Media Assignment (DOC)

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					                            ENG4C

                Exploring the Media
An examination of media works to explore the concept of audience,
identification of target audience, and the relationship between the
producer and the consumer: a deconstruction of media stereotyping
and how it can cause people to feel limited within their group, hinder
the free expression of individual differences, and limit creativity.
Warm up to media – Vocabulary Exercise

Word                    Definition                   example   Hours when television viewing
                                                               is heaviest and air time is
Ad                                                             most expensive (i.e., 8-11
                                                               p.m.).


Billboard
                                                               A large printed sign or poster,
                                                               outside or in arenas or stadiums.

                                                               A section of time in the media set
Consumers                                                      aside for advertising or a specific
                                                               performer.


Jingle
                                                               Short form for "advertisement"; a
                                                               public promotion of a product.

                                                               People who buy and use products
Marketing                                                      for their own purpose (i.e., most of
                                                               us).
                                                               Communication of information,
Mass media
                                                               news, and entertainment to many
                                                               (e.g., advertising, newspapers,
                                                               movies).


Prime time
                                                               Casual and informal language
                                                               (e.g., whazzup, busted).


Product                                                        Repeated phrase associated with a
                                                               product or company (e.g., "Just do
placement                                                      it.").

                                                               Tune and lines associated with a
Slang                                                          product (e.g., "You've always got
                                                               time for Tim Horton's.").
                                                               A form of advertising in which a
Slogan
                                                               product is shown within another
                                                               medium (e.g., a character in a
                                                               movie holds a can of Coke).
                                                               The many ways that products are
Spot
                                                               advertised, sold, and delivered to
                                                               people (e.g., by using slogans,
                                                               images, special packaging).
                                                               A group of people most expected
Target                                                         to buy a product or service (e.g.,
audience                                                       middle-aged women and anti-
                                                               wrinkle cream).




Adapted from: http://resources.elearningontario.ca                                2
Advertising: Implicit and Explicit Messages

Creativity involves seeing things in a different way than others.

I think the world really boils down to two types of people - those who see shapes in cloud
formations, and those who just see clouds.~Danzae Pace

Part of any English course, along with Oral Communication, Reading and Writing skills is Media Literacy. There are three stages to
Media literacy:

        The first stage is becoming aware of the choices you make with Media, with how and when you use the various forms of media.
        The second stage involves analyzing what you are viewing, questioning what is there, and noticing what is not there.
        The third stage is about trying to figure out why the media was created in the first place. Who made it? Who is the audience? What
           are they hoping will happen? Who might benefit? Who might lose?

                                                                 Adapted from the Media Awareness Network

By studying Media in this unit, you will be challenged to think creatively and find the cloud formations in the clouds.


Advertising Techniques and Messages
Read the following information on target audiences, persuasive advertising techniques, and implicit and explicit messages. When
you are finished reading, view the presentation to help reinforce how advertising uses various techniques and messages.

There are many tricks to successful advertising. One of the most important is to advertise to the right target audience. If you think
about it, why would someone advertise pampers on Much Music? There are not many teenagers who have children. If a diaper
company advertised on an afternoon soap opera though, there would likely be a number of stay-at-home mothers who have babies
and toddlers. It is very important for people writing ads to think about their target audience.


Target Audience
Advertisers (those who create ads) target certain audiences with their ads. For advertisers, people fall into certain categories
according to:



          age, gender, social class, interests, and education.


More Than One Target
Some ads, like those for milk, target more than one audience.



          For example, mothers of small babies, teenagers with growing bones, older people
          concerned with keeping their bones strong.




Adapted from: http://resources.elearningontario.ca                                                                        3
Persuasive Devices and Propaganda
As consumers of advertising, it is important for us to understand the different ways in which ads are trying to persuade us to buy the
product being advertised. The following devices are widely used among advertisers.



 Testimonial -- The endorsement of a philosophy, idea or product be a well-known person or
 organization. For example, "Joe Hockey uses Face Power aftershave lotion."
 Bandwagon appeal -- Everyone's doing it, so you should be too! For example, "Sparkle!
 Canada's #1 best-seller."
 Plain folks approach -- Pretending that there is a down-home honesty or old-fashioned
 goodness in something. For example, "Use Whitewash. It makes your clothes as white as
 Momma used to wash them."
 Snob appeal -- Opposite of plain folks; connecting an affluent lifestyle to an idea or product. For
 example, "She lives in Oakville. She spends her winters in the Swiss Alps. She drives a
 Mercmobile. Her perfume - TUSK."
 Hidden fears -- Exploitation of the fears and insecurities of people. For example, "Don't lose
 friends. Use Sweet-Pit, the friendly deodorant."
 Facts and Figures -- The use of figures and statistics to prove a point beyond dispute. For
 example, "No-ache Pills - the only headache tablet with 30 mg of pain reliever."
 Generalizations -- Making an irrational statement that glosses over truthful details. For example,
 "You won't ever be cold again."
 Bargaining -- Convincing people to do or think something because of the promise of a reward
 (often false or unnecessary). For example, "If you use this ultra-shiny lip gloss, you too can have
 a handsome boyfriend."
 Transfer -- The application of the qualities of one idea to those of another. For example, "Smoke
 Mint Fresh and get a breath of springtime."
 Repetition -- Repeated words for emphasis of an idea. For example, "Finally - Natural Glow! The
 natural shampoo with nature's ingredients to bring out the natural glow in you."
 Magic Ingredients -- The idea that a product's effectiveness is scientifically-based. For example,
 "Drink Eau-Boire, the mineral water with H2O."
 Weasel words -- The use of vague words such as helps, fights, virtually etc. For example, "Use
 Zit-Kwit, the only skin medicine that helps fight virtually all skin blemishes."


