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Cabinets Part2

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									Cabinets
    kitchen cabinets are typically modular,
standardized, and available in different quality
                levels & prices
           'shop drawings'
• when a project calls for custom millwork,
  or for specialized cabinetry and
  installation, the designer sends design
  drawings to the fabricator, who in turn,
  makes 'shop drawings'.
• the shop drawings are the fabricator's
  interpretation of what the design drawings
  have proposed.
• the shop drawings communicate the precise,
  dimensioned, and specific material character of the item.

• the designer then checks the shop drawings to be sure
  that they are an accurate interpretation of the design
  drawings.

• the fabricator will begin making the item after receiving
  the approved shop drawings back from the designer.
each individual cabinet is identified with
               a number
dimensions are coordinated with
     the interior designer
a typical design drawing of a
    kitchen cabinet layout
a typical shop drawing
         cabinet drawers:
material, operability & joint construction = quality level
types of drawer joints
   general criteria in selecting cabinets

• The box of the cabinet should look and feel sturdy. The
  drawer is a good indication of the quality of construction
  used in cabinets.

• Corner of wall and base should be braced with corner
  blocks.

• Where there is stress or a major joint, the stiles and rails
  (the vertical and horizontal framing) should be joined
  with mortise and tenon or dowel joints.
• Tops and bottoms should be dadoed into the sides.

• Hinges should be strong, swing freely, and operate
  silently.

• Hardware should be conveniently located and be
  comfortable to the hand, e.g. D- or U-shaped handle.

• In addition to quality, if undercabinet lighting is being
  considered, select wall cabinets with an apron or
  recessed lower shelf large enough to cover the light.
           drawer selection criteria

• Drawers should be removable, have an automatic stop,
  and be of sturdy construction.


• The easiest sliding drawers have double metal tracking
  on sides or bottom of the drawer with nylon and ball-
  bearing rollers or aluminum glides with nylon rollers.
  Over time, drawers that slide directly on wood will not
  slide as well.
• The sturdiest drawers have dovetail or mortise and tenon
  joints in all four corners and have a separate drawer head
  attached to the drawer box which is made of 1/2 inch thick
  wood for the sides and back and 1/2 inch thick plywood or
  particle board bottom.

• Tongue and groove joints are sturdy; rabbeted and butt
  joints are the least sturdy.


• Plastic is easy to clean and can have molded plastic
  compartments which are useful. However, light-weight
  plastic can break if heavy objects are dropped on it.
               shelving criteria
• Cabinets wider than three feet should have a shelf
  support in the center.


• Wall cabinet shelves should be removable and
  adjustable, attached with clips or grooves.


• In base cabinets, pull-out shelves are more usable and
  convenient than stationary shelves and may be vertically
  adjustable.
• Open metal racks and shelving are available in
  base or wall cabinets and allow easy viewing.

• Roll-out or tilt-out bins are options to standard
  drawers.

• Lazy susans or blind corner swing-out shelves
  make corner space more accessible.
           cabinet materials
• Wood
 – Wood is the most popular material for cabinets. It is
   available in softwood and hardwood. Softwood
   scratches and dents more easily. Wood grain of
   higher priced cabinets match vertically and
   horizontally. Plywood and particle board are more
   often used than solid wood for large areas since large
   wood pieces may warp. Exposed surface may be a
   veneer over plywood or particle board.
           Wood cabinets
with stainless steel drawer and door pulls.
                      Reclaimed wood cabinets
dovetail joints used in the drawer construction, metal ‘glides allow smooth open
                               and close operation.
Cabinets made using reclaimed wood
• High pressure decorative laminates
  – The 1/32 inch thick decorative laminate, e.g.
    Formica®, on a rigid material is highly suitable
    for kitchen cabinets. Decorative laminate
    cabinet doors need a backing sheet to
    prevent warping.
  Laminate is by far the most popular kitchen counter top. It's easy to clean,
 resists stains, comes in many colors and can imitate the look of marble and
granite, wood, and stainless steel. It is also one of the less expensive kitchen
                              counter materials.
Some suppliers of High Pressure Laminate are Formica®, Wilsonart®,
                     Nevamar®, and Pionite®
                         Plastic laminate


multiple layers of resin soaked kraft paper, topped by a patterned
sheet of melamine (plastic) that’s subjected to heat and pressure.

