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The Human Body An Orientation CHAPTER

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					                                  CHAPTER



                                                1
                                The Human Body:
                                An Orientation




An Overview of Anatomy

• Anatomy
  • The study of the structure of the human body
• Physiology
            y       y
  • The study of body function




Anatomy - Study of internal and external
body structures
• Gross Anatomy-visible to naked eye by surface
  observation or dissection
• Surface Anatomy- external structure of the body
• Systemic Anatomy- one organ at a time (class
  approach)
• Regional Anatomy- multiple organ systems at a
            Anatomy
  time (career approach)
• Microscopic Anatomy- microscopic analysis of
  tissues
• Comparative Anatomy- study of more than one
  species to learn generalizations




                                                    1
The Hierarchy of Structural Organization
 Atoms        Molecule                     Organelle
                                                       Smooth muscle cell



  1 Chemical level              2 Cellular level
 Atoms combine to               Cells are made up
 form molecules.                of molecules.
                                                           Smooth muscle tissue

                      Cardiovascular
                      system                                           3 Tissue level
                                                                       Tissues consist of
                      Heart                                            similar types of cells
                      Blood                 Blood vessel
                      vessels               (organ)
                                                             Smooth muscle tissue
                                                              Connective tissue


                                            Epithelial
                                            tissue
                                                   4 Organ level
                                                   Organs are made up of
                                                   different types of tissues.

 6 Organismal level      5 Organ system level
The human organism      Organ systems consist of
is made up of many      different organs that work
organ systems.          together closely.
                                                                          Figure 1.1




                                                                                                2
3
Gross Anatomy—An Introduction

• Anatomical position—a common visual
  reference point
  • Person stands erect with feet together and
    eyes forward
  • Palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed
    away from the body
• Directional terminology—refers to the body
  in anatomical position
  • Standardized terms of directions are paired
    terms




                                                    4
Gross Anatomy—An Introduction
       Axial region                              Appendicular
       Cephalic (head)                              region
        Frontal
        Orbital                                   Upper limb
        Nasal                                      Acromial
        Oral                                       Brachial (arm)
        Mental                                     Antecubital
       Cervical (neck)
       Thoracic                                    Antebrachial
        Axillary                                   (forearm)
                                                   Carpal (wrist)
        Sternal
        Mammary
       Abdominal                                  Manus (hand)
        Umbilical                                  Pollex
       Pelvic                                      Palmar
        Inguinal                                   Digital
        (groin)                                   Lower limb
                                                   Coxal (hip)
                                                   Femoral (thigh)
                                                   Patellar
       Pubic (genital)
                                                   Crural (leg)
                                                   Fibular or peroneal
                                                  Pedal (foot)
          Thorax                                   Tarsal (ankle)
          Abdomen
          Back (Dorsum)                            Metatarsal
                                                   Digital
                                                   Hallux
                          (a) Anterior/Ventral
                                                                  Figure 1.3a




 • Anatomical Terminology
 • Relative Positions:
   1. Terms of relative position are used to
       describe the location of a part relative to
       another part.
   2. Terms of relative position include:
       superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial,
   lateral, proximal, distal, superficial (peripheral),
   and deep.




Orientation and Directional Terms




                                                                  Table 1.1 (1 of 3)




                                                                                       5
Orientation and Directional Terms




                                    Table 1.1 (2 of 3)




Orientation and Directional Terms




                                    Table 1.1 (3 of 3)




Body Regions

• Axial Region: head, cervical (neck), and
  trunk (thoracic region and abdominal region)

• Appendicular region: upper and lower
  limbs.




                                                         6
Body Cavities and Membranes
                         Cranial
                         cavity
                         (contains
                         brain




      Dorsal body                                          Thoracic
      cavity                                               cavity
                                                           (contains
                                                           heart and
                                                           lungs)

                         Vertebral
                         cavity                               Diaphragm
                         (contains
                         spinal cord)                         Abdominal cavity
                                                              (contains digestive
                                                              viscera)

                                                              Pelvic cavity
                Dorsal body cavity
                                                              (contains urinary
                                                              bladder, reproductive
                Ventral body cavity
                                                              organs, and rectum)
                                        (a) Lateral view
                                                                           Figure 1.6a




Body Cavities and Membranes
             Cranial
             cavity                                            Dorsal body cavity
                                                               Ventral body cavity