Implicit and Explicit Messages
Explicit information is directly stated information, that is, one can find a direct reference to it in the media text. Implicit information is
implied, meaning the information is indirectly stated and the readers/viewers must connect two or more ideas in their heads to
understand the information.

Ads tend to make few direct, specific claims. The majority of the messages are implicit, and sent by many indirect insinuations
throughout the ad.

It is important to be able to recognize the implicit messages that are bombarding us. We need to decipher and dissect the truth in
advertising. Becoming skeptical observers of advertisements is a necessary skill with the amount of media advertisements that we
encounter everyday.




Adapted from: http://resources.elearningontario.ca                                                                            4
Assignment – Implicit and Explicit Messages
Watch television. Choose three commercials to examine. Complete the worksheet below, critiquing
each of the commercials. Be sure to identify the following aspects of each commercial. Use additional
pages if necessary.

                                                                                                     Do you think the commercial
                                                                                                                                        Would you buy
                                                                                                     was effective? Is there anything
Product or service   Target    Type of persuasive   Identify the explicit Identify and explain the                                      the product
                                                                                                     you would change about the
being advertised     audience. device used          messages presented implicit messages presented                                      based on the
                                                                                                     commercial to make it even
                                                                                                                                        commercial?
                                                                                                     more effective?




      Adapted from: http://resources.elearningontario.ca                                                                          5
Media Stereotyping


Naturally, human beings seem to identify with certain groups of people. This may be because of race, sex, education, culture,
religion, etc. But sometimes, the media uses stereotypes of these groups and causes people to feel limited within their group.
Stereotyping can hinder individual differences and freedom, and limit creativity. By addressing the existing stereotypes and working
towards deconstructing negative myths, we demonstrate our sensitivity for all people.

Please read the following article on Media Stereotyping from the Media Awareness Network.

(http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/index.cfm)

Be sure to access the links within the site to find out more about how the media portrays the following groups of people.
Ethnic and Visible Minorities
Aboriginal People
Girls and Women
Men and Masculinity
Gays and Lesbians
Whiteness and White Privilege

Every student can relate to the portrayal of women and men. Young people are bombarded with stereotypes of beauty and
perfection in advertisements, magazines, and music videos. All of these media are creative in nature. The magazine cover pictured
below is truly beautiful. But, as a media consumer, you will need to be aware of images that portray you and your peers in unrealistic
ways. You might really enjoy reading this type of magazine, but you should look at it critically:


                                                          1.   Who is the intended audience?


                                                          2.   What are the explicit messages?


                                                          3.   What are the implicit messages?


                                                          4.   Where would you purchase this magazine?


                                                          5.   How do you think this magazine would be displayed
                                                               to promote sales?


                                                          6.   What is the main goal of the producer of this
                                                               magazine?




Adapted from: http://resources.elearningontario.ca                                                                   6
Assignment: Media Stereotyping You are the expert:

Prepare and present a lesson that addresses the issues and solutions surrounding the stereotyping of a particular group of people
in the media. This is your chance to be creative while being informative. Use the lesson plan outline below to plan the lesson.

You may work in groups or individually. The website given is only a starting point. Please note: If two or more groups are covering
the same topic, you must get together and spread out the work so there is not a lot of repetition.

Ethnic and Visible Minorities
This section examines the representation of minority groups in the media industry—both onscreen, in sitcoms and news
reporting, and off-screen, in terms of hiring practices. It also looks at Canadian government policies and broadcasting industry
codes that encourage diversity.

         Ethnic and Visible Minorities
         Ethnic and Visible Minorities in Entertainment Media | Ethnic and Visible Minorities in the News | The Economics of Ethnic
         and Racial Stereotyping | Ethnic Media in Canada | Diversity and Canadian Broadcasting Policy | Voluntary Industry
         Diversity Codes


Aboriginal People
This section examines media attitudes to First Nations, Inuit and Native American peoples - from early films and television to
today's coverage and portrayals. The section looks at the effect on young people's attitudes of seeing Aboriginal people shown
primarily in cartoons or as sports mascots; and it also discusses the development of Aboriginal broadcasting in Canada.