The resulting 1/16-in. laminate sheet can be glued to several
different sub-strates, such as plywood, mdf (medium density fiber
board), particle board, et cetera.
• Plastics
  – Polystyrene, a heavy, durable plastic is
    sometimes used to imitate wood. Rigid vinyls
    in sheet or roll, and low pressure decorative
    laminates are laminated to a substrate or
    corestock, i.e. particle board, but are not as
    durable as the high pressure decorative
    laminates.
                                Dupont Corian

•   more than 30 years ago, DuPont discovered a way to blend natural minerals
    with pure acrylic resin to create a product they call Corian®.

•   Corian is a solid surfacing material that can be cut, routed, drilled, sculpted,
    bent, or worked like a fine wood. It is currently available in more than 100
    colors.
•   
The solid color of Corian® goes all the way through the material.
         Corian
solid surfacing material
                       Corian used to make outdoor furniture
                                   Nature-inspired design by Avanzini
The Leaf line of outdoor furniture was created by architect Giancarlo Zema with folding, leaf-like forms
                                        that are soft to the touch
Bowls made of Corian
• Steel
  – Steel cabinets are durable, washable, and
    retain no odor.
  – Low quality steel cabinets are less expensive
    and may be noisy to use.
Stainless steel kitchen cabinets
Stainless steel doors with pulls
   a sequence of design drawings that explore
            the design of a kitchen:
this is the work of a student named Joseph Londt, Spring 2000
• This project began when Professor Rod Underwood
  delivered the assignment to me: design and execute
  drawings that detail a theoretical kitchen.
• With little more information than this, I set out to design a
  space for the preparation and cleanup of food in a small
  space, much like the apartment where I currently live.
•
• I took basic ideas in space economy and filtered them
  through the ideals that I hold about the use of kitchen,
  and applied the understanding I've recently acquired in
  my technical classes at Ball State University to create
  the following drawings.
vertical section/elevation
• This one (previous sketch) shows the
  relationship of a six foot tall person and the
  counter spaces, which eventually evolved to be
  36 inches high, as well as the wall mounted
  cabinets that are placed 60 inches off the floor
  plane, to accommodate a wide range of users,
  from short to tall. Exploration of lighting and the
  spatial requirements of the aisle was also a
  component.
• This diagram shows spatial relationships of most
  of the surfaces of the kitchen space, and
  highlights the placement of many of the systems
  that will make the space work.

• One component of the HVAC system is the
  ceiling mounted cook top exhaust hood, and
  some of the electrical and plumbing devices are
  shown in their preliminary locations. Rough
  dimensions also explain the space.
• The floor plan shows door swings for
  cabinets and appliances, indicating worst
  case scenarios for available walkways, as
  well as distances from sink to stove to
  refrigerator.
 Standard kitchen cabinet units are both about manufacturing efficiency, and
                           about human dimension.
Anthropometrics is the study of human body measurements usually done along
      side ergonomics as a component of human factors engineering .
Standard sizes of wall mounted cabinets
            Poggenpohl
• “Our goal is to improve the kitchen.”
•
• This was cabinet maker Friedemir
  Poggenpohl's mission when he
  founded the company in 1892 - a company
  which today has become one of the most
  well-known kitchen brands in the world.
                Poggenpohl cabinets
beautifully made Danish cabinets are very expensive.
Cabinet Design and Consruction
• In framed cabinetry, wood joinery holds the parts
  together. This American-style cabinet attaches a 1 ½”
  wide x ¾” thick frame to the front of the cabinet box.
  Horizontal rails and vertical stiles secure the door to the
  box. Hinges attach the door to the face frame.


   In frameless cabinetry, thicker side panels keep
   the cabinet rigid without the use of a front frame.
   Special hardware fittings secure the door directly to
   the side or end panels of the cabinet. Due to the lack
   of face frame, the cabinet doors lie flush with each other,
   forming a tight reveal of 1/8” or less.
• Box materials typically contain wood chips, other wood
  by-products, and synthetic additives to make them
  especially strong and warp resistant. Your options
  typically include particle board, plywood, and
• mdf (medium density fiberboard)
• According to the National Kitchen & Bath Association,
  standard cabinet dimensions are as follows:


    base cabinets, which are set on the floor, are
    24” deep and 34 ½” high, including a 4” toekick.

    wall cabinets, which are affixed to the wall with
    screws, are 12” deep. Standard height is 30”,
    but other common heights include 24”, 33”, and
    42”.
    tall pantry or utility cabinets are generally
    84” or 96” high
                       Doors
• How the cabinet door fits over the cabinet box
  determines its basic type


