procedure (model) reconstructs and forecasts the
                                    RSU                                                                                                trajectories of the vehicles and other road-user (like
                                                                                                                                       pedestrians) real-time, based on XFCD, road-side
                                                                                                                                       sensing and the traffic light control status.
                                                                                                                          3            In the case of an imminent red light violation (short
                                                                                                                                       distance to stop line + high speed) appropriate warnings
                                                                                                                                       are generated by a decision and reasoning procedure,
                                                                                                                                       which takes into account the available actors, remaining
                                                                                                                                       reaction time of the road users, and other given criteria.
                                                                                                                          4             Warning information is sent out to all drivers
                                                                                                                                            concerned.
                                                                                                                                        Pedestrians and bikers are warned by means of
                                                                                                                                            acoustic devices.
                                                                                                                          5            Red light violator:
                                                                                                                                        The vehicle’s ADAS presents the warning and ask
                                                                                                                                            the driver to break.
                                                                                                                                        The vehicle’s ADAS presents the info and interacts
                                                                                                                                            with the driver properly to avoid the threatening
                                                                                                                                            accident.
                          The trajectories of the vehicles and other road-user (like                                      6            All incident data are recorded in a local or central
                          pedestrians) shall be reconstructed and forecasted real-time                                                 database for further use.
                          through road-side procedures, based on XFCD, road-side sensing           Extensions             Step         Action
                          and the traffic light control status. In the case of an imminent red                            1a           Road-side sensing is used in order to improve the
                          light violation (short distance to stop line + high speed) warnings                                          localisation accuracy of the vehicles (e.g. Laser).
                          shall be send out to the drivers concerned. As far as pedestrian and                             Drivers, pedestrians and bikers want to be informed or warned
                          bikers are concerned, warnings could be realized by means of                                         in case of red light violation.
                          acoustic signals.                                                                                The drivers like to have recommendations how to behave best
   Purpose                Imminent red light violation shall be detected as early as possible in                               in such cases.
                          order to warn all the road-users concerned. The goal is to decrease                              Pedestrian and cyclists wants to be warned by means of road-
                          the number of accidents of this type significantly by employing such     User Needs                  side installed warning devices (e.g. acoustically or flash light)
                          co-operative systems.                                                                                early if dangerous situations occurs that might concern him.
   Rationale              Red light violation of drivers (unintentional or not) at signalized                              Road operators want to reduce the number of accidents (esp.
                          intersections often provokes extreme dangerous situations and are                                    fatalities) in urban areas significantly.
                          a source of frequent fatal accidents.                                                            The driver wants to be warned by means of ADAS early if a
   Authors                                                                                                                     dangerous situation occurs that might concern him.
                          Paul Mathias - SIEMENS
   Driving environment                                                                                                    SP5_RQ01, up to SP5_RQ11,
                          Urban or Rural Intersection (no urban motorway)                          Corresponding
                                                                                                                          SP5_RQ13 up to SP5_RQ21,
   Vehicle probe type     All vehicles shall transmit their location, speed, acceleration and      requirements
                                                                                                                          SP5_RQ24, SP5 RQ32
                          turning intention (indicator on/off) to the RSU when they approach
                                                                                                   Related UCs            SP5_UC22, SP5_UC55
                          the intersection.
                                                                                                   Open issues             The timing is crucial here. It is not clear yet whether there is
   Risk’s source          The other drivers don’t expect a vehicle violating the red light. In
                                                                                                                               enough time in case of detection to generate and perform
                          most cases a red light violator remains outside the perception
                                                                                                                               appropriate warnings. Also doubtful whether there remains
                          range of the other drivers.                                                                          enough reaction time for other drivers.
   Successful end         Warning the road users of the red light violators and suggesting the                             Legal issues are not clarified until now. What if the warning
   condition              right behaviours.                                                                                    from the red light violator provokes other accidents?
   Failed end condition   The accuracy of the vehicle location is not good enough in urban         Comments               If the infrastructure transmits the status of the traffic lights to all
                          areas.                                                                                          vehicles the violating vehicle can be warned early according to its
   Trigger                Vehicle about to violate red light.                                                             speed approaching the crossing.