         Aboriginal People
         Common Portrayals of Aboriginal People | Aboriginal People in the News | Native Names and Imagery in Sports | The
         Impact of Stereotyping on Young People | The Development of Aboriginal Broadcasting in Canada | Aboriginal Voices in
         the Arts and Media | The Importance of Media Education


Girls and Women
This section explores female stereotypes in entertainment and news media, including onscreen portrayals of women, their effect
on cultural ideas of beauty, and how these stereotypes influence the social development of young women. The section also
examines the economic interests that drive media attitudes towards women.

         Girls and Women
         Beauty and Body Image in the Media | Sex and Relationships in the Media | Media Coverage of Women and Women's
         Issues | Media and Girls | The Economics of Gender Stereotyping | Women Working in the Media | Resisting Stereotypes
         and Working for Change


Men and Masculinity
This section examines common stereotypes of masculinity on TV, in men's magazines, and in advertising and sports media. It
discusses society's definitions of male roles and attributes, and the effect that media portrayals have on men's (and young
people's) notions of what masculinity means.

         Men and Masculinity
         How the Media Define Masculinity | Common Stereotypes of Men in Media | Children's Perceptions of Male Stereotypes |
         Men's Magazines and the Construction of Masculinity | Masculinity and Sports Media | Masculinity and Advertising | Male
         Authority in the Media


Gays and Lesbians
This section offers a brief overview of how gays and lesbians are portrayed in the media: the evolution of gay portrayals in film,
issues related to gays and lesbians in television, and how advertising and news coverage treat gays and lesbians.

         Gays and Lesbians
         Representations of Gays and Lesbians on Television | Representations of Gays and Lesbians in Film | Gays and Lesbians
         in the News | Advertising and Gay Consumers | PrideVision TV


Whiteness and White Privilege
This section explores the social norms and expectations associated with being white—including the media's tendency to accord
respect and authority to white people, especially from the middle and upper classes. Onscreen and behind the scenes, white
privilege (along with male privilege, and "straight" privilege) fosters a climate of systemic discrimination that tends to exclude
many diverse views from the media.

         Whiteness and White Privilege
         Defining Whiteness and White Privilege | White Authority in the Media | Media Representations of the Working Classes




Adapted from: http://resources.elearningontario.ca                                                                   7
Graded Components:
PRESENTATION (actual lesson), TASK assigned to class, ASSESSMENT (measurement of understanding), LESSON PLAN (plan
of lesson, task and assessment), REFERENCES (works cited list).

Lesson Plan

Date:                                        Topic


Expectation(s)/Objective(s)                                                  Resources




Timing Teaching Strategies (lesson)




         Task




         Assessment




Adapted from: http://resources.elearningontario.ca                                                   8
Complete the following before you begin. You must conference with the teacher first.


Group                                                Sub Topic                     Presentation Date
                   Topic                Highlight or circle all that apply
Members                                                                                  March 2008
                                        Ethnic and Visible Minorities in
                                        Entertainment Media | Ethnic and
                   Ethnic and           Visible Minorities in the News | The
                   Visible Minorities   Economics of Ethnic and Racial
                                        Stereotyping | Ethnic Media in Canada
                                        | Diversity and Canadian Broadcasting
                                        Policy | Voluntary Industry Diversity
                                        Codes
                                        Common Portrayals of Aboriginal
                                        People | Aboriginal People in the
                                        News | Native Names and Imagery in
                   Aboriginal People    Sports | The Impact of Stereotyping on
                                        Young People | The Development of
                                        Aboriginal Broadcasting in Canada |
                                        Aboriginal Voices in the Arts and
                                        Media | The Importance of Media
                                        Education
                                        Beauty and Body Image in the Media |
                                        Sex and Relationships in the Media |
                                        Media Coverage of Women and
                   Girls and Women      Women's Issues | Media and Girls |
                                        The Economics of Gender
                                        Stereotyping | Women Working in the
                                        Media | Resisting Stereotypes and
                                        Working for Change

                                        How the Media Define Masculinity |
                                        Common Stereotypes of Men in Media |
                                        Children's Perceptions of Male
                   Men and
                                        Stereotypes | Men's Magazines and the
                   Masculinity
                                        Construction of Masculinity |
                                        Masculinity and Sports Media |
                                        Masculinity and Advertising | Male
                                        Authority in the Media



                                        Representations of Gays and Lesbians
                   Gays and             on Television | Representations of Gays
                   Lesbians             and Lesbians in Film | Gays and
                                        Lesbians in the News | Advertising and
                                        Gay Consumers | PrideVision TV




                                        Defining Whiteness and White
                   Whiteness and
                                        Privilege | White Authority in the Media
                   White Privilege
                                        | Media Representations of the Working
                                        Classes




Adapted from: http://resources.elearningontario.ca                                                     9

				
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