   Your options for cabinet door type include:
   Inset doors sit within the rails and stiles and
   lay flush with the front edges of the cabinet box.
   Truly inset doors are only available with framed
   construction, but designers can achieve the same
   look using vertical pilasters on frameless cabinets.
   Note: wood may expand and contract because
   of humidity, causing rubbing between the door and
   stiles.
• Lipped doors are routed with a slight wooden
  groove to fit over the face frame.
• 
Partial overlay doors conceal just some of the
  face frame - there is usually a ½” to 1” space
  between closed doors, allowing you to see much
  of the face frame. Because partial overlay doors
  are smaller than full overlay doors, they require
  less material, so this choice could slightly reduce
  your cabinetry’s total cost.
• Full overlay doors have less than one-eighth of an inch
  between them - in effect, they fully lay over the cabinet.
  By definition, all frameless cabinets have full overlay
  doors. Manufacturers can attach full overlay doors to
  framed cabinets as well, however, creating a similar
  look. You can tell for sure whether a cabinet is framed or
  frameless by opening a door and checking for rails and
  stiles.
            doors and drawers:
inset, slab, raised panel, recessed panel
                         Drawers

• The drawers will likely be made of solid wood or
  medium-density fiberboard (MDF); have framed or flat
  slab fronts; and be held together with either dovetail,
  mortise-and-tenon, or butt joints
                       Drawer Slides

•   Options for drawer slides include:
•   Full extension・
•   Ball bearing
•   Track and roller
•   Wood
•   Self closing
• Full-extension slides attach to the bottom or the sides
  of the drawer and provide full access to the drawer
  interior. Their ball-bearing system adds stability and
  strength. Stronger versions can be used to store heavier
  items, such as files or cookware.

  Ball-bearing slides attach to the bottom of the
  drawer sides. Usually standard on high-end cabinets,
  they offer smooth, quiet operation. Their concealed
  runners mounted to the bottom of the drawer donユt
  get as dirty as those mounted on the side. They
  allow for a wider drawer box with a more usable
  interior space.
• Track-and-roller slides attach to the drawer sides.
  Their epoxy-coated steel tracks and nylon rollers offer
  quiet operation but are less stable than ball-bearing ones




    Wooden slides work as slots in the drawer sides
    or bottoms and move the drawer along a wood runner.
    This option has fallen out of favor because the drawers
    tend to stick as the wood expands and contracts.
•   Stock cabinets are constructed prior to purchase. The manufacturer does
    not build them to individually requested specifications, so all sizes meet
    industry standards.
•
•   Stock cabinetry widths begin at 9 inches and increase in 3” increments to
    48”, the largest standard stock size available. Some stock companies also
    offer half-sized cabinets (13½”, 19½”, etc.).
•
•   A kitchen's dimensions may not correspond exactly to the available
    increments. To accommodate sizes outside of the 3-inch increments, filler
    strips are used to close any gaps between the cabinet and walls or
    appliances.
             SEMI-CUSTOM CABINETRY

•   Partly stock, partly custom.
•   Includes all of the offerings of stock cabinetry and fewer limitations.
•   A step up from stock, semi-custom cabinets also typically come in 3”
    increments but have the ability to incorporate certain custom features, such
    as increased and reduced depths.
•   Semi-custom cabinets have a wider range of door, finish, and wood
    selections than stock.
•   Construction begins when order is finalized, so modifications can be made
    as the cabinets are somewhat built to suit. Expect to wait at least one month
    for delivery.
             CUSTOM CABINETRY
• Custom cabinets are restricted by only one thing - the amount of
  money one is willing to spend!
• There tend to be two kinds of custom cabinets: those made by a
  custom manufacturer (such as William Ohs) and those made by a
  local ‘custom’ woodworking shop.
• Local cabinetmakers produce the box, frame, and drawers in their
  shop. They will either fabricate the doors or order them from a
  company.
• You may want to ask your local cabinetmaker how much of it is done
  in-house.
                Surface Materials for Cabinets


•   Typical Surface Materials Include:
•   Wood
•   Wood Veneer
•   Plastic Laminate
•   Stainless Steel
•   Glass
Poggenpohl Cabinets
• Web page with links to many cbinet makers:
• http://www.angelfire.com/tx2/tillmill/cabinets.html
Pedini Italian Kitchens
Pedini Italian Kitchens
         Typical Kitchen Layouts:
Linear, ‘Railroad’, Peninsula, Corner, Horseshoe

								
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