From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                          Use cases
• Detailed use cases

     –   Purpose
     –   Rational
     –   Risk sources
     –   Successful end conditions
     –   Failed end conditions
     –   Trigger
     –   Frequency of occurrence
     –   Scenario description (step1,step2, etc.)
     –   Extensions
     –   Related User Needs
     –   Related Requirements
     –   Related use cases
     –   Open issue
     –   Comments

From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                   SP5 Applications


INITIAL LIST OF APPLICATIONS                                        FINAL LIST
              (Technical Annex)                                OF APPLICATIONS
Speed alert and road departure                         Speed Alert – SpA
prevention
Smart signalling for safety                            Road Departure Prevention – RDep
enhancement
Safety margin for Assistance and                       Safety Margin for Assistance and
emergency vehicles                                     Emergency Vehicles – SMAEV
Safe urban intersection                                Co-operative Intersection Collision
                                                       Prevention System – CICPS
Hazard and incident warning                            Hazard and Incident Warning – H&IW




From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                    Potential Impact
                                                        Road departure prevention
                                                  Accident causes: All causes where a road departure can be the main
                           Scope:                 or an aggravating factor and where the application speed alert is not
                                                  strongly relevant.
• Based on the
                                                  -Obstacles : SP5_UC16
Safety related                                    -Misjudgement : SP5_UC21
scenarios                  Related Use cases:     -Rule violation: SP5_UC32
                                                  -Critical environment conditions : SP5_UC41, SP5_UC42, SP5_UC45
                                                  -Safety improving driver assistance :

                                                                  Potential impact
•Gives                          (The Road Departure application will impact on all the 3 main environments)
Percentage of                                     Scenario : Driver’s lack of vigilance
accidents or                                                    - leaving the carriageway: 20%
                           Urban area             Supposing a 100% reliable system working on all the cars, then we
situations that are                               could expect that the Road Departure application would cover around
covered by each                                   20% of the German urban lethal accidents.
application                                       The French data analysis on rural roads reports that between 30% and
                                                  40% of the accidents are of “Run-off road” type. These figures give an
                           Rural area
                                                  idea of the potential impact of a 100% reliable SAFESPOT system
                                                  working on all the cars and in all the areas.
                                                  Scenario : Driver’s lack of vigilance
                                                                - Veer of the lane 25%
                           Motorway
                                                  A 100% reliable SAFESPOT system should be able to manage about
                                                  25% of road departure accidents in Italian and French motorways.

From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                     Application and use cases priority




                                                                                         URBAN

                                                                                                  RURAL

                                                                                                              MOTORWAY

                                                                                                                         TOTAL
Rule                                        Related               Safety Critical
violation        Use case Name              application           Scenario
                                                                                        6        5                       11
                 Safe signalized
                 intersection (red light    Safe urban            Intersection
SP5_UC31         violation)                 intersection          black spot
                                                                                                 8        9              17
                                                                  Rule violation /
                 Prevention of Driver       Speed alert /         Road departure /
SP5_UC32         Excessive Speed            Road Departure        Drowsiness /
                                                                                        8        7        2              17
                 Right of way (stop
                 sign), not signalized      Safe urban            Priority / Stop
SP5_UC33         roads                      intersection          signs
                                                                                                 4        7              11
                                            Speed alert,                                                  (S)
                 Ghost drivers (wrong       Hazard and            Wrong way
SP5_UC34         way driving)               incident warning      driving


From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                          Test sites and evaluation

  Evaluation of
      -Level of detection on real condition
      -Driver response to the system

  Numerous test site around Europe
         - cities
         - rural roads
         - motorways
         - bridge and tunnels




From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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                                            THE END




           Thank you for your attention !

                                         Questions ?



From user needs to applications: the Safespot approach based on road accident data analysis
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