             Vertebral
             cavity

             Superior
 Thoracic    mediastinum
 cavity      Pleural
 (
 (contains   cavity
 heart and   Pericardial
 lungs)      cavity within
             the mediastinum
                                                                           Ventral body
      Diaphragm
                                                                           cavity
      Abdominal cavity                                                     (thoracic and
      (contains digestive                                   Abdomino-      abdominopelvic
      viscera)                                              pelvic         cavities)
                                                            cavity
      Pelvic cavity
      (contains urinary
      bladder, reproductive
      organs, and rectum)
                                      (b) Anterior view
                                                                           Figure 1.6b




• Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes:

  1. The thoracic cavity is lined with pleura; the
      parietal pleura lines the cavities while the
  visceral pleura covers the lungs. A thin layer of
  serous fluid separates the two layers.
  2. The heart is surrounded by pericardium. The
      visceral pericardium covers the heart and the
      parietal pericardium makes up an outer sac.
      Serous fluid separates the two layers.
  3. Peritoneum lines the abdominopelvic cavity;
  a parietal peritoneum lines the wall while
  visceral peritoneum covers the organs.




                                                                                            7
            Serous Membranes

    Produce a lubricating fluid
    Allows organs to slide over one another
     without friction.
    Contains infection of one organ from
     spreading to another organ.
    Covering lungs- pleura
    Covering the abdominal cavity- peritoneum
    Covering the heart-pericardium




Body Cavities and Membranes



                    Outer balloon wall
                    (comparable to parietal serosa)

                        (   p                      y)
                    Air (comparable to serous cavity)

                    Inner balloon wall
                    (comparable to visceral serosa)

(d) Model of the serous membranes and serous cavity




                                            Figure 1.7d




Body Cavities and Membranes

Lung                                      Ribs


                                          Parietal pleura


                                          Pleural cavity
                                          with serous fluid

                                          Visceral pleura


                                          Diaphragm



(a) Serosae associated with the lungs: pleura
                                            Figure 1.7a




                                                              8
Body Cavities and Membranes
  Heart



                                           Parietal
                                           pericardium

                                           Pericardial cavity
                                           with serous fluid

                                           Visceral
                                           pericardium




(b) Serosae associated with the heart: pericardium
                                              Figure 1.7b




Body Cavities and Membranes



                       Anterior               Visceral
                                              peritoneum


Liver                                         Peritoneal
                                              cavity (with
                                              serous fluid)
                                              Stomach
Parietal
peritoneum                                    Kidney
                                              (retroperitoneal)

                                              Wall of
                      Posterior
                                              body trunk
(c) Serosae associated with the abdominal viscera: peritoneum
                                              Figure 1.7c




  • Body Sections:
    1. A sagittal section divides the body into
       right and left portions.
    2. A transverse section divides the body into
       superior and inferior portions. It is often
      called a “cross section .
                cross section”
    3. A coronal section divides the body into
       anterior and posterior sections.




                                                                  9
   Body Planes and Sections




                                                                          Figure 1.4




   Abdominal Regions and Quadrants

   • Abdominal regions divide the abdomen into
     nine regions
   • Abdominal quadrants divide the abdomen
     into four quadrants
        • Right upper and left upper quadrants
        • Right lower and left lower quadrants




   Abdominal Regions




                                             Liver                                      Diaphragm
                                                                                        Spleen
        Right                    Left
                  Epigastric                 Gallbladder                                Stomach
    hypochondriac            hypochondriac
                   region
       region                   region       Ascending colon of                         Transverse colon
                                             large intestine                            of large intestine
                                             Small intestine                            Descending colon
           Right                    Left
          lumbar    Umbilical     lumbar     Cecum
                                                                                        of large intestine
                                                                                        Initial part of
                     region
          region                  region     Appendix                                   sigmoid colon
                                                                                        Urinary bladder
        Right iliac Hypogastric Left iliac
        (inguinal)    (pubic)   (inguinal)    (b) Anterior view of the nine regions showing the
          region      region      region          superficial organs


(a) Nine regions delineated by four planes




                                                                          Figure 1.8a, b




                                                                                                             10
Abdominal Quadrants




    Right upper                             Left upper
    quadrant                                quadrant
    (RUQ)                                   (LUQ)



    Right lower                             Left lower
    quadrant                                quadrant
    (RLQ)                                   (LLQ)



    (c) The four abdominopelvic quadrants
                                              Figure 1.8c




                                                            11

